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Full text of "The dictionary of every-day difficulties in reading"

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ilFFICULTIES 

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THE DICTIONARY 



EVERY-DAY DIFFICULTIES 



m KEADIXG, WEITINa, AND SPEAKINa THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE; 



lAUD WOEDS MADE EASY. 



A COMPLETE EPITOME OF 



VALUABLE EXPLANATIONS AND DEFINITIONS OF DIFFICULT ENGLISH AND 
FOREIGN WORDS, PHRASES, AND EXPRESSIONS, 

WITH THE COKRECT PRONUNCIATION OF EACH WORD. 



EDWARD SHELTON, 

ATTIEOK OP "THB HISTOUtCiL FIJfGER-POST ;•• ASSISTANT BDITOR OF *' THE DICTIONART OF OlILT 
WAKTS," " HINTS AND HELPS EOE EVBliX-DAT EMEE&BIfCIES," &C. &C. &C. 

TWELFTH THOUSAND. 




[ 



LONDON: 
WARD, LOCK, AND TYLER, 

WARWICK HOUSE, PATERNOSTER ROW. 

i/1 



New Books a7id New Editio7is. 



AN ENTIRELY NEW DOMESTIC CYCLOPAEDIA. 
Price 2J. dd. cloth, uniform with Mrs. Beeton's "All About Cookery." Being the 

Second of the "All About It" Books. 
BEETON'S ALL ABOUT EVERYTHING AND EVERY- 
DAY INFORMATION. 

Universally and deservedly popular in every Jioitsehold has beco7neM.KS. Beeton's 
All About Cookery, by virtue of its thoroughly reliable and essetttially Practi- 
cal and Econo7}ucal Cookery Recipes. From the same cause equally popular will 
become Beeton's All About 'EvEKWai-tiG, co7iiai7utig, as it will be found on 
consultatioti to do, the best and jnost valuable Recipes on all -useful matters con- 
nected with the Family afid Household. 



BEETON'S "ALL ABOUT IT" BOOKS. 

Post 8vo, price 2s. 6d. 
BEETON'S ALL ABOUT COOKERY. Vv^ith numerous Illus- 
trations. By Mrs. Isabella Beeton, Author of "The Book of Household 
Management." Being the First of the " All About It " Books. 

*** Mrs. BEETON prepared this volujne in co7npliance with the wishes of a 

great 7i7iniber of correspo7ide7its who were desirojis of possessi7ig a Book of Eco7iO' 

77iical Recipes, which i7iight be tJioroughly relied 07i, a7id which could be purchased 

\ for a lower p7Hce tha7t the Household Management. It has passed throiigh 

nu7iiero7is editio7is, and each day i7icreases i7i favour with Middle-class Fa7nilies. 



Price One Shilling, containing 208 pages, 477 Recipes, and Formulae for Mistresses 

and Servants. Also, with Coloured Plates, price is. 6d. 
MRS. BEETON'S ENG-LISHWOMAN'S COOKERY BOOK. 

Comprising Recipes in all Branches of Cookery, and accurate Descriptions of 

Quantities, Times, Costs, Seasons, for the various Dishes. 

*** The capital Coloured Plates render the Eightee7ipe7i7iy Editio7i of The 
Englishwoman's Cookery 'Qr:>oK. absolutely 7C7iapp7-oachahle i?i poi7it of excellence 
a7idcheap7iess. There are i7ifi7iitely 77tore Recipes i7i this vohi77ie tha7i i7i a7iy oilier 
Clieap Cookery Book, their accicracy ts beyo7id qicesticn. a7id the additio7i of these 
Coloured Plates removes all possibility of successful rivalry which maybe attempted 
by ii7iitaiive and meretricious displays. 



One Hundred and Ninety-Seventh Thousand. 
New Edition, post Svo, half bound, price -js. 6d. ; half calf, 105. 6d. 

BEETON'S (Mrs.) BOOK OF HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT. 
Comprising every kind of Practical Information on Domestic Economy and Mo- 
dern Cookery, with numerous Woodcuts and Coloured Illustrations. 
"Mrs. Isabella Beeton's 'Book of Household Management' aims at being a compendium of 
household duties in every ^rade of household life, from the mistress to the maid-of-all-vvork. It is 
illustrated by numerous diaoframs, exhibiting the various articles of food in their original state, 
and there are also coloured plates to show how they oug-ht to look when dished and ready for the 
table. The verdict of a practical cook of °p:eat experience, on returriing- the book to her mistress, 
was, ' Ma'am, I ccnsider it an excellent work ; it is full of useful-information about everything-, 
•which is quite delightful ; and I should say any one might learn to cook from it who never uied 
before."— 7"/i^ Atheii<EU77t. 



Ptihlished by Ward, Lock, and Tyler. 



•^ PREFACE. 



WThe title-page of tliis book will suflS.ciently indicate its contents and pnrpose. 

/,^It aspires to be, so far as the space it contains will allow, a complete 

m. " Dictionary of Every-Day Difficulties" — an epitome of those terms, i^brases, 

and expressions which continually puzzle the ordinary reader, and respecting 

. whose meaning, scope, and derivation, he here finds himself enlightened, in 

the simplest and most concise manner, consistent with accuracy and clearness. 

Especially to the numerous class of self-educating students, who have not had 

■ the advantage of finished instruction, or University experience, is it addressed. 
In our English language thousands of words and phrases are daily used by 
persons who have no definite idea of the meaning of the terms they are 
employing, and ludicrous misapprehensions and strange blunders are the 
result, some of them suggestive of the immortal Mrs. Malaprop's headstrong 
allegory on the banks of the Mle ; or of that lady's equally well-expressed wish 
that the ]jast may not be antici;pctted, but that all retrospections may be reserved 
for tliefature. Such words, for instance, as regatta, regurgitate, refectory, are 
constantly occurring, and frequently misappHed, from a lack of knowledge of 
their meaning and derivation ; while of our English Law Terms, it may truly 
be said, that scarcely one person in a score among those in whose mouths they 
are constantly found, is aware of the precise signification and value of the 
terms he has been employing. 

The more educated class of readers may, perhaps, be incHned to take 
exception at the almost homely words in which many matters are here ex- 
plained; but the Editor has considered that, in a Work like the present^ 



clearness was of primary, and elegance of diction of very secondary importance 
THis is not intended exclusively as a book for tlie finished and polished scholar, 
hut rather for the paiastakiag but unclassical learner, who has been his own 
instructor, and wishes, therefore, to meet with a book which he can under- 
stand without foreign aid. 

One peculiar advantage of this Work will be found in the very complete 
and correct system of pronunciation which is given of each word, as well a& 
its derivation. The importance of this feature will be apparent to students, 
heads of families, and aU engaged in educational labour. 

One thing can safely be promised. No reader who carefully goes through 
the definitions in this Volume, can fail to acquire accurate ideas concerning, 
a, great throng of words, of whose meaning he ought not, as an intelligent 
Englishman, to be ignorant. The best authorities have been consulted, to 
insure the accuracy of the definitions and explanations. 



TSiL 



mCTIONARY OF DIFPICULTIES, 



ABA 



A, in commerce, stands for " accepted ; " 
a for " to ; " and @ for " at." 

A, in logic, denotes a universal affirma- 
tive proposition. A asserts, and E denies : 
thus, in harhara, A, thrice repeated, de- 
notes so many of the propositions to be 
vmiversal. 

A, in music, is the nominal of the sixth 
note in the natural diatonic scale, and the 
natural key in the minor mood. It is the 
open note of the second string of the 
vioHn, by which the other strings are 
attuned and regulated. 

A 1, A term or mai'k used to denote the 
highest Ciassification of ships at Lloyd's; 
it is sometimes used in the more intensitive 
form of " fii'st-class, letter A, Xo. 1." 
Conventionally, this expression is employed 
to signify anything of the very best kind 
or quality. 

Aam, awm. A Dutch liquid measui'e, 
equal to 41 gallons at Amsterdam, 36| at 
Antwerp, 38^ at Hamburg, and 39' at 
Frankfort. 

A^. An abbreviation of ariium lacca- 
laureiis, bachelor of arts. 

Ab. A Latin preposition, allied to 
many English words, and changed in com- 
position into a, abs, au. It denotes motion 
in any direction from a fixed point, as 
ab-rupt, broken off ; abstain, to refrain 
from ; a-vert, to turn from ; au-gur, to pre- 
dict from. See Ad. 

_Ab. When the names of places begin 
with this syllable, it generally implies a 
connection with an abbey, as ^Singdon. 

Aback, a-bak (Saxon, on Icec, back- 
wards), A word chiefly used in a nautical 
sense, to express the positions of the sails of 



a vessel when their surfaces are pressed aft 
by the force of the wind. All ahacJc im- 
plies that all the sails are aback. The 
sails are laid alach when they are inten- 
tionally adjusted in the above manner, 
either to stop the ship, to slacken her 
speed, or to make her move astern. They 
are taken aback when suddenly thrown 
backward by a change of the wind, or 
through the neghgence of the helmsman. 

Abacus, ab-akus (Latin, abacus, Greek, 
abax, a slab). An instrument for facili- 
tating arithmetical calculations. It con- 
sists of an oblong frame, with a number of 
wires stretched across, upon which balls 
are arranged to express units, tens, hun- 
dreds, thousands, &c. In China, this 
instrument, called shawnpan, is in very 
general use. 

Abaft, a-baft (Saxon, bceftan, behind). 
A sea tei-m, sig-nifying the hinder vaxi of 
a ship, or aU those parts, both withia and 
without, which lie towards the stern, or 
aft division. 

Abalienate, ab-ale-yen-ait (Latin, ah, 
from ; alienus, another person's). To make 
over to another. In civil law the term is 
used to signify the transference of property 
from one person to another. 

Abatement, a-batement (Saxon, bea- 
tan). A lessening or decreasing; a reduction 
of price or quantity. In heraldry, abate- 
ment is an accidental figure, supposed to 
have been added to coats of arms to denote 
some dishonour or stain. 

Abatis, ab-atis (French, abatis). A 
species of entrenchment, affording an 
excellent and ready addition to the defence 
of a post ; being simply trees felled, and 
laid with their branches so interwoven as 



ABA 



ABL 



to present a thick row of pointed stakes 
towards the enemy. This kind of fortifica- 
tion is generally used at a short distance 
from the parapets of field works ; so that 
while the enemy is endeavouring to remove 
them, he is exposed to a destructive fire 
from the defenders. The abatis conse- 
quently proves one of the most effectual 
obstacles in retarding the enemy's advance. 

Abattoir, abat-war (French, abhatre, 
to knock down). The name given to the 
public slaughter-houses in France, estab- 
lished by a decree of Napoleon I. 

Abba, ab-bah. Literally, the Syriac 
name for father. Figuratively, it is used 
to express a superior in age, dignity, or 
affection. 

Abbe, ab-bai (French, able). Oi'i- 
ginally an abbot, and a title formerly 
considered as a badge of honour, and a 
mark of piety and learning. The title is 
now assumed by ecclesiastics without 
charge, devoted to teaching, literature, &c. 

Abbreviation, ab-brevy-ashun (Latin, 
ah, from ; hrevis, short). Anything made 
shorter ; usually applied to words in speak- 
ing and writing, as don't, for do not ; Dr., 
for Doctor ; P.S., postscript. 

Abdicate, abde-kate (Latin, ah, from ; 
clico, give up). To give up ; to abandon ; 
to renounce. A sovereig-n or any function- 
ary abdicates when he gives up the duties 
of his office before the expiration of his 
term. It differs from resignation as being 
unconditional, and without any formal 
surrender. Example : — James II., of 
England, abdicated ; Charles V., of Spain, 
resigned in favour. 

Abdomen, abd-omen (Latin, aMo, to 
conceal). The large cavity commonly 
known as the belly, containing the organs 
more immediately concerned in the process 
of digestion, as the stomach, liver, spleen, 
bowels, &c. It is so called because it hides, 
or conceals, the lower portion of the bowels. 

Abductor, ab-duk-tur (Latin, ah, from ; 
duco, to draw away). Any muscle that 
contracts, or draws back : such as those 
which separate the fingers from each other, 
or the muscle which draws up the mouth. 

Abecedarian, abbe-sedarian (from 
A. B. C), One who teaches, or who is 
learning the alphabet. The term abecedary 
is sometimes applied to those compositions 
the parts of wiuch are disposed in alpha- 
betical order. 

Aber. A Celtic prefix to the names of 
many places, which imports that they are 



situated at the mouth of a river, as Aher- 
deen. 

Aberration, aber-ray-shun (Latin, 
ah, from ; erro, to wander). The act of 
wandering from the common track ; an 
alienation of mind. In astronomy, aberra- 
tion of light means the difference between 
the apparent and the true place of a star. 
In optics, a deviation of the rays of light, 
when inflected by a lens, or speculum, by 
which they are prevented meeting at the 
same point. 

Abeyance, a-bay-yens (French, bayer, 
to hanker after). A state of suspension, 
expectation, or waiting for. This term is 
used in law, in reference to an inheritance 
which is not vested in any one, and which 
is left unappropriated until the lawful in- 
heritor shall establish his claim. 

Abigail, abbe-gal (Hebrew). A beau- 
tiful woman whom David, the psalmist, 
took to wife after the death of her hus- 
band, Nabal. This name is also applied 
generally to waiting women, although upon 
what grounds is not precisely ascertained. 

Ab-initio, abin-isheo (Latin, ah, from ; 
initio, the first). From the beginning. 

Abjuration, abjoo-rayshxm (Latin, ab, 
from ; juro, to swear). The act of abjiuring; 
a renouncing upon oath. An abjuratio7i of 
the realm is a renunciation upon oath which 
a person makes to leave the kingdom for 
ever. The Oalh of abjuration is an oath 
asserting the title of the present royal 
family to the crown of England, and ex- 
pressly disclaiming any right to it by the 
descendants of James the Second. 

Ablactation, ablak-tayshun (Latin, 
ab, from ; lac, milk). A weaning of a child 
from the breast. Also, a term used to ex- 
press the mode of gi-afting a scion of one 
tree to that of another, and when the union 
has taken place, dividing the shoot from 
the parent stem. 

Ablaqueation, ab-lak-we-ayshun 
(Latin, ab~ivom ; laquear, a covering). The 
process of opening the ground about the 
roots of trees and plants, in order to 
expose them to the action of light, air, and 
water. 

Ablative Case, ablah-tiv (Latin, ah, 
away ; latus, carried). The «;ixth case in the 
Latin declension of nouns, and expressive 
of the words— from, in, for, by, with ; 
words which in the English language are 
prepositions, but in the Latin understood 
as part of the noun, when in its ablative 
case. Instead of saying *'vrith the king," , 



ABL 



ABS 



as in English composition, the ablative 
case of the Latin word rex, rege, implies 
these prepositions, the translation being, 
"•with, for, in, bythe king," the translator 
accepting whichever of the four words best 
suits the context and sense of the passage. 
Thus the term ablative signifies the taking 
away or removing.. 

Able-Bodied, a-bul bod-ed. Having 
a sound, strong body, or a body of com- 
petent strength for service. An able-bodied 
seaman is one who is able not only to work, 
but also one who is well skilled in seaman- 
ship ; in maritime language, such a man is 
commonly termed an A. B, 

Ablegation, ablee-gayshun (Latin, ab, 
from ; lego, to send). A sending abroad. 

Ablution, ab-lew-shun (Latin, ab, 
from ; luo, to wash). Ordinarily, the act of 
washing away or cleansing ; also, a reli- 
gious ceremony practised by the people of 
all Eastern nations as a part of their creed. 

Abnegate, abnee-gate (Latin, ab, 
from; nego, to deny). To deny. ' 

Abnodate, abno-date (Latin, ab, from ; 
nodus, a knot). To cut oft' the knots of 
trees. 

Abnormal, ab-normal (Latin, ah, from ; 
norma, a model). Irregular; against rule. 

Abolitionist, abbo-lishun-ist. One 
who is in favour of abolition, especially as 
applied to slaveiy. 

Aborigines, abo-ridjin-ease (Latin). 
The earliest inhabitants of a country. This 
term was originally applied to the ancient 
inhabitants of Italy. 

Abortion, ab-orshun (Latin, ab, from ; 
ortus, a source). Miscarriage ; untimely 
birth. 

About (Saxon, abi'Jan, around). In 
circumference, about is equivalent to 
around ; in number or quantity, it signifies 
near. To bring about, to bring to the 
point or state desired. To. come about, to 
change or turn. To go about, to enter 
upon ; to propose. In maritime affairs, 
to go about is used when a ship changes 
her course. Abotit ship! are orders for 
tacking. 

Above, a-buv. Higher in place, as, 
above the Don ; higher in station, as, a 
marquis is above an earl ; beyond, as, abc'X 
one's comprehension ; longer in point ot 
time, as, ahove three months ; exceeding in 
weight, as, above six pounds ; too proud or 
dignified, as, above asking a favour. 

Abracadabra, abrehkeh-dabreh. A 



term of incantation used in superstitious 
ages as an antidote against fevers. This 
word was written on a piece of paper or 
vellum, with the letters disposed in a tri- 
angular form, and suspended about the 
neck of the patient. 

Abranchia, abran-keah (Greek, a, not ; 
branchia, gills). Animals destitute of gills, 
and having no apparent organs of respira- 
tion. 

Abrasion, ab-rayzhun (Latin, ab, from ; 
rado, to scrape). A wearing away ; a rub- 
bing off. In numismatics, this term is 
used to signify the wear and tear which 
coins undergo in the course of currency. 

Abreast, a-brest. Side by side. In 
naval tactics, the situation as regards the 
line of battle at sea. Abreast line, the line 
abreast is formed by the ships being equally 
distant, and parallel to each other, so that 
the length of each forms a right angle with 
the extent of the squadron or line abreast. 
Abreast of a place, is directly opposite to it. 
Abreast, vsithin the ship, implies on a pa- 
rallel line with the beam. 

Abreuvoir, a-breu-vwar (French, 
abreuvoir). A watering-place for horses. 
In masonry, the joint between two stones ; 
or the cavity to be filled up with mortar, or 
cement, when either are to be used. 

Abrogation, abro-gayshun (Latin, ab, 
from ; rogo, to make a law). The act of an- 
nulling or setting aside. This term implies • 
especially the act of aboUshing a law by 
the authority of its maker. 

Abscind, ab-sind (Latin, ab, from ; 
scindo, to tear). To cut off ; to pare off. 

Absent v^ithout leave. In the 

army, a milder term often used for deser- 
tion. All officers who absent themselves 
without permission, or fail to join their regi- 
ments at the expiration of their leave, are 
placed under arrest, and their pay sus- 
pended until an explanation of the cause 
of their absence be given. 

Absentee, absen-tee. A term of com- 
paratively modern origin, f iifi;fying a per- 
son who lives away fromlii? 'sstate. The 
name is especially applied to a numerous 
class of land-owners in Ireland. 

Absolution, abso-lewshun (Latin, ab, 
from ; solvo, to free). The forgiveness of 
sins, which the Church of Eome claims to 
itself the power of granting ; in civil law, 
a sentence whereby the party accused is 
declared innocent of the crime laid to Jii^i 
charge, 

B % 



ABS 



ACC 



Absolutism, abso-lew-tism. A doc- 
trine charged on the Calvinists, which con- 
ceives that the salvation of mankind is 
dependent on the mere pleasure of the 
Almighty. 

Abstergent, ab-stur-junt (Latin, ahs, 
from ; tergeo, to wipe). Having a cleansing 
quality ; medicines which have the power 
of cleansing the body from obstructions 
and impmities, are so called. 

Abstract, abs-trakt (Latin, als, from ; 
trako, to draw). A summary, or epitome, 
containing the substance ; a general view 
or the principal heads of a subject. In 
metaphysics, an abstract idea is a partial 
conception of a complex subject. 

Abstraction, ab-strakshun. The act 
of drawing from ; absence of mind ; inat- 
tention. 

Abstruse, ab-stroos (Latin, ahs, from ; 
iruso, to thrust violently). Hidden ; ob- 
scure ; thrust away from the imderstand- 
ing. 

Abutment, a-butment (French, about, 
the end). The extremity of any body 
joining another, as the piers on which an 
arch rests. Also the junction or meeting 
of two pieces of timber. 

Abyss, a-biss (Greek, a, without ; bussos, 
bottom). Any deep pUce that is bottom- 
less, or supposed to be so. 

Ac, ak, ake. These syllables occur- 
ring at the beginning or the termination of 
a name of a town or place, convey the 
Saxon sig-nification of oah; as Acto/i, or 
oak-town. 

Academy, a-kaddymee (Greek, A7m- 
demos. an Athenian, whose garden was con- 
verted into a gynmasium ; academe). A 
jdace of instmction next below a college ; 
an association for the promotion of science 
or art. 

Acanthus, a-kanthuss (Latin, acan- 
thus). A prickly shrub ; an ornament in 
architecttu'e resembling its leaves. 

Acceleration, ak-selly-rayshun (Latin, 
ad, towards ; celer, swift). The act of 
hastening. In physics, the increase of the 
motion of moving bodies ; as the accelera- 
tion of a falling stone as it nears the earth. 

Accent, ak-sent (Latin, ad, to ; cano, to 
-sing). The modulation of the voice in pro- 
nounciag certain words or syllables ; also, 
marks or characters used in writing, to 
direct the stress of the voice in pronuncia- 
tion, as the acute ( '), the grave ( "), and the 
circumflex C or ")• The first indicates 
that the voice is to be raised ; the second, 



that it is to be depressed ; and the third, 
that the vowel is to be uttered with an un- 
dulating sound between high and low. 
In music, accent denotes the modulation of 
the voice to express certain passions. 

Acceptance, ak-septanse (Latin, ad, 
for ; captum, to take). Reception with ap- 
probation. In commerce, an acceptance is 
when a person renders himself responsible 
for the sum mentioned in a biU of exchange, 
by writing the word '^accepted" on it^ 
and signing his name. An accer)tor is the 
person who thus signs a bill of exchange. 

Accessory, ak-sessoiy (Latin, ad, to : 
cedo, to agree). Contributing ; joined to. 
In law, a person who aids in the commis- 
sion of a felonious act. An accessonj before 
the fact is one who suborns another to com- 
mit an offence, and who, though not ac- 
tually concerned in the commission, is 
accounted equally as guilty as the actual 
offender. An accessory after the fact is one 
who assists, comforts, and harbours the 
offender, knowing him to be such. 

Accidence, aksy-dens (Latin, acciden- 
tia, chance). A book containing the first ru- 
diments of grammar, and intei-preting the 
attributes of the several parts of speech. 

Accidental Colour. A name given 
to the colour which an object appears to 
have, when seen by an eye which at the 
time is strongly affected by some par- 
ticular coloui' ; thus, if we look for a short 
time upon any bright object, such as a 
wafer on a sheet of paper, a similar wafer 
will be seen, but of a different colour, and 
this wlU be what is called the accidental 
colour J if the wafer be blue, the imaginary 
spot will be orange ; if red, it will be changed 
into gTeen ; and yellow will become purple. 

Accipitres, aksippy-trees (Latin, ac- 
cipiter, a plunderer). The first order of birds, 
according to the classification of Linnaeus, 
including the falcon, vulture, kc. ; the 
chief characteristics being a hooked biU, 
strong legs, and sharp claws. This order 
includes the birds ofirreyj hence the desig- 
nation. 

Acclimatise, aklyma-tize. To accus- 
tom to a foreign chmate ; to inure to 
the temperature of a new climate ; a term 
applied alike to plants, animals, and human 
beings. 

Acclivity, ak-klivitty (Latin, ad, ap- 
proaching towards ; clivus, a slope). The 
ascent of a hill ; steepness reckoned up- 
wards. See Declivity. 

Accolade, akko-laid (Latin, ad, apper- 



ACC 



AGO 



taining to ; collum, the neck), A ceremony 
used in conferring knighthood, either by 
embracing, falling on the iieck, or by 
striking a blow on the shoulder. The cere- 
mony of knighthood, as pi-actised in Eng- 
land, consists in the recipient of the 
honour kneeling at the feet of the person 
who confers the honoui*, when the latter 
strikes the shoulder of the former a blow 
\iith a sword, at the same time exclaiming, 
" Arise, Sir ." 

Accompaniment, ak-kumpany-ment 
(Latin, ad, with ; con, together ; panis, head). 
An addition by way of ornament. In 
music, an instrumental part added to the 
composition by way of embellishment, and 
for the purpose of assisting the principal 
melody. 

Accord, ak-kord (Latin, ad, with ; cor, 
the heart). To harmonise, to agree with. 
In music, it is used to imply an instrument 
in perfect tune. In law, it signifies the 
compensation or satisfaction which an in- 
jured party agrees to receive, and who 
thereby disqualifies himself from taking 
any legal proceedings in the matter which 
has been thus settled, 

Accouclieur, ak-koo-shur (French). A 
man who assists women in child-birth. 
This term is now generally used instead of 
the old designation of man-midwife. 

Accountant, ak-kowntant (Latin, ad, 
with; con, together; piito, to think). In 
general terms, a person skilled in accounts, 
or engaged in keeping them. In commerce, 
one whose especial business it is to inves- 
tigate and cast up books of accounts, more 
particularly in cases of bankiiiptcy and 
insolvency. 

Accoutre, ak-kootm* (French, accoutrer, 
to dress out). To equip ; to arm ; to fit. 

Accredit, ak-kreddit (Latin, ad, upon ; 
credo, to place trust). To procure credit in 
favour of ; also, to beheve ; to place trust 
in. An accredited agent is a person fur- 
nished with letters ana other documents, 
to confirm the mission upon which he is 
sent. 

Accrescimento, _ ak - kres- se - mento 
(Italian, accrescere, to increase). In music, 
the increase by one-half of its original 
duration which a note gains by having a 
dot appended to the right of it. 

Accrue, ak-kroo (French, d, from ; cr^, 
growth). To spring up ; to follow as a 
natural result. 

Accubation, akku-bayshun (Latin, ad, 
to ', cuho, to lie down). A posture of the 



body between sitting and lying : reclining 
sideways, as on a couch. 

Accum.ulate, ak-kewmew-late (Latin, 
ad, upon; cumulus, a. heap). To increase; 
to heap together. 

Accusative Case, ak-kewsativ (Latin, 
accuso, to accuse). The fourth case in the 
declension of Latin nouns, corresponding 
with the objective case in English gram- 
mar; namely, denoting or accusing the 
object towards which any action is direc- 
ted. 

Aceldama, assel-daymah (Hebrew, 
aceldama, a field of blcod). Used to ex- 
press a frightful scene of slaughter or 
bloodshed. 

Acephalan, as-seffahlan (Greek, a, 
without; kejihale, the head). A class of 
animals having no head, of which the 
oyster is an exampU. 

Acerbity, a-serbitty (Latin, acerlus, 
bitter). Sourness of taste ; shai'pness of 
temper. 

Acetate, assee-tait (Latin, acidus, sour). 
A salt resulting from a combination of 
acetic acid with an alkaline, earthy, me- 
tallic, or vegeto-alkaline base — four varie- 
ties which may be exemplified by the 
acetates of soda, lime, lead, and morphia. 

Acheron, akky-ron (Gi'eek, Acheron). 
The fabled river of the infernal regions. 

Achievement, atch-eevment (French, 
a chef). Performance ; some great exploit, 
feat, or meritorious deed. In heraldry, the 
escutcheon or shield, upon which the crest, 
arms, or quarterings are emblazoned. 

Achrom.atic, akkro-mattik (Greek, a, 
without; cAroma, colour). Devoid of colour. 
In optics, a term applied to telescopes con- 
structed so as to destroy the coloured 
fringes which surround the image of an 
object viewed through a lens, or prism. 

Acidimeter, assid-immetur (Latin, 
acidus, som'). An instrument employed 
for ' ascertaining the strength of acids, in 
commerce or manufactiires. 

Acme, ak-mee ''Greek, acme, the highest 
point). A word used to imply the summit 
of excellence, or the perfection of art. In 
medicine, the term denotes the height 
of a disease, or the crisis of a fever. 

Acolyte, akko-lyte (Greek, aholouthos, 
an attendant). A servitor in the Romish 
Church. This word is frequently used 
in a conventional sense, to imply a humble 
assistant in any occupation. 

Acotyledon, akotty-leedon (Greek, 



6 



AGO 



ACT 



o, witliout ; cotylcchn, seed-loue). A class 
of plants, the seeds of which have no lobes 
or divisions. 

Acoustics, a-kowstiks (Greek, aJcouo, 
M hear). A science treating of the pro- 
perties of sound, and the theory of hear- 
ing; also medicines or instruments which 
assist imperfect hearing. 

Acquiesce, akwe-ess (Latin, ad, with ; 
quies, rest). To comply with, to yield ; 
used especially to express consent given 
after much solicitation, and with a view of 
obliging the soliciter rather than one's 
self. 

Acquire, ak-kwire (Latin, ad, for ; 
qticero, to ask). To gain; to obtain by 
labour or research. 

-Acquisitiveness, ak-wizitiv-ness. In 
phrenology, an organ of development 
which displays a desire for and power of 
gaining or obtaining. 

Acrasy, ay-crasy (Greek, a, without ; 
hrasis, temperament). Excess, irregu- 
larity. In medicine, the predominance of 
one quality above another. 

Acrid, ak-rid (Latin, acer, sharp). 
Biting and hot to the taste, pungent, 
sharp. 

Acrobat, akro-bat (Greek, acros, high ; 
baino, to go). In ancient times, rope- 
dancers, and those who performed various 
feats from lofty positions, were desig-nated 
Acrooates. The street-tumblers of the 
present day assume the name of acrobats, 
as the representatives of these ancient 
performers. 

Acrogens, aki-o-jens (Greek, acros, 
the point or apex ; zennao, to produce). A 
term appUed to those plants which, like 
the tree-ferns, increase by additions to the 
growing point, and never augment in 
thickness after once formed. The acrogens 
axe an flowerless. 

Acronical, akronny-kal (Greek, acro%, 
high; ne, not, or opposed to). A term, in 
astronomy, applied to the rising of a .star 
at sunset, or its setting at simrise. 

Acrospire, akro-spire (Greek, acrm^ 
the point ; speira, to sprout from). A 
shoot or sprout from the ends of seeds. 
Another term for what in botany is called 
the germ, or plume. 

Acrostic, a-krosstik (Greek, acros, ex- 
treme or eccentiic ; sticlws, averse). In 
poetry, a kind of ingenious composition, 
disj)osed in such a manner that the initial 
Of extreme letters of the verses form the 



! name of some person, place, motto, &c., 
j &S, tfie wt.Td Friendship, in the foUo'ft^ng 
example : — 
F riendship, thou'rt false! I hate Ihy Gattering 

smiie! 
R etura to me those years I spent in vain. 
I n early j'outh the victim of thy guile, 
E ach joy took Tving ne'er to return again — 
X e'er toVeturn ; for, chUled by hopes deceived, 
D ully the slow-paced hom'S now move ahmg; 
S o changed tlie time when, thoughtless, I be- 
lieved 
H er honeyed words, and heard her syren song. 
I f e'er, as me, she lure some youth to stray, 
P erhaps, before too late, he'll listen to my lay. 

Acroteria, akro-teeryiah (Greek, 
acros, the extreme point ; tereo, to keep). 
A term implying generally the extremities 
of the bod}'-, as the hands, feet, ears, nose, 
&c. In architecture, small pedestals, 
usually placed at the extremities of pedi- 
ments ; and upon which globes, vases, or 
statues are supported. 

Act of Honour. In commerce, a 
proceeding usually conducted by a notary, 
which consists in drawing up an instru- 
ment for the security of a third person 
who interferes for a coiTespondent abroad, 
in preventing his bill from being returned 
or dishonoured for want of regular accept- 
ance, -or payment by the party on whom it 
is drawn : it is often done for indorsers on 
such disgraced bills of exchange, and not 
only prevents the heavy expenses of re- 
exchange, but likewise preserves the credit 
of the parties concerned. 

Actinism, aktin-izzum (Greek, acti)i, 
a ray). A property in the rays of light 
which produces chemical changes, as in 
daguerreotyping. 

Actinometer, aktinno-meetur. An 
instrument employed for the purpose of 
ascertaining the intensity of heat in the 
direct rays of the sun. 

Active Principles. In chemistry, 
the spirits, oils, and salts : so called be- 
cause their parts, being briskly in motion, 
infuse action into other bodies. 

Acts of Pariiament. In England, 
statutes or laws passed by the two Houses 
of Parliament, and assented to by the 
Sovereign. They are distinguished as 
Public General Acts, which are judiciously 
taken notice of as such by all judges and 
justices ; Local and Personal Acts, which 
may be especially pleaded in courts of 
law, or elsewhere, and be judicially re- 
cognised ; Private Acts which are printed, 
and Private Acts which are not printed. 

ActLiary, aktew-airy (Latin, actum. 



ACU 



ADI 



the doing of a thing). The chief clerk or 
person who compiles minutes of the pro- 
ceedings of a company, or business. In 
insurance ofl&ces, the person who conducts 
the calculations of insurances, and the 
general statistics of a similar character. 

Acumen-, akew-men (Latin, acuo, to 
sharpen). Mental shai-pness, or keen dis- 
cernment ; great intellectual capacity. 

• A.D., Anno Domini. The year of our 
Lord. 

Ad. A Latin preposition, prefixed to 
several English words, expressing motion 
towards an object, or the relation of one 
thing to another ; as addict, to give up to ; 
address, to speak or apply to ; advance, 
to go towards. It is also sometimes 
changed to AC, as accost, to speak to ; ac- 
crue, to be added to. See Ab. 

Adagio, aday-djeo (Italian, adagio, to 
move slowly). In music, a mark or sign of 
slow movement ; a degree quicker than 
grave time. 

Adage, ad-edj (Latin, adagium, a pro- 
verb). A remark which has obtained credit 
by long use, and frequent repetition; a 
maxim ; a proverb. 

Adamant, addah-mant (G¥.eek, a, 
not ; damao, to conquer). A very hard 
stone ; a name given to different minerals 
of excessive hardness, as the diamond. 

Adaptation, adapt-ayshun. The act 
of fitting or suiting; state of fitner,s. 
Plays from the French, or any foreign 
language, rendered fit for representation 
on the English stage are termed adapta- 
tions. 

Adatis, a-dajiiis. A kind of muslin 
manufactured in India, in pieces measuring 
fifteen yards long, and three-quarters of a 
yard wide. 

Ad eaptandum, ad-kap-tandum 
(Latin, ad, towards ; captatio, catching or 
aiming). To attract or please ; to capti- 
vate the vulgar. Any phrase in a wiitten 
composition, or a speech, which appeals to 
the passions or the prejudices of the 
auditory, is called an ad eaptandum senti- 
ment. See Clap-trap. 

Addendum, ad-dendum (Latin ad, to ; 
do, to give). Something to be added ; an 
appendix. The plural of this word, used 
to express more things than one added, is 
Add^ida. 

Addict, ad-dikt (Latin, ad, to ; dico, to 
devote). To devote ; to dedicate to ; to 
give up to habituallv. 



Addle-head <=>d, addal-headed (Saxon, 
cidlian, to be empty). Empty-headed ; 
barren of brains. 

Adduce, ad-duse (Latin, ad, to ; duco, 
to lead). To advance by way of proof ; to 
allege ; to quote ; to cite. 

Adelantado, addy-lantahdo (Spanish). 
The Spanish governor of a province. 

Adeling, addel-ing (Saxon, adel or £thel, 
noble ; li7ig, young). A title of honour 
which the Saxons bestowed upon the 
children of princes, and upon young 
nobles. 

Adelite, addel-ite. A name formerly 
given, in Spain, to conjurers who predicted 
the fortunes of persons by the flight and 
singing of birds, and other accidental cir- 
cumstances. 

Adelphi, a-delfy (Greek, adelphos, 
a brother). The block of buildings situated 
in the Strand, London, bears this name, on 
account of having been built by the 
brothers Adam. 

Adenology, adden-oUodjy (Greeic, 
aden, a gland ; logos, a discoui'se). The 
doctrine of the glands, their natm-e and 
uses. 

Adept, ad-ept (Latin, ad, to ; aptum, 
fitted). One well skilled in any art; 
thoroughly versed ; skilful. 

Adhere, ad-heeur( Latin, ad, to ; luereo, 
to stick). To cling to ; to hold on by ; to 
attach. 

Adhesion, ad-heezhun. The act or 
state of adhering ; the espousing a party 
or cause. 

Adhibit, ad-hibbit (Latin, ad, reference 
to ; haheo, to have). To apply to ; to make 
use of. 

Ad Hominem, ad-hommy-nem(Latiu^ 
ad, to ; liominera, the man). Personally ; 
specially ; individually. An appeal made 
to one's predilections or principles, is 
styled an avgumentum ad hominem. 

Adieu, a-due (French, d Dieit, to God). 
An elliptical expression, equivalent to " I 
commend you to God." See Good-bye. 

Ad Infinitum, ad-infe-nytum (Latin, 
ad, to ; finis, the end). To endless extent ; 
continuing without cessation. 

Ad Interim, ad-interim (Latin, ad, '' 
in ; interim, the meantime). During the 
interval ; while a case is pending. 

Adipocere, addy-po-sere (Latin, adeps, 
fat ; cera, wax). A soft, oily, or waxy sub- 
stance, of a light-brown coloui-, into which 



8 



ADI 



ADYs. 



the muscular fibres of dead animal bodies 
are converted, when protected from 
atmospheric air by long immersion in 
water or spirit, or by burial in moist 
places. 

Adipose, addy-]30ze (Latin, adeps, fat). 
Adipose cells are the bags which contain 
the fat. Adipose membrane, the tissue 
which incloses the fat in animal bodies. 
Adii^ose tumour, the accumulation of fat in 
large quantities. 

Adit, ad-it (Latin, ad, to ; eo, to go). 
The horizontal entrance to a mine, some- 
tunes called the drift. It is usually made 
in the side of a hill. The term air-shaft 
is frequently employed to express the same 
meaning. 

Adjacent, ad-jaysent (Latin, ad, to ; 
iaceo, to be near). Lying near, close, or 
contiguous ; bordering upon. 

Adjective, adjek-tiv (Latin, ad, to ; 
iacio, to tlirow). In grammar, a word used 
with a noun to express a quaUty of the 
thing named, or something attributed to 
it, or to limit or define it, or to specify or 
describe a thing, as distinct from some- 
thing else. Adjectives are of four kinds : 
— 1. Nominal; those which distinguish 
certain species by some qualitj'', which 
arises either from the nature of the thing, 
or from its form, situation, &c., such as 
good^ black, round, external. 2. The verbal 
or participial, which always end in ed or 
ing; as loved, domineering, and denote 
some accidental quality, which appears to 
be the effect of an action that passes, or 
has passed, in the thing tinder considera- 
tion. 3. Numeral adjectives, which place 
any substantive in numerical order, as 
JiYSi, second, last. 4. Pro-nomijial, which do 
not mark either species, action, or arrange- 
ment, but are merely indications of indi- 
viduality. These adjectives are either 
personal, as viv. thv; or they have a vague 
and indeterminate meaning* such as 
soriie, one, many; or, lastly, they serve 
the purpose of mere indication, as this, 
Viat, sri/k. 

Adjourn, ad-jum (French, journee, a 
day's work,\ To put off or defer to 
another day ; used, in a general sense, to 
denote a format, intermission of business, 
a putting off to any future meeting of the 
' same body ; as an adjournment of the 
House of Commons, or of a public meet- 
ing. 

Adjudication, ad-joodee-kayshun 
(Latin, ad, for; judex, judge). The act of 
adjudging or passing sentence. In Scottish 



law, a process by which land or other 
heritable estate is attached in satisfaction 
of debt ; or an action by which the holder 
of a heritable right, laboming under a 
defect in point of form, may supply that 
defect. 

Adjunct, ad-junkt (Latin, ad, to ; 
junctus, joined). Something added to 
another, but not essentially a part of it; 
as water absorbed by cloth or sponge, is 
its adjunct. Also a body joined to another. 
In grammar, words added to illustrate or 
amplify the force of other words ; as the 
History of the American Revolution. The 
words in italics are the adjuncts of 
History. 

Adjure, ad-joor (Latin, ad, to ; juro, 
to swear). To swear solemnly ; to impose 
an oath on another ; to charge or summon 
with solemnity. 

Adjust, ad- just (Latin, ad, to ; Justus, 
exact). To make exact ; to fit or frame ; 
to cause the several parts to correspond ; 
to make accurate ; to settle, or bring to a 
satisfactory state, so that parties are 
agi'eed in the result ; as to adjust accounts, 
to adjust differences. 

Adjutant, adjoo-tant (Latin, ad, to ; 
juvo,^ to help). In mihtaiy affaii's, an 
officer whose business is to assist the major, 
by receiving and communicating orders. 
Each battahon of foot, and each regiment 
of horse, has an adjutant, who receives 
orders from the brigade-major to commu- 
nicate to the colonel, and to the subordi- 
nate officers. Adjutant-General, is one 
who assists the general of an armj''. 

Administration, ad-minnis-trayshun 
(Latin, ad, to ; ministro, to assist). The act 
of administering or conducting any em- 
ployment, as the conducting of the public 
affairs, or dispensing the laws. The execu- 
tive part of Government, which, in Eng- 
land, is termed the Administration, is 
usually composed, as follows : — First T/Ovd 
of tne IVeasury ; ijora Jdign Chancellor ; 
Chancellor of the Exchequer ; Secretary 
of State for Foreign Affairs ; Secretary of 
State for the Colonial Department: Secre- 
tary of State for the Home Department ; 
President of the Co'incil : Lord Privy 
Seal; Fu-st Lord of the Admiralty; Pre- 
sident of the Board of Control ;. Chancel- 
lor of the Duchy of Lancaster ; First 
Commissioner of Inland Kevenue; Secre- 
tary at War ; Commander-in-Chief. Such, 
in general, compose the Administration; 
but there are many other ministers, as 
Lord Chamberlain, President of the 



ADM 



ADU 



9 



Board of Trade, Postmaster-General, &c. ; 
some of whom are occasionally included in 
the JMinistry ; while, on the other hand, 
any one or more of those specified above 
may be excluded. 

Administrator, ad-minnis-traytur. 
In English law, one who has the effects of 
a person dying without a will committed 
to his charge. In Scottish law, a person 
legally .empowered to act for another, 
whom the law presumes incapable of acting 
for himself. The term is usually applied 
to a father, who has the power over his 
children and their estate during their 
minority. The feminine of this word is 
administratrix. ' 

Admiral, ad-meral (Latin of the 
middle ages, amira, an emir, or com- 
mander). In the British navy, an officer 
of the highest rank in the fleet, dis- 
tinguished by a square flag, which is 
carried above the main-mast. The Vice- 
A dmiral is the second in rank. He carries 
his flag above the fore-mast. The Rear- 
Adrairal comes next, and carries his flag 
above the mizen-mast. These admirals 
are classed into three squadrons, named 
after the colours of their respective flags, 
the red, the ^chite, and the Ihie. 

Admiralty, adme-ralty. In Great 
Britain, the office of Lord High Admiral. 
This office is discharged by one person, or 
by commissioners, called iLords of the 
Admiralty, usually seven in number. 

Admiration, Wote of. ; In gram- 
mar, the character (!) used after' a word, or 
at the close of a sentence of a remarkable 
or emphatic nature. 

Admonition, admo-nisshun (Latin, 
ad, against ; moneo, to warn). A waoming 
or notification of a fault ; a mild reproof. 
In ecclesiastical affairs, a reproof given to 
a member of the church for a fault either 
publicly or privg.tely ; the first step of 
church discipline. It has a like use in 



Adnascent, ad -naysent (Latin, ad, to ; 
nascens, growing). Growing to or upon 
something else. Adnate, in botany, refers 
to the growing together of the different 
parts of plants. 

Ad Wauseum, ad-naws-eum (Latin). 
The repetition of anything until it be- 
comes nauseous. 

Adolescence, addo-lessens (Latin, oxl, 
to ; oleo, to grow). The state of growing 
applied to the young of the human race ; 
youth, or the period of life between child- 



hood and the full development of the 
frame, extending in males from about 
fourteen to twenty -five, and in females 
from twelve to twenty-one. 

Adonis. In mythology, a youthful 
hunter beloved by Venus. This term is 
applied colloquially to a favourite of 
women. 

Adopt, a-dopt (Latin, ad, for, opto, to 
desire). To choose to one's self. To take 
a stranger into one's family as son and 
heir. To take or receive as one's own that 
which is not naturally so, as to adopt the 
opinions of another ; or to receive that 
which is new, as to adopt a particular 
mode of husbandry, 

Adosculation, a-doskew-layshun 
(Latin, ad, to ; osculatio, a kissing). The 
impregnation of plants by means of the 
pollen falling on the stigma. 

Ad Pondus Omnium (Latin). Lite- 
rally, " to the weight of the whole." These 
words after the name of any ingi-edient, in 
a medical prescription, sigTiify that the 
weight of such ingredients is equal to that 
of all the others put together. 

Ad Referendum, ad refer-endum 
(Latin). For further consideration. 

Adriati(?, adre-atik (Latin, Adria, the 
Gulf of Venice). Pertaining to the Gulf 
of Venice. 

Adrift, a -drift (Saxon, adrifan, to 
drive). A nautical term, denoting the 
condition of a vessel broken from her 
moorings. 

Adroit, a-droyt (French, droit, right, 
straight). Dexterous, skilful in the use of 
the hand ; readiness of the mental powers ," 
quickness of invention. 

Adscititious, adsy-tishus (Latin, ad, 
for ; scisco, to seek out). A term applied 
to that which is taken in to complete some- 
thing else, as adscititious advantages. 

Adstriction, ad-strikshun (Latin, ad, 
to ; siringo, to bind fast). The act of bind- 
ing together ; contracting into a lesser 
compass. 

Adulation, addu-layshun (Latin, adu- 
latic, originally, the wagging of a aog's 
tail to his master). Servile' flattery ; praise 
in excess, or beyond what is merited ; high 
comphment. 

Adult, a-dult (Latin, adultus, grown to 
maturity). A person gTOwn to full size 
and strength, or to the years of manhood. 
It is also applied to full-grown plants. 



JO 



ADU 



AEE 



Adulterate, a-dulter-ate (Latin, ad, 
to; alter, second self). To corrupt, debase, 
or make impure by an admistui-e of baser 
materials. 

Adumbrate, ad-umbrate (Latin, ad, 
to ; uiiibra, shadow). To shadow out ; to 
give a faint likeness ; to exhibit a faint re- 
semblance, like that which shadows afford 
to the bodies which they represent. Adum- 
hration, in heraldiy, is the shadow only of 
any figure outlined, and painted of a dai-ker 
colour than the field. 

Aduncity, a-dunsy-te (Latin, ad, to ; 
U7icv^, a hook). Hookedness; a bending 
in the form of a hook. 

Adust, a-dust (Latin, adustus). Burnt 
up ; scorched ; become dry by heat. 

Ad Valorem, ad Ta-lorem (Latin). 
According to the value. The Customs' 
duties upon certain goods at so much per 
cent, on the value is called an ad valorem 
duty. 

Advance, ad- vans (French, avancer ; 
this word is formed on d, to, and va'/i, the 
front). To biing forward ; to promote ; to 
improve, or make better ; to forward or 
accelerate the growth of. In commerce, 
an advance is a giving beforehand ; a fur- 
nishing of something, on contract, before 
an equivalent is received, as money or 
goods, towai'ds a capital or stock, or on 
loan. In mUitaiy affau-s, an advance guard 
is a detachment of troops which precedes 
the march of the main body. 

Advent, ad-vent (Latin, ad, to ; ve7iio, 
to come). A coming; appropriately the 
coming of our Saviour, and in the calendar 
it includes four Sabbaths before Chiistmas. 

Adventitious, adven-tishus (Latin, 
adve'/ititiov^). Foreign, strange ; that which 
is added, not essentially inherent. 

Adverb, ad-vurb (Latin, ad, to ; verhum, 
a word). In grammai', a word used to mo- 
dify the sense of a verb, participle, adjec- 
tive, or attribute, and usually placed near 
it ; as, he writes loell; paper e:dremely white. 

Adversaria, ad-ver-sayreah (Latin, 
adversus, opposite). Among the ancients 
a book of accounts, answering to the mo- 
dem ledger, and so named from the debit 
and credit being placed in o'ppositioii to 
each other. The word also imports, among- 
literary persons, a qoecies of common-place 
book, in which the notes are not digested 
under regular heads. 

Advert, ad-vurt (Latin, aA, to ; verto, 
to turn). To turn the mind or attention 
to ; to regard, observe, or notice. 



Advocate, advo-kate (Latin, ad., to ; 
voco, to call). This word, in its primary 
sense, sig-nifies one who pleads the cause of 
another in a court of civil law ; hence it 
came to be applied to a pleader in any 
judicial coui-t : in England they are of two 
degrees. Barristers and Seijmnts. In Scot- 
land the FacvJty of Advocates is a society 
of eminent lawyers, who practice in the 
highest com-ts. In France the Avocats 
form a separate order, of which each mem- 
ber is attached to a particular local court .; 
there are also those who plead, and those 
who practice only. 

Advowson, ad-vowsun (Latin, ad, to ; 
voveo, to vow). In English law, a right of 
presentation to a vacant benefice ; or, in 
other words, a right of nominating a 
person to officiate in a vacant chm-ch. 
Advowsons are of three kinds — presentative, 
collative, and donative — presentative, when 
the patron presents his clerk to thQ bishop 
of the diocese to be instituted; collative, 
when the bishop is his patron, and insti- 
tutes, or collates his clerk, by a single act ; 
donative, when a church is founded by the 
king, and assigned to the patron, without 
being subject to the ordinary, so that the 
patron confers the benefice on his clerk, 
without presentation, institution, or induc- 
tion. Advowsons are also appendant, that 
is, annexed to a manor : or, in gross, that 
is, annexed to the person of the patron. 

Adsmamy, adin-amee (Greek, a, with- 
out ; dynamis, power). Diminution of the 
vital powers ; debdity ; prostration of the 
action of the senses, -and of the muscular 
system. 

7F. . A diphthong in the Latin language. 
In Anglicised words it is generally super- 
seded by e, as Eolian for ^olian, Edile for 
CEdHe, &c. 

Aerated, ay-erayted (Greek and Latin, 
aer, air). Combined with carbonic acid, 
formerly called fixed ah*. Aerated wate7's 
is a term applied to a variety of acidulous 
and alkaline beverages, more or less im- 
pregnated with carbonic acid. 

Aerial, ay-eryal. Belonging to the air 
or atmosphere ; as, aenal regions. Con- 
sisting of air ; partaking of the nature of 
air. Aerial plants, those which absorb 
much of their food from the atmosphere. 
Aerial perspective, that branch of perspec- 
tive which treats of the relative diminution 
of the colours of bodies, in proportion to 
their distance from the eye. 

Aerolite, ayro-lite (Greek, aer, air : 
lithos, a stone). A stone which falls from 



AER 



AGA 



11 



tile air under certain circnmstances, which 
has given rise to a variety of theories and 
conjectures, without any positive conclusion 
being arrived at. 

Aerometer, ayr-om-etur (Greek, aer, 
air ; metron, measure). An instrument for 
weighing air, or for ascertaining the mean 
bulk of gases; also, an instrument for 
ascertaining the density or rarity of air. 

Aeronaut, ayro-nawt (Greek, aer, air ; 
nautes, a sailor). One who sails through 
the air ; commonly applied to persons who 
ascend in and guide balloons. 

Affable, affah-bul (Latin, ad, to ; fari^ 
to speak). Easy to be spoken to, or a 
readiness to speak to any one ; courteous ; 
complaisant. 

Affeto, Affetuoso, or Con Affetto 
(Italian, from Latin, affecto, to strive after). 
In music, a direction to perform certain 
notes in a soft and affecting manner, and 
therefore rather inclined to slow than the 
revei-se. 

Affiance, af-fyans (Latin, ad, to ; fides, 
faith). To betroth ; to pledge one's faith 
or fidelity in marriage, or to promise 
marriage. 
• Affiche, af-feesh (French, afficJie). A 
placard, or notice, publicly exhibited. 

Affidavit, affe-dayvit (Latin ; an old 
law verb signifying "he made oath;" from 
ad, in ; fides, faith). A declaration on oath, 
before a competent authority, more par- 
ticularly when reduced to writing and 
signed by the party. 

Affiliation, affiUy-ayshun (French, affi- 
lih', to adopt. Latin, ad, to ; filius, a son"). 
To adopt ; to receive into a family as a 
son. In law, the proving of parentage in 
the case of illegitimate children. 

Affinity, affiny-te (Latin, ad, to ; finis, 
the end), Kelationship by marriage. It 
is distinguished into three kinds : direct 
affinity, as subsisting between the husband 
and his ■wife's relations by blood ; secondary 
affinity, as subsisting between the hus- 
band's and wife's relations by marriage ; 
collateral affinity, as subsisting between 
the husband and the relations of the wife's 
relations. In general terms, agreement ; 
relation ; conformity ; resemblance. 

Affirmation, affur-mayshun (Latin, 
ad, to ; firvio, to make firm). The act of 
strengthening or supporting any opinion. 
In law, the solemn declaration made by 
Quakers, Moravians, and any others who, 
from conscientious scruples, refuse, or are 
unwilling to take an oath in cases where 



an oath is required from others. False 
affirmations made by such parties are 
punishable in the same way as perjury. 

Affix, af-fiks (Latin, ad, to; fixur,i, 
united). To unite at the end. A particle 
added at the close of a word, either to 
diversify its form, or to alter its signifi- 
cation. The following list includes the 
principal afiixes to English words : — 

Ish, some degree. 

Isiii, doctrine, theory. 

Ive, ic, jcal, ile, ine, ing, 
it, ial, ent, ant, per- 
taining to, having the 
quality, relating to. 

Ize, to make. 

Less, icithout. 

Ly, like, resembling. 

Ness, quality of. 

Oid, resembling. 

Ous, ose ) nature of. 

Ory, some ) like, full of. 

Ric, dom, possession. 

Ship, office. 

Ude, state of heir,g. 

Ure, act of, state of being. 

Ward, in a direction. 



Age, rank, office. 

Ant, ent ) °^- 
Ate, ary, having. 
Ble, that may he. 
Bleness, the quality of 

being able. 
Ely, in a manner. 
Cy, ty, y, ity, state, con 

dition. 
En, in. 
Er, or, an, ian, ex, ess, 

eer, ist, ite, san, zen, 

the person who. 
Fy, to make. 
les, science, art. 
Ion, ity, ment, the state 

or act of. 

Afflatus, af-flaytus (Latin, ad, to ; 
flatus, blowing, or breathing). A blast or 
breath of wind. Inspiration ; communica- 
tion of Divine knowledge, or the power of 
prophecy; usually alluded to as the ''Di- 
vine afflatus." 

Aft, ahft (Saxon, ceft, after, behind). 
In nautical language, a word used to denote 
the stern, or what pertains to the stern 
part of a ship. Fore and aft, signifies the 
whole length of a ship. Right aft is in a 
direct line with the stem. 

After- Clap. An unexpected subse- 
quent event ; something happening after 
an affair is supposed to be at an end. 

After-Math.. The second mowing of 
grass in the same season ; also, the stubble 
cut after the reaping of corn. 

After-Pieee. A theatrical piece per- 
formed after a play ; a farce or other light 
entertainment. 

Aflusion, af-fewzhun (Latin, ad, on; 
fvndo, to pour out). In medicine, a mode 
of treatment for fever and other diseases, 
which consists of pouring water upon the 
patient or on the part affected. 

Agapemone, agap-emony (Greek, 
agape, love). A modern association of 
men and women living in common ; osten- 
sibly, in love and piety ; and on a general 
fund made up of the f ortimes or donations 
of the associated members. The persons 



AGE 



AIT 



fonniug this sect live retired from the 
world, in a house furnished with every 
convenience and comfort ; with gardens 
attached, tastefully laid out, and grounds 
adjacent for the recreation of the mem- 
bers. Theu' religion is a free interpreta- 
tion of Chiistianity, and they have a leader 
who professes to be divinely commissioned. 
The establishment of this name in England 
is situated at Bridge water, in Devonshire. 

Agenda, a-jendah (Latin, ago, to act). 
Literally, things to be done ; a memoran- 
dum-book of things to be daily attended 
to ; the service of the office of the Church. 
In theology it is used to distinguish what 
one is bound to perform, in opposition to 
Credenda, or things which he is bound to 
beheve. 

Agio, adj-eo (Italian, aggio, an ex- 
change of money for some consideration). 
In commerce, the difference in point of 
value between metaUic and paper money, 
or between one sort of metallic money and 
another rate of exchange. Thus, if a mer- 
chant sells goods with the stipulation that 
they shall be paid for, either 100 livres 
bank money, or 105 cash or current money, 
the agio in such a case is said to be 5 per 
cent. 

Agistment, ajist-ment (Nonnan, agiser, 
to lay or throw do^vn). In law, the taking 
of other people's cattle to graze, especially 
in the royal forests, and also the profits 
thence arising. This term also denotes a 
tax, burden, or charges, levied for repair- 
ing the sea-banks in different parts of 
England. The agistment-tithe is a tithe paid 
to the vicar for ]pasturage of barren cattle. 

Agglomerate, ag-glommy-rate (Latin, 
ad, to ; glomero, to wind round, from 
glomus, a ball of yam). To wind, or col- 
lect into a ball ; to gather into a mass. 

Agglutinate, ag-glew-tenait (Latin, 
ad, to ; gluten, glue). To unite one part 
to another, to cause to adhere ; used gene- 
rally m a medical sense. 

Aggrandize, ag-grandyze (Latin, ad, 
to ; grandis, great). To increase ; to make 
great by enlargement ; to exalt ; to im- 
prove in power, honour, or rank. 

Aggregate, a{^--gTesgait (Latin, ad, to ; 
grex, a flock). To collect in troops or 
flocks ; to bring together ; to collect par- 
ticulars into a smn, mass, or body, as the 
aggregate amount of charges. 

Aggression, ag-greshun (Latin, ad, 
to : gradior, to go). The advancing against 
another ; the &:st attack or act of hosti- 



lity ; the commencement of a quarrel, or a 
war, by some act of injury. 

Agonistic, ago-nistik (Greek, agoti, the 
contest for the prize). Eelating to prize- 
fighting. The word agony is derived from 
the contoi-tions or twistings of the body in 
an athletic contest or struggle. 

Agnomen, ag-no-men (Latin, ad, to ; 
nonien, a name). A name given to a per- 
son on account of, and in connection with, 
some extraordinary action or circumstance ; 
thus, the agnomen "of Kars" was given 
to Sir Fenwick Williams, on accoimt of his 
gallant defence of a place of that name, 
dui-ing the Eussian war. 

Agnus Dei, agnus de-i (Latin, agnus, 
lamb ; Dei, of God). The figure of the 
Saviour under the form of a lamb, in ac- 
cordance with the symbohcal words of St. 
John. In Catholic countries medallions 
of wax or dough are stamped with the 
figure of the Lamb supporting the cross, 
and these are supposed to preseiwe those 
who carry them, in faith ; to guard them 
from accidents, &c. 

Agrarian, agra-rean (Latin, oger, a 
field). Eelating to fields or grounds. . 
Agrarian laics are those which relate to 
the distribution of land, and especially ap- 
pUes to a mode of allotment, by vs'hich the 
number of acres assigned to each person 
is limited, so that all should have a portion 
of land, and none become monopolists. 

Aid-de-Camp, ay-day kong (French, 
aid, or aide, assistant ; de, of ; camp or 
chanif, field). A military officer appointed 
to the staff of a general officer, wnose 
orders he receives and distributes. These 
orders are to be obeyed with the same 
readiness as if delivered personally by the 
general officer to whom the aid-de-camp is 
attached. 

Aisle, ile (French, alle, a wing. Latin, 
ala, a wing). The wing of a building, usually 
applied to the lateral divisions of a church, 
which are separated from the central part, 
called the nave, and choir, by piUars and 
piers. The nave is frequently, though in. 
correctly, termed the middle aisle, and the 
lateral divisions the side aisles. 

Ait, ate (supposed to be a corruption of 
islet). A small island in a river, generally 
overgrown with sedges and wild, rank vege- 
tation ; the resort of aquatic birds, and 
particularly ducks and swans. There are 
several places answering to this descrip- 
tion in the river Thames, between Twicken- 
ham and Eichmond. 



AJU 



ALE 



13 



Ajutage, a-jootaaj (French, ajouter, to 
add, to supply). The tube fitted to the 
mouth of a vessel, through which the water 
of a fountain is to be played. It is by- 
means of this .tube that the water is di- 
rected into any desired figure, so that the 
diversity of fountains consists chiefly in 
'the different structiu-e of their ajutages. 

Alabaster, ala-bastur (Greek, Alabas- 
iron, a town of Lower Egypt, where the 
substance was found of excellent quality). 
A soft kind of marble, which is of a granu- 
lar texture, of a white colour, and possess- 
ing a certain degree of transparency. 

Alamode, alah-mod (French, d, to ; la, 
the ; mode^ fashion). According to the 
fashion, or the most stylish manner. 

Alarmist, a-larmist (French, alarme! 
to arms !). One who excites alarm ; one who 
is ready to take alarm at, and to circulate 
and exaggerate, any sort of bad news, par- 
ticularly in regard of political affairs. 

Albata, al-baytah (Latin, alius, white). 
The name given to a species of white metal 
largely used in many branches of manu- 
facture. 

Albino, al-beeno (Latin, alius, white). 
A person of imusually fair complexion, 
with light hair and pink eyes. Albinos are 
occasionally found as a variety of the 
Tauman race in every climate. 

Albion, al-beon (Latin, allus^ white). 
The name given by the Komans to the 
island of Great Britain, on account of the 
chalky or xohite cliffs, which first met their 
eyes. 

Album, al-bum (Latin, alius, white). 
A book originally blank, in which are in- 
serted from time to time any autographs, 
poems, drawings, &c., as memorials of 
friend? and distinguished individuals. 

Albumen, al-bewmen (Latin, alius, 
white). A su.bstance so named from the 
Latin, for the white of an egg, in which it 
exists abundantly, and in its purest natural 
state. It enters lai-gely into the compo- 
sition of the animal fluids and solids. In 
botany, it represents that solid, fleshy, bony, 
or homy consistence secreted in certain 
seeds, between the embryo and the skin. 

Alburnum, al-bumum (Latin, alius, 
white). The outer, latest formed, and 
white portion of the wood, of plants, some- 
times caUed sap-wood. 

Alcaics, al-kayiks. Several kinds of 
verse, so called from Alcseus, a lyric poet of 
Mitylene, their inventor. 



Alcaid, al-kaid (Arabic, hada, to go- 
vern). Among the Moors, Spaniards, and 
Portuguese, a governor. In Portugal, the 
chief civic magistrate in a town or city ; 
also, the jurisdiction of certain judges of. 
appeal. In Spain, the governor of a castle 
or fort ; also a jaUer. The Cadi of the 
Turks is similarly derived. 

Alchemy, al-ke-me (Arabic, al, the ; 

I kimia, secret art). A chemical art, by 

! which the adepts of former times sought 

to transmute baser metals into gold, and to 

prepare a flmd, called Elixir vitce, by which 

disease and death were to be avoided by the 



Alcohol. A word of Arabic derivation, 
used to denote the essence of bodies, sepa- 
rated from the grosser parts. It nov;- 
signifies ardent spirit of wine, and forms 
the intoxicating principle of wine, beer, 
and other spirituous liquors. 

Alcoran, al-koran (Arabic, al, the ; 
Tcoran, book). The book which contains 
the Mohammedan doctrines of faith and 
practice ; which the Mohammedans state 
was given to Mahomet by the angel Gabriel, 
a verse at a time, and at different places, 
during a period of twenty-three years. 

Alcove, al-kove (Spanish, alcola, com- 
posed of al, with the Arabic kalla, to con- 
struct with an arch). A recess in a room, 
separated from it by a screen of columns, or 
by a balustrade, or by draperies, for the 
reception of a bed, and having its floor 
generally raised above the floor of the 
room. Also a lateral recess in a library f oi' 
the reception of books. Likewise an arched 
and covered seat in a garden. 

Ale Conner {ale and con, to know or 
see). An ofiicer whose business it is to in- 
spect the measures used in public-houses, 
to prevent frauds in selling liquors. 

Alee, a-lee. In nautical language, on 
the side opposite to the wind, that is, op- 
posite to the side on which it strikes. The 
helm of a ship is alee, when pressed close 
to the lee side. Hard alee, or luff alee, is 
an order to put the hehn to the lee side. 

Alembic, a-lembik (Arabic, al, the; 
amlixon, chemical vessel). A chemical 
vessel used in distillation ; usually made 
of glass or copper. This vessel is not so 
generally used now as the worm-still and 
retort. 

Alexandrine Verse. A kind of verse 
consisting of twelve syllables, or of twelve 
and thirteen alternately ; so called from a 



14 



ALE 



ALL 



poem written in French, on the life of Alex- 
ander. The Alexandrine, in English, con- 
sists of twelve syllables, as will be seen 
by the following specimen :— 

"A needless Alexandrine ends my song, 
"VVliich like a wounded snake drags its slow length 
along." 

.AJe-"wife, or Aloof. This word is pro- 
perly aloof, the Indian name of a fish, but 
the estabUshed pronunciation is ale-wife,. 
It is an American fish, and somewhat re- 
sembles the herring. 

Al Fresco, al-fresco (Italian). In the 
open air, usually applied to entertainments, 
refreshments, &c. 

AlgaB, al-je (probably from the Latin 
alligo, to bind). An order of plants which 
comprehends the who]e of the sea-weeds. 

Algebra, alje-brah (Arabic, al, the ; 
gaboron reduction of the whole to a part). 
A branch of mathematics, in which symbols 
are employed in the place of figui-es. A 
species of calculation which takes the quan- 
tity sought, whether it be a number, or a 
line, or any other quantity, as if it were 
granted, and by means of one or more 
quantities given, proceeds by consequence, 
till the quantity at first only supposed to 
be known, or at least some power thereof, 
is found to be equa] to some quantity or 
quantities which are known, and conse- 
quently its own value, or quantity, or num- 
ber, is determined. 

Alhambra, al-hambrah. An ancient 
palace and castle in Grenada, formerly the 
residence of the Mohammedan monarchs. 
This building is, to outward appearance, 
wholly divested of ornament, but the in- 
terior decorations afford specimens of the 
decorative art which, for gorgeousness of 
coloiir and beauty of design, are unequal- 
led. 

Alias, aily-as (Latin, alias, otherwise). 
A word used to link the several names 
which a person assumes for the purposes 
of concealment; as, Johnson, alias Rich- 
ards. In law, a duplicate execution or writ, 
issued when the original has proved in- 
efficient in enforcing the judgment. 

Alibi, alle-by (Latin, alibi, elsewhere). 
A plea set up by a person charged with a 
crime, to show that he was at some place 
remote from that at which the offence was 
committed at the time of commission, and 
therefore establishing the impossibility of 
his being the real offender. 

Alien, ale-yen (Latin, alius., another). 
A foreigner ; one born in, or belonging to, 



another country. In France, children bora 

of residents who are not citizens are aliens. 

j In Great Britain, the children of aliens 

j born in that country are for the most part 

j natiu-al born subjects ; as also are the 

I children of British subjects owing aUegi- 

I ance to the crown of England, though born 

in other countries ; and both are entitled to 

the privileges of resident citizens. An alien 

is incapable of inheriting lands in England 

till natm-ahsed by Act of Parliament ; and 

in Scotland, he is disqualified from either 

acquiring or inheriting property. 

Alimony, alle-munny (Latin, alo, to 
feed). An allowance which a husband has 
to make to his wife when separated from 
her. The sum is usually fixed by the judge, 
and is regulated according to the income 
or earnings of the husband. 

Alkalies, alkah-lees (Arabic, al, the ; 
Tcali, the name of a plant which produces 
the substance by burning). A class of 
bodies, possessing a very bitter and hot 
taste, and which exercise a corrosive action 
upon all animal matter. They have also 
the power of changing vegetable colours, 
turning blue to green, and turmeric to 
brown. 

Allah. The Arabic name for God, com- 
posed of the particle al and elah, — the 
Adorable. 

Allegiance, al-lejans (Latin, ad, to ; 
ligo, to bind). The duty or fidelity which 
a subject owes to his sovereign or govern- 
ment. 

Allegory, alle-gory (Greek, alios, 
another ; agora, discourse). A description 
of one thing imder the image of another, so 
that some other meaning is intended than 
that which is conveyed by the mere words 
used in the description. An allegory is 
represented in the following : — " Stop the 
currents, the meadows have drunk suffici- 
ently;" that is, let your music cease, our 
ears have been sufficiently delighted. 

Allegro, al-laygro (Italian, leggiere, to 
be merry). In music, a word denoting a 
brisk movement ; a sprightly part or strain. 
There are two other degrees of the same : 
allegHssimo, very lively ; allegretto, or poco 
allegro, a little Lively. The word jomI, more, 
is sometimes prefixed to strengthen the 
meaning. 

Alleluiah., al-le-loo-yah (Hebrew,aZ6Zoo- 
eeay, praise to Jah, or lah). Praise Jeho- 
vah ; a word used to denote pious joy 
and exultation, chiefly in bymns and 
anthems. 



ALL 



AT.T 



Alligation, aUe-gayshun (Latin, ad, 
to ; ligo, to tie together). A rule in arith- 
metic to find the value of compounds, con- 
sisting of ingredients of different values. 

Alliteration, al-litty-rayshun (Latin, 
ad, to ; lite)-a, a letter). The repetition 
of the same letter at the beginning of two 
or more words immediately succeeding 
each other, or at short intervals, as in the 
two following lines, applied to Cardinal 
Wolsey : — 

"Begot by butchers, but by bishops bred, 
How high his honour holds his haughty head!" 

Allocation, allo-kayshun (Latin, ad, 
to ; loco, I place). The act of putting one 
t.hirig to another ; the admission of an article 
in reckoning, and addition of it to the 
account. In law, an allowance made on an 
accovmt in the Exchequer. 

Allodium, allo-deum (Celtic, all, all ; 
odh, property). Freehold estate; land 
which is the absolute property- of the 
owner ; real estate held in absolute inde- 
pendence, withoiTt being subject to any 
rent, service, or acknowledgment to a 
superior. It is thus opposed to feudal. 

Allonge, al-lunj (French, allonger, to 
throat). A pass Avith a sword; a thrust 
made by stepping forward and extending 
the arm ; a term used in fencing, often 
contracted into lunge. 

Allons, al-long (French, allons, let us 
go). A word used to express " let us pro- 
ceed," " let us on with our story," &c. 

Allopathy, allop-athy (Greek, alios, 
other; pathos, disorder). The method of 
medical practice in which it is attempted 
to cure disease by the production of a con- 
dition of the system either different from, 
opposite to, or incompatible with, the con- 
dition asserted in the disease to be cured. 

Alloy, al-loy (Latin, ad, to ; ligo, to 
bind). A baser metal mixed with a finer ; 
the mixture of different metals ; also, evil 
mixed with good^ misery with pleasure^ &c. 

Allusion, al-lewzhun (Latin, ad, upon ; 
ludo, to play). A reference to something 
not explicitly mentioned ; in composition, 
a figure by which some word or phrase in 
a sentence calls to mind, as if accidentally, 
another similar or analogous subject, as 
" these words were the only ' open sesame' 
to their feelings and sympathies." Here 
the words '' open sesame" recall to mind 
the charm by which the robbers' dungeon 
in the Arabian tale of 2'he Forty Thieves 
was opened. 



Alluvium, al-lew-voum (Latin, ad, to- 
wards ; luo, to wash). The insensible in- 
crease of earth on a shore, or bank of a 
river, by the force of water, as by a cur- 
rent, or by waves. 

Alma Mater, al-mah may-tur (Latin, 
alma, fostering ; mata, mother). Mild, 
benign, or fostering mother. This tei'm is 
used by students to designate the univer- 
sity in which they were educated. It is 
also applied to nature and to the earth, 
which affords us everything- we enjoy. 

Alms, ahmz (Saxon, almes). Anything 
given gratuitously to relieve the poor, as 
money, food, or clothing. 

Aloft, a-loft. Any part of a vessel up 
in the rigging, or above the masts or yards ; 
particularly above the lower masts. 

A I'Outrance, ah-loo-trawns (French, 
d I'outrance, extreme, excess). This 
phrase is used to express a determination 
to maiatain or defend to the, utmost, 
despite aU obstacles, objections, or oni- 
mons. 

Alpha, al-fah (Hebrew, alooph, an ox, or 
leader). The first letter in the Greek al- 
phabet, answering to A, and used to denote 
first, or beginning, as "I am Alpha and 
Omega, t\ie first and the last." 

Alphabet, alfah-bet (Greek, alpha, a ; 
heta, b). The letters of a lang-uage ar- 
ranged in the customary order, and so 
called from the two leading Greek letters. 

Alpine, al-pine (Latin, Alpimis, from 
Alps). Pertaining to the Alps, or to any 
lofty mountain ; as Alpine plants, Alpine 
scenery. 

Aliquant, alle-kwant (Latin, aliquan- 
tum, a little). In arithmetic, a number or 
fraction which, however repeated, is not 
equal to another number without a re- 
mainder. Thus : 7 is an aliquant part oi 
22, for 3 times 7 are 21, leaving a re- 
mainder 1. 

Aliquot, aUe-kwot (Latin, aliq^iotus, 
sometimes). A number capable of dividing 
another number without leaving a re- 
mainder; thus, 2, 4, 5, and 10, ai-e aliquot 
parts of 20. 

Alterative, altur-ativ (Latin, altera, ta 
change). A medicine which produces a 
change in the system. A remedy which 
re-estabUshes the health by almost imper- 
ceptible degrees. 

Alter Ego, altur-eego (Latin, alter, 
another ; ego, self). A duplicate ; the 
counterpart or second impersonation of 



IG 



ALT 



AME 



one's self. Thus in the drama^of The Cor- 
sican Brothers, the same actpr usually per- 
forms both characters, that is to say, his 
own and the alter ego. 

Alternate, al-turnat (Latin, alternatus, 
changed by turns). Being by turns, one 
following the other in succession of time or 
place. 

Alternative, al-tum-ativ. That which 
may be chosen or omitted ; a choice of two 
things, so that if one is taken or adopted, 
the other must be left or reHnquished. 
Thus, if a person be asked to speak the 
truth, or to keep silence, he is expected to 
obey one of the two injunctions, which 
may be called alternatives. 

Alto, al-toe (Italian, fronj^ Lg^in, altzis, 
high). In music, a term applied to that 
part of the. great vocal scale which lies 
between the soprano and the tenor, and 
which is assig-ned to the highest natural 
adult male voice. 

Alto Relievo, alto-releavo (Italian, 
alto, high ; relievo, relief). In sculpture, 
the projectioi^ of a figure to the extent of 
one-half or more, without being entirely 
detached. 

Alumnus, a-lumnus (Latin, alo, to 
nourish). A pupil ; one educated at a 
seminary or university is called an alum- 
nus of that institution. 

A. M. An abbreviation of a7ite meri- 
dian, before noon. 

A. M. stand for artiwn magister, mas- 
ter of -arts, the second" degree given by 
univfef sities and colleges. 

A. M. stand also for anno mundi, in 
the year of the world. 

Amalgam, a-malgam (Greek, ama, 
together ; and gamio, to wed). A com- 
pound of quicksilver with another metal ; 
a mixture of different things. 

Amanuensis, a-man-u-en-sez (Latin, 
a, from ; manus, hand). A person em- 
ployed to write what another dictates. 
Literally, one who is useful from his manual 
labour. 

Amaranth., amah-ranth (Greek, a, 
not; maraino, to fade). The name of a 
plant, poetically supposed to be endued 
with unfading properties, and to possess 
immortality. 

Am.ateur, ahmah-tur (French ; from 
Latin, amo, to love). A person attached to 
A particular pursuit, study, or science, for 
the mere pleasure it affords him, and with- 



out any view to gain or remuneration, as 
an amateur actor. 

Amazon, amah-zim (Greek, a, without ; 
mazos, breasts ; without breasts, figura- 
tively). A warlike or masculine woman ; 
a virago. The Amazons are reputed 
by historical writers to have been a warlike 
race of women, who denied themselves the 
society of man, and by their warlike enter- 
prises to have conquered and alarmed 
sui-rounding nations. 

Ambassador, am-bassay-dur (French, 
amhassadeur. Spanish, embaxadw). A 
person sent in a public manner from one 
sovereign power to another as its repre- 
sentative. 

Ambidextrous, ambe-dekstruss 
(Latin, avibo, both ; dexter, right-hand). 
Displajdng equal facility in the use of both 
hands ; double dealing ; practising on both 
sides. ^^ 

Ambiguous, ambig-ewus (Latin, ambi, 
from side to side ; ago, to act). Doubtful ; 
having more than one meanuig ; eq"uivocal ; 
imcertain. 

Ambrosia, am-brozhea (Greek, a, not ; 
hrotos, mortal). The imaginary food of tho 
gods ; hence whatever is very pleasing to 
the taste or smell is so called. 

Ambulance, ambew-lans (Latin, am- 
hulo, to move from place to place). A Ught 
caravan, furnished with surgeons', assis- 
tants andt orderlies, for attending the 
wounded on the field of battle. 

Ambush, am-boosh (French, en, in ; 
lois, a wood or bushes). The place of con- 
cealment where soldiers or assassins are 
placed in order to rush out upon the enemy 
unexpectedly. Lying in ambush, is hiding 
in any concealed situation with a like 
purpose. 

Ameliorate, amealy-orate (Latin, ad, 
to; melior, hetter). To make better; to 
improve. 

Amen. This word, with slight dif- 
ferences of orthography, is in all the 
dialects of the Assyi'ian stock. As a verb, 
it signifies to confirm, establish, verify; 
to trust or give confidence. As a noun, 
truth, firmness, trust, confidence. As an 
adjective, firm, stable. In Enghsh, after 
the Oriental manner, it is used at tho 
beginning, but more generally at the end 
of declarations and prayers, in the sense 
of, be it firm, be it establislied. 

Amenable, a-menay-bul (French, d, 
to ; mener, to conduct : also, from Mdn- 
dat d'amener, an order to bring a person 



AME 

into court). Liable to be brought to ac- 
count; responsible; subject to. 

Amende Honorable, amalind- 
hono-rahbl (French, amende honorable). 
Formerly, in France, an infamous punish- 
ment inflicted upon a traitor, parricide, or 
sacrilegious person ; now, a public acknow- 
ledgment of injury done to another. Con- 
ventionally, the term amende honor able 
signifies apology. 

Amerce, a-murs (old French, a, to ex- 
act; tnercio, goods). To punish with a 
pecuniary penalty ; to exact a fine ; to 
inflict a forfeiture. 

Americanism, a-merrikan-izum. A 
word, idiom, or some other thing peculiar 
to the American people. 

Ammonia, am-mo-neah. A volatile 
alkali, originally obtained in Lybia, by 
burning the droppings of camels, while 
their drivers were sojourning near the 
temple of Jupiter Ammon. 

Amontillado Sherry, amontil-lahdo 
(Spanish, signifying like or similar to 
Montilla). This wine possesses a pecu- 
liarly delicate flavour, and is highly 
prized. Montilla is situated in Upper 
Andalusia, and takes its name from its 
mountainous character. 

Amoroso, am-orozo (Italian). A man 
enamoured of the fair sex. 

Amour-Propre, amoor-propr 
(French, amour, love ; propre, belonging to 
oneself). Self-love; thus an appeal is made 
to a person's vanity, or amour-propre. 

Ampllibious, am-fibbyus (Greek, 
amphi, on both sides ; Mas, life). An ani- 
mal so constituted that it can lire either 
in or out of water. 

Amphitheatre, amfy-theatur (Greek, 
amphi, on both sides ; theatron, theatre). 
In antiquity, a building of a circular or 
oval form, encompassed with rows of 
seats rising gradually one above the other, 
and capable of accommodating an immense 
number of persons. This name is some- 
times given to a circus in modern times ; 
and in gardening, to an elevated terrace 
having steps descending to a series of ter- 
races formed on the side of a rising 
ground. Natural scenery answering to 
this description is also termed amphi- 
theatrical. 

Amplification, amply-fe-kayshun 

(Latin, amplus, large). The expansion of 

a subject, either in speaking or writing, by 

enumerating circumstances which are 

i' intended to excite more strongly, in the 



ANA 



17 



hearer or reader, feelings of approbation 
or of blame. 

Amputate, ampu-tate (Latin, am, 
about ; puto, to cut). To cut off, as a 
Umb. 

Amulet, amew-let (Latin, amolior, to 
repel). Something worn about the person, 
as a gem, stone, coin, paper, or other sub- 
stance, from a behef that it is capable oi 
charming away diseases. The wearing of 
amulets was much practised in former 
times. 

Ana, an-a (Greek, ana, again). , In 
medical prescriptions, a word used to im- 
ply the like quantity of each, as wine and 
honey, ana, 5ii. — that is, wine and honey, 
each two ounces. Ana is occasionally used 
as a temiination, to denote collec"^ons of 
memorable sayings of celebrated indivi- 
duals, or anecdotes of them, or extracts 
from their works, as the well-known book 
entitled " Johnsoniana," relating to Dr. 
Johnson. "' ■ 

Anabaptist, annah-baptist (Greek, 
ana, again ; hap tizo, to dip ) . The wordis Ap- 
plied to a person who has been re-baptised; 
it is also given to a Christian sect, because 
they objected to infant baptism, holding 
that none should be baptised imtU they 
are capable of understanding and profess^ 
ing the Christian faith, and that the cere- 
mony should be performed by immersion 
or dipping of the whole body in water. It 
should be obsoi'ved that the sect itself 
repudiates the prefijE ana, as appUed to. 
them, and simply term themselves BaptisM^, 

Anachronism, an-akron-izum (Greek,- 
ana, again ; chronos, time). An error in 
computing time, by which events are mis- 
placed in regard to each other, as, for in-" 
stance, speakiag of the Gunpowder Ploti ■ 
in the reign of James 11. 

Anacreontic, anak-re-ontic. ^ I*er-;| 
taining to Anacreon, a Greek poet^ wIiq, 
wrote chiefly in praise of love and wine. A 
poem written in this style and spirit is 
thus called. 

Anagram, anah-gram (Greek, oTijt;^ >, 
back ; gramma, a letter). A trahsposi-^ '' 
tion of letters, so as to form other words' 
of a different meaning. Thus the letters 
which compose the word stone may bo 
arranged so as to form the words tones, 
notes, seton. This ingenious transposition 
has been frequently applied to the aames 
of celebrated persons, as, Horatio l^'EEf 
SON, Honsr est a Nilo — " My honour is from 
the Nile." 





18 



ANA 



ANN 



Analysis, a-nallysis (Greek, ana, 
through; luo, to wash away). The sepa- 
ration of a compound body into those 
parts of which it consists. A mode of 
imparting instruction which commences 
with those objects that are most known ; 
examines their properties and relations ; 
compares them together; traces back ef- 
fects to causes ; and so advances until 
general principles and laws are arrived at. 

; Analogy, an-allo-jy (Greek, ana, 
tfearcmgh ; logos, reason). A term which, 
in ordinary acceptation, denotes a partial 
resemblance between different objects. 
By analogy is understood an agreement in 
one or more particulars in material objects 
which are otherwise unlike ; thus, the bark 
of a tree bears analogy to the skin of an 
animal, because it is related to the plant in 
the same manner as the skin is to the 
animal. 

Anapest, anah-pest (Greek, ana, 
again ; paio, to strike). In poetry, a 
inetrical foot, containing two short 
syllables and one long, as cSntr&vene. 

An£ireh.y, anar-ky (Greek, a, without ; 
arclie, sovereignty). Want of government ; 
disorder ; political confusion. 

Anastrophe, anah-strofy (Greek, ana, 
again ; strophi, turning). A figure in rhe- 
toric, whereby words that should have been 
placed before are placed after, as "all 
London I searched about," for " I searched 
about all London." 

Ajiatlieina, an-athy-mah (Greek, anM, 
up ; tithemi, to place). This term was 
originally applied to something hung up 
in a temple as an offering ; and hence, it 
came to signify anything consecrated or 
devoted to the gods. Its enlarged mean- 
ing is an ecclesiastical curse, by which a 
person is separated from the Church, and 
in Eoman Catholic countries, also from the 
privileges of society; a curse pronounced 
by a reclaimed heretic against the doc- 
trines he formerly held and now abjures. 

Ajiatoniy, a-natto-my (Greek, ana, up ; 
temno, to cut). The art of dissecting the 
body, also the art of dividing intellectual 
subjects ; by way of irony, applied to a 
very thin, meagre person. 

Ancestor, an-sestur (Latin, ante, 
before ; cesso, to cease). One from whom 
a person is descended-; one who has gone 
or lived before us. 

Anehorage, ankor-adj. In maritime 
affairs, a bottom suitable from its depth 
and the nature of the ground, for casting i 



anchor upon. Anchorage also implies a 
duty charged against ships for the use of 
the roadstead or harbour. 

Anchorite, ank-orite (Greek, ana, 
apart ; ch&reo, to dwell). A hermit ; a per- 
son who retires from the world and dwells 
in solitude. 

Andante, an-dahn-te (Italian, andante). 
In music, express, distinct, exact. An- 
dante Largo, signifies that the notes must 
be distinct, the music slow, and the time 
accm*ately marked. 

Andiron, and-irun (corrupted from 
hand-iron). Iron at the end of a grate in 
which the spit turns. 

Andrea Ferrara. A name frequently 
given to a sword from a famous maker of 
sword-blades of that name. 

Anent, a-nent (derivation uncertain). 
Concerning ; having reference to. This is 
a word of common use in Scotland. 

Anemometer, anny-mommy-tur 
(Greek, anemos, the wind; mety'oii, a. mea,- 
sure). An instrument for measuring the 
force and velocity of the wind. 

Anglican. Pertaining to England or 
the Enghsh nation ; thus, the Anglican 
Church is derived from the adjective^H^Zia, 
the name originally given to England, bj"- 
the Angles. 

Anglice. A word used incidentally to 
indicate the true English reading of some 
colloquial phrase or vulgar idiom ; as, "he 
was run off the line, whUe travelling by 
the 'lightning-run,' — Anglice, the express 
train." 

Anglo-!N"orman. Pertaining to the 
Normans who settled in England. 

Anglo-Saxon. Pertaining to the 
Angles, or tribe of Saxons that settled in 
England. 

Animadversion, anny-mad-vershun 
(Latin, ayiir/ius, purpose ; adverto, to turn 
to). Reproof, censure, blame, punishment. 

Animal CUlCj anny-mal-kewl (Latin, 
animal, a living being). A very small 
animal, visible only by the aid of the 
microscope. Plural, Animalcula. 

Animus, ani-mus (Latin). The feeling 
which prompts a person in acting or speak- 
ing to another's prejudice. 

Annealing, an-neel-ing (Saxon, ancelan, 
to heat). The art of tempering glass or 
metal, by a process of cooling slowly after 
the application of extreme heat. 



ANN 

AnHLhilate, anni-helate (Latin, ad, to ; 
nihilum, nothing). To reduce to nothing ; 
to destroy utterly ; to put out of existence. 

Anniversary, anny-versary (Latin, 
annus, the year ; verto, to tvirn). A day as 
it returns in the course of a year ; the act 
of celebration ; a performance in honour of 
the anniversary day. 

Annunciation, annun-she-ayshun 
(Latin, ad, to ; nuncio, to tell). The name 
given to the day celebrated by certain 
churches, in memory of the angel's saluta- 
tion of the Via"gin Mary ; solemnised on 
the 25th of March. 

Anod3me, an-odine (Greek, a, without ; 
odi/ne, without pain). That which has the 
power of mitigating pain; a medicine which 
assuages pain, either by direct application, 
or by producing sleep, or by stupefying. 

Anomaly, anom-alee (Greek, a, not; 
omalos, smooth or regular). Irregularity ; 
contrary to common rule ; deviating from 
the ordinary method or analogy of things. 
Thus, if after sitting up all night, a person 
feel more wakeful than if he had had a 
good night's rest, such a circumstance 
might be called an anomaly. In grammar, 
it denotes an irregularity in the accidents 
of a word, in which it deviates from the 
common rules, whereby words of a like 
kind arc governed. 

Anon, a-non (derivation uncertain ; 
supposed to be in one — instant, moment, 
minnte). Quickly ; soon ; in a short time. 
Anon is also used as a contraction for 
anonymous. 

Anonymous, a-nonnymus (Greek, a, 
without ; onoma, a name). Wanting a 
name. 

Antagonist, an-tagonist (Greek, anti, 
against; agon, contest). One who con- 
tends with another ; an opponent ; imply- 
ing generally a personal and pai*ticular 
opposition. 

Antarctic, an-tarktik (Greek, anti, 
opposite ; arktos, the Bear). Eclating to 
the region within the Antarctic circle ; 
opposite the Northern pole ; relating to the 
Southern pole. 

Ante, an-te. A Latin preposition signi- 
fying before, used in the composition of 
many Enghsh words. 

Antecedent, an-te-se-dent (Latin, ante, 
before; cedo, to go). Going before; pre- 
ceding. Conventionally, this word is used 
to imply a person's former position, charac- 
ter, and pursuits ; which are thus spoken 
of as his antecedents. In grammar, ante- 



ANT 



19 



cedent is the term given to the noun to 
which the relation is subjoined, as, tho 
ma» who is there ; onan being the antece- 
dent, who the relative. 

Ante - Chamber, an-te - chame - bur 
(Latin, ante, before; camera, a chamber). 
An outer chamber before the principal 
chamber, where the servants wait, and 
where strangers wait till the person to be 
spoken with is at leisure. 

Antediluvian, ante-delewv-yan 
(Latin, ante, before ; diluvium, a deluge). 
Existing before the Flood ; applied ironi- 
cally to very old-fashioned persons, man- 
ners, or things. 

Antennae, an-tennee (Latin, antenna, 
a yard-arm). Feelers ; those delicate- 
jointed feelers or horns with which the 
heads of insects and crustaceans are inva- 
riably furnished. 

Antepenult, ante-penult (Latin, ante, 
before ; penultimus, last but one). The 
last syllable but two of a word, as the syl- 
lable te in antepenult. 

Anterior, an-teery-ur (Latin, anterior, 
going before). Before in time or place; 
prior ; previous. Opposed to posterior. 

Anther, an-thur (Greek, anthos, a 
flower). A small membranous organ, 
forming the top part of the stamen of a 
flower, which contains and discharges the 
pollen, or fertilising dust, by which the seed- 
vessel is impregnated. 

Anthology, an-tholojy (Greek, anthos, 
a flower ; logos, a discourse). A treatise on 
flowers ; a collection of flowers, or of choice 
poems or tracts. 

Anthraoite, an-thrasite (Greek, an- 
thrax, a burning coal). A species of slaty 
coal found in the transition-rock formation, 
and often called stone coal, glance coal, 
and blind coal. 

Anthropophagi, anthro - pofaji 
(Greek, anthropos, a man ; phago, to eat). 
Man - eaters ; cannibals ; feeders upon 
human flesh. 

Anti-Christ, anty-kryst (Greek, ant%, 
opposed to ; Christos, Christ). A great 
adversary of Christianity, who is to appear 
on earth towards the end of the world. 

Anti -climax, anty-klimaks (Greek, 
anti, opposed to; klimax, gradation). A 
sentence in which the ideas become less 
important towards the close ; a catastrophe 
in a narration or dramatic representation, 
which is of minor interest to some im- 
portant event immediately preceding, 
c 2 



20 



ANT 



APO 



Antidote, ante-doat (Greek, anti,^ op- 
posed to ; didomi, to give). A medicine 
which prevents or removes the effects of 
poisons. Used figuratively to imply some 
quality that counteracts the effects of any 
injurious thing. 

Antinorriianisin, ante - nomean - izum 
(Greek, anti, opposed to ; nomos, law). A 
doctrine held by a certain sect, that good 
works are not necessary to salvation, and 
that faith alone is sufl&cient justification 
through the atonement of Chiist, reaching 
to all offences of the believer before and 
after repentance unto life. 

Antiphlogistic, ante-flojlstik (Greek, 
anti, against ; flilego, to burn). A term 
applied to any means or medicine by which 
inflammation is reduced, as bleeding, 
purging, and low diet. 

Antipodes, an-tippo-deez (Greek, anti, 
opposed to ; podes, feet). The inhabitants 
of our globe who live immediately oppo- 
site to each other, and who may therefore 
pe said literally to stand /ee^ to feet. 

Antiseptic, ante-septik (Greek, anti, 
against ; sepo, to purify). A term applied 
to substances which prevent putrefaction 
in animal or vegetable matter, as common 
salt. 

Antistroplie, ante - strofee (Greek, 
anti, opposed to ; strophe, turning). In an 
ode supposed to be sung in parts, the se- 
cond stanza of every three, or sometimes 
every second stanza. 

Antithesis, antlth-esis (Greek, anti, 
opposed to ; thesis, a placing). A figure 
in which words, thoughts, or sentences are 
placed in opposition or contrast, as, " Be- 
hold, my servants shall eat, but ye shall be 
iungry ; behold, my servants shall d.rinh, 
9ut ye shall be thirsty ; behold, my servants 
diall rejoice, but ye shall be ashamed." 

Antitype, ante-tipe (Greek, anti, op- 
posed to ; typos, type or pattern). A figure 
coiTesponding with some other figure ; that 
which is pre-figm-ed by the type; thus, the 
paschal lamb was a type of which Christ 
was the antitype. 

Antonomasia, anto - noma - zhea 
(Greek, anti, opposed to ; onorna, a name). 
A term applied to that form of expression in 
which a proper name is put for a common 
name, or a common name for a proper ; 
or, when the title, office, digTiity, profes- 
sion, science, or trade is used instead of 
the ordinary name of a person. Thus, 
7/hen we apply to Christ the term "the 
Savioiur of the world," or to Garibaldi 



''the Liberator of Italy;" or when we 
call a great orator " a Demosthenes," or 
when we say " Her Majesty" instead of the 
Queen, in each case the expression is called 
antonomasia. 

Apathy, apah-the (Greek, a, without ; 
pathos, feeling). Want of feehng; cold- 
ness ; exemption from passion. 

Apex, a-peks (Latin, apex, the summit 
of a helmet). An angular point or tip, as the 
extreme end of a spear, or a church-spire. 

Aphelion, afe-leun (Greek, apo, from ; 
helios, the sun). That pomt at which the 
earth or any planet is at the greatest dis- 
tance from the sun. 

Aphorism, afo-rizum (Greek, apo, 
from; horos, a boundary). A detached 
precept in few words. 

Aphthong, af-thong (Greek, a, with- 
out ; phthongos, a sound). A letter which 
is not sounded in the pronunciation of a 
word ; a mute. 

Apiary, aype-ary (Latin, apis, a bee). 
A place where bees are kept. 

Aplomb, ap-lom (French). Self-com- 
mand ; assui-ance. It is also used to ex- 
press the command which a dancer has 
over his steps and movements. 

Apoealjrpse, apokka-lips (Greek, apoi- 
alypto, to reveal). Revelation ; the name 
of the last book of the New Testament, 
ascribed to St. John the Apostle. 

Apocrypha, apok-refah (Greek, apo, 
from ; h-ypto, to conceal). The Apocrypha 
or apocryphal books are those writings not 
admitted into the canon of Scriptui-e, being 
either not acknowledged as divine or re- 
garded as spuiious. The word apocrypJial 
is generally applied to any thing that is 
doubtful or unauthentic. 

Apogee, appo-gee (Greek, apo, from ; 
gea or ge, the earth). That point of the 
orbit at which the sun, moon, or any planet 
is most distant from the earth. 

Apollo Bfclvidere, a-poUo belvy-deer. 
A celebrated marble statue of ApoUo in 
the Belvidere gaUeiy of the Vatican palace 
at Rome, esteemed as one of the noblest 
and most perfect delineations of the human 
figure. 

Apologue, appo-log (Greek, apo, from ; 
^0^05, a discoui'se). A species of allegorical 
fiction, from which a separate meaning or 
moral lesson may be drawn. It is a kind 
of fable in which animals, vegetable?, 
stocks, and stones, speak and act as moni- 
tors to mankind. 



APO 



APP 



21 



Apostacy, a-postali-sy (Greek, apo, 
from ; stasis, a standing). Departm-e from 
the principles which a person has once jDro- 
fessed, generally applied in cases of reli- 
gious defection. 

A Posteriori, a-pos-te-re-oree (Latin, 
a, from ; posteriori, the latter). A mode 
of reasoning in which the cause is deduced 
from the effect. See A Priori. 

Apostrophe, ap-postro-fe (Greek, apo, 
from ; strop/te, a turning). A fignare of 
speech by wiiich the orator turns from his 
subject to address a person, place, or 
thing, either absent or dead, as though he 
or it were present; as, ''0 thou Parnassus ! 
whom I now survey." In g-rammar, a 
mark of contraction in a word, as lov'd for 
loved ; also the sign of the possessive case, 
as, John's hat. 

Apothegm, ap-othem (Greek, apo, 
from ; pJithema, voice). A short, senten- 
tious, instjnictive remark uttered on a par- 
ticular occasion, or by a disting-uished 
character; as that of Cato : — "Men by 
doing nothing, soon learn to do mischief." 
The word is also spelled Apophthegm, and 
sometimes Apothem. 

Apotheosis, apoth-eosis (Greek, apo, 
from ; Theos, God). Deification : a cere- 
mony by which the ancient Romans used 
to compliment their emperor and great 
men after their death, by assigning them 
a place among the gods. 

Appal, ap-paul (Latin, ad, to ; palleo, 
to be pale). To make palo with fear ; to 
terrify. 

Appanage, ap-panage (derivation 
doubtful ; supposed to be Latin, ad, for ; 
pants, bread). An allowance to younger 
branches of a sovereign family, out of the 
revenues of the country. In ordinary cases, 
it descends to the children of the prince 
who enjoys it. 

Apparition, appah-rishun (Latin, ad, 
to ; pareo, to appear). In a general sense 
an appearance or \'isible object ; hence 
applied to the imaginary appearance of a 
ghost or spectre. 

Apparatus, appah-raytus (Latin, ap- 
paratus). The instruments or utensils 
necessary for carrying on any science, 
trade, or pursuit. 

Apparitor, ap-parry-tur (Latin, ad, tf • ; 
pareo, to appear). In English law, a mos- 
senger who serves the process of a spirit) lal 
court. One who is at hand to execute the 
orders of the magistrate or judge of any 



court of judicatm-e ; a beadle ; a sum« 
moner. 

Appellant, ap-peUant (Latin, ad, to ; 
pello, to caU). In law, a person who makes 
or brings an appeal ; one who appeals from 
a lower to a higher court or judge. 

Appendage, ap-pendej (Latin, ad, to ; 
pendeo, to hang). Something added to 
another thing without being necessary to 
its existence, as the portico of a house; 
the seals attached to a watch. 

Appertain, apper-tain (Latin, ad, to ; 
per, by; teneo, to hold). To belong to, 
whether by nature, right, or ajppointmeiit. 

Apportionment, ap-poreshun-ment 
(Latin, ad, to ; portio, a portion). A divid- 
ing into shares or portions. In law, a 
dividing of rent, &c., according to the 
number and proportion of the persons to 
whom it is to be distributed. 

Appoggiata, ap-podjy-aj-tah (Italian, 
appoggiata, a prop or support). In music, 
more particularly in song, a blended and 
not abrupt utterance of the tones, so that 
they imperceptibly glide into each other 
without any apparent break. 

Appoggiatura, ap - podjy - aytewrah 
(Italian, appoggiare, to lean on). In music, 
a small note used by way of embellish- 
ment before one of longer duration, and 
which it borrows half and sometimes a 
quarter only of the time of the preceding 
note. 

Apposite, appo-zit (Latin, ad, to ; posi- 
turn, placed). Properly applied ; suitable ; 
well adapted to. 

Appreciation, appreeshy-ayshun 
(Latin, ad, to ; pretium, a price), A just 
valuation ; a due estimate. 

Apprehend, a^j-prehend (Latin, ad, 
to ; prelwido, to take). In one sense, to 
seize, to lay hold ; as appreuending a delin- 
quent. In anotiier sense, to understand 
or lay hol^ of one's meaning ; also to enter- 
tain suspicion of future evil ; to think 
with terror on impending danger. 

Appropinquation, appro -pin-kwa- 
shun (Latin, ad, to ; pn-oximus, near). The 
act or power of approaching. 

Appropriation, ap-propree-ayshun 
(Latin, ad, to ; proprius, one's own). The 
act of setting apart for a purpose; the 
laying claim to anything for a person's own 
use. 

Approver, ap-proovur (Latin, ad, to ; 
2)roho, to prove). One who approves. In 



22 



lP? 



AEB 



law, a jtersoii wlio, iu confessing lie has com- 
mitted a felony, accuses his accomplice or 
accomplices ; and he is so called because he- 
must jorove what he alleges. 

Approximate, ap-proksy-mate (Latin, 
ad, to ; proxinius, near). Near to ; to 
cause to approach ; as in botany, a leaf is 
said to be approximate whpn it is close to 
the stem. 

Appui, aj)-pooee (French, ajopui, sup- 
port). In horsemanship, the sense of the 
action of the bridle in the hands of the 
rider. In military science, any particular 
given point or body upon which troops are 
formed, or by which they are marched in 
line or column. See Point d' Appui. 

A Priori, a-pre-oree (Latin, a, from; 
priori, the former). A term iised in logic, 
as applying to any arg-ument in which a 
fact that follows is drawn from a fact that 
has gone before. See A Posteriori. 

Apropos, ap-ro-po (French, d, to ; 
propos, the purpose). Opportunely; sea- 
sonably ; in reference to ; with regard to. 

Apsis, ap-sis (Greek, aims, arch). The 
name of those two points in a planet's orbit 
at the greatest and least distance from a 
central body. Plm-al, apsides, or a-jpses. 

Aptera, ap-terah (Greek, a, without ; 
pteron, wing). An order of insects having 
no wings, as the bug, flea, &c. 

Aqua, ak-kwah. The Latin word for 
water : a term much used in medical pre- 
scriptions and directions. 

Aqua fortis, ak-kwah for-tis (Latin, 
aqua, water; fortis, strong). An impure 
nitric acid commonly used in the arts. It 
is made of a mixture of purified nitre, or 
saltpetre, and potter's earth, in equal parts, 
and is divided into double and single, the 
latter of which is only half the streng-fch 
of the former. 

Aquarium, ak-kwary-um (Latin, aqiiM, 
water). A receptacle for aquatic plants 
and animals ; a pond in a garden for rear- 
ing aquatic plants. 

Aqua Regia, ak-kwah re-jeah (Laiia, 
aqua, water ; regia, royal). The name 
given by the alchemists to that mixtiire of 
nitric and muriatic acids which was best 
htted to dissolve gold, styled by them the 
long of the metals. It is now called nitro- 
muriatic acid, or nitro-hydrochloric acid. 

Aqua Tinta, ak-kwah tin-tah (Latin, 
aqua, water ; tinta, tint). _ A mode of 
etching which imitates drawings in India- 
ink, bistre, and sepia, very successfully. 



Aqua Tofania, ak-kwah tof-fahneab 
(Latin, aqua, water ; Tofania, of Tofana). 
A poisonous liquid prepared by a woman of 
the name of Tofana or Tofania. It is 
generally supposed to have been a prepa» 
ration of arsenic ; its appearance was that 
of purest water, and from four to six drops 
were sufiicient to cause death. Tofana 
distributed this poison to women who were 
desirous of getting rid of their husbands ; 
and when put to the rack, previous to her 
execution, she confessed that she had de- 
stroyed upwards of six hundi'ed persons 
with this poisonous preparation. 

Aqua VitaB, ak-kwah vi-te (Latin, 
aqua, water ; vitce, of life). A name fa- 
miUarly applied to distilled spirits, espe- 
cially brandy. See Eau de Vie. 

Aqueduct, ak-kwe-dukt (Latin, aqua, 
water; ductus, a conduit). A structure 
made for conveying water from one place 
to another, either under ground or above 
it. A structure continuing the Hue of a 
canal across a. river, road, or valley, is also 
called an aqueduct, and sometimes an aque- 
duct bridge. 

Aquiline, akkwe-lin, or akkwe-line 
(Latin, aq^dla, an eagle). An epithet ap- 
plied to that form of nose which is hooked 
after the manner of an eagle's beak. 

Arabesque, ara-besk (French, Ara- 
besque, after the manner of the Arabs). 
This term is commonly applied to that 
class of ornaments with which the Arabs 
adorned the walls, ceilings, and floors of 
their buildings, and which consisted of 
fruits, flowers, mathematical figures — in 
short, everything except the forms of 
human beings and animals, which were in- 
terdicted by tlie Prophet. 

Arabic Figures or Characters. 

The mimeral characters now used in our 
arithmetic, which were bon'owed from the 
Arabians, and introduced into England 
about the eleventh century. 

Arable, ara-bul (Latin, arc, to plough). 
That part of the soil which is chiefly cul- 
tivated by means of the plough ; land fit 
for tiliagG. 

Arbitration, arby-trayshim (Latin, ar- 
biter, a judge ; probably from ara, an altar, 
and iter, a going to ; b, being inserted). 
The hearing and determining between 
parties in controversy, by arbiters either 
chosen by the parties or appointed by the 
judge or magistrate. 

Arbore culture, arbory-kulchur 
(Latin, arbor, a tree; colo, to cultivate). 



AEB 

The art of ciiltivatirig; trees and skrubs for 
wood or ornamental purposes. 

Arcades - Ambo, arkad-eez am-bo 
(Latin, arcades amho). Literally, Arcadians 
both. Used ironically, when speaking of 
two persons, to imply that they are both 
strange characters, eccentric personages, or 
any other derogatory epithet. 

Arcadian, ar-kaydy-an. Belonging to 
Arcadia, a mountainous district in Greece. 
They were a pastoral people, and are said 
to have been brought from their original 
savage condition by the cultivation of 
music. By poetical association, a thickly- 
wooded place, visited by birds, &c., is 
called an Arcadian grove. 

Arcanum, ar-kaynum (Latin, area, a 
chest). Literally, something concealed in 
a chest, hence a secret, a mystery. Arcana 
is the plural form. 

Arch, artsh (Greek, archos, beginning). 
Chief; principal; commonly used as a 
syllabic prefix to words, to denote the 
iughest degree of the kind, whether good 
or bad, as archbishop, the head of the 
bishops ; arch-impostor, an impostor of 
the very worst description. 

Aj'cliseology, arkay-ollojee (Greek, ar- 
diaios, ancient; ^o^ros, a. discourse). In a 
general sense, a term applied to the know- 
ledge of antiquity, but, in a narrower sense, 
the science which inquires into and dis- 
covers the mental life of ancient nations 
from their monuments and performances, 
whether literary, artistical, or mechanical. 

Arches Court. An ecclesiastical 
court of appeal belonging to the arch- 
bishop of each province, the judge of 
which is called the Dean of Arches. The 
court takes its name from the church of 
St. Maxj-le-Bovj (de arczibus), the top of 
which is raised of stone pillars built arch- 
wise, and where this court was originally 
held. 

Archetype, arky-type (Greek, archos, 
the eai-liest; iupos, a type). The original 
of which any resemblance is made. In 
the JMint, the standard weight by which 
the others are adjusted. 

Archimedian Screw, arky- 
meadyan-skroo. A machine for raising 
water, taking its name from Archimedes, 
its l-eputed inventor. It consists of a tube 
rolled in a spiral form round a cylinder, a 
modification of which has been introduced 
as a substitute for paddles in propelling 
steam-vessels. 



AEI 



23- 



Archipelago, arky-pelago (Greek, 
archos, chief ; pelagos, the sea). A term 
applied to any portion of the sea abounding 
in small islands, but more especially to 
the ^gean Sea, or that part of the Medi- 
terranean between the coast of Asia Minor 
and Greece. 

Archives, ar-kivz (Greek, archeion, a 
public building). The place where records 
or ancient writings are kept. 

Arctic, ark-tik (Greek, arTctos, the 
Northern constellation, the Bear). North- 
ern ; belonging to the Arctic regions. 

Area, a-reah (Latin, area, a threshing 
floor). Any open space, as the floor of 
room ; the open part of a church ; the 
vacant part or stage of an amphitheatre ; an 
inclosed place, as lists, or a bowling green. 

Argentine, arjen-tine (Latin, argen- 
turn, sUver). Sounding like silver ; having 
the appearance of silver. 

Arena, a-reena (Latin, arena, sand). 
The space or ground-floor of an amphi- 
theatre or circus, on which combats or feats 
of horsemanship are enacted ; so named 
from the floors of the Roman amphitheatre 
having been strewed with sand. 

Areometer, ayre-ommy-tur (Greek, 
araios, thin ; metron, measure) . A graduated 
glass instrument for measuring the gravity 
or density of fluids. 

Argand Lamp. A lamp fitted with 
a hollow wick, for furnishing a rapid supply 
of air to the interior as well as to the ex- 
terior of the flame. It takes its name from 
its inventor, who was a native of France. 

Argonautic, argo-nawtik (Latin, argo, 
the ship ; nauta, a sailor). Relating to the 
expedition made in the ship Argo, by 
Jason and his companions, in quest of the 
Golden Fleece. 

Argumentum baeulinum, argu- 
mentum bak-ulinum (Latin). The argu- 
ment of the stick; club law; physical 
force. 

Arianism, arean-izum. The doctrines 
taught by Arius, a presbyter in the Chmrch 
of Alexandria in the fourth century. 

Aristarchy, arris-tarky (Greek, aristos, 
greatest; arche, government). A govern- 
ment composed of good men ; a system of 
stern criticism. 

Aristocracy, arris-tokkrah-se (Greek, 
aristos, the noblest or best ; krateo, tO' 
govern). That form of government in 
which the supreme power is vested in the 



AEM 



ASH 



nobility ; the nobility ; the richest and 
most elevated portion of society. 

Armillary Sphere, ar-milary-sfeer 
(Latin, armilla, a bracelet), A hollow- 
sphere representing the several cu'cles of 
the globe ; it is so contracted that all the 
surface of the sphere is cut away except 
the equator, ecliptic, colures, &c. 

ArmiQiarLism, ar-minean-izum. The 
doctrines taught by Arminius, a native of 
Holland ; born in 1560, died in 1609. 

Armistice, ar-mis-tis (Latin, arma, 
arms ; sist&i'e, to stay). A temporary ces- 
sation of hostilities ; a truce. 

Aroma, a-romah (Greek, aroma,). The 
odoriferous principle of aromatic plants, or 
such as have a warm and agreeable odour, 
as the cardamom. 

Arrack, ar-rak. The native name of a 
spirituous liquor prepared in India from 
rice, the juice of the sugar-cane, and of 
the cocoa-nut, by distillation. 

Arraign, ar-rain (Old French, arraigner; 
low Latin, arrainare). To indict ; to 
bring a prisoner forth to trial ; to accuse ; 
to charge with a fault in general. Arraign- 
ment of a prisoner, consists in reading the 
indictment, and asking the prisoner 
whether he pleads guilty or not guilty. 

Arrant, ar-rant (derivation imcertain, 
supposed to be Latin, erro, to wander). 
Bad in an extreme degree, applied generally 
to persons ; as, an arrant knave, signifying 
a rambling rogue or vagabond. 

Arras, ar-ras (from Arras, a town in 
France, where hangings were made). Ta- 
pestry, hangings adorned with pictorial 
representations. 

Arrogate, arrow-gait (Latin, rogo, to 
ask). To claim unduly ; to assume. 

Arsenal, arsen-al (Latin, arx, citadel ; 
■^avails, maritime). A Government estab- 
lishment, in which naval and military 
engines, or warlike equipments, are manu- 
factured and stored, 

Ars est celare artem, ars est see- 
lairey artem. The art is to conceal art, 
in allusion to the difficulty of making art 
appear natural. 

Arson, ar-sim (Latin, ardeo, to bum). 
In law, the act of setting fire to a house or 
other property ; more especially applied to a 
person -wilfully setting fire to his o-wn house 
and property, with a view of obtaining com- 
pensation from an Insm-ance Company. 



Artesian Well, ar-teezhyan well (from 
Aitois, the ancient Artesium of Franco). 
A kind of weU made by perforating the 
ground -Rath a small bore till water is 
reached ; which, when this is effected, -wiU, 
in consequence of internal pressure, spring 
up spontaneously like a fountain. 

Articles of Faitli. The particular 
points of doctrine which form the creed of 
certain churches, embodied by the Episco- 
pal Church of England in what are termed 
the " Thirty-nine Articles," composed 
originally by Cranmer, -with -the assistance 
of flidley and others. 

Articulo mortis (in), ar-tikulo mor- 
tis (Latin). At the point of death. 

Artist, art-ist (Latin, ars, art). One 
-who exercises the fine arts, meaning there- 
by the plastic arts especially. In a general 
sense the term is used for the musician, 
and even the poet, but it is properly limited 
to the sculp-tor, painter, and architect. 
The French word artiste is applied to 
theatrical performers, and in the same 
general sense as our own word. 

Arundel Marbles. Certain tables 
containing the chronology of ancient his- 
tory, particularly of Athens. They were 
purchased by Thomas, Lord Arundel, and 
presented to the University of Oxford by 
his grandson in 1627, 

Asbestos, as-bestus (Greek, a, not ; 
sheo, to extinguish), A mineral of which 
there are several varieties, all marked by 
their fibrous and flexible qualities. From 
one of these varieties, a cloth is produced 
capable of resisting the action of ordinary 
heat. 

Ascendant, as-sendant (Latin, ad, to ; 
scando, climb up). Height ; elevation ; 
superiority. In astrology, that part of the 
ecliptic at any particular time above the 
horizon, which is supposed by astrologers 
to have any great influence on any person 
born at the time. Thus, at such times as 
the fortunes of any one are brightening, 
it is said that his star is in the ascendant. 

Ascetic, as-setik (Greek, asheo, to dis- 
cipline). Employed wholly in exercises of 
devotion and mortification. One who re- 
tires from active life for the purposes of 
devotion and self-discipline; a recluse ; a 
hermit. 

Ashlar, ash-lar. Free stones as they 
are brought from the quarry. The facing 
of squared stones on the front of a 
building. 



ASP 



ASY 



25 



Asparagus, as-parrah-gns (Greek, 
sparasso, to tear). An esculent plant with, 
scale-like leaves. 

Asperity, as-perity (Latin, asper, 
rough). Eoughness ; harshiiess of speech 
or manner. 

Asperse, as-purse (Latin, ad, to; 
spargo, to sprinkle). Literally, to sprinkle 
or stain with spots. In a moral sense, to 
fix a stam upon a person's character. 

Asphalt, as - fait (Greek, a, not ; 
sphallo, to stumble). A kind of bitumen 
used for cementing and giving fu-mness to 
stone, brick- work, &c. It is found in a soft 
or liquid state on the surface of the Dead 
Sea, which from this circumstance is called 
Asphaltites, or the Asphaltic Lake. 

Asph37:xia, as-fikseah (Greek, a, with- 
out ; sphyxis, pulse). The state of body 
in which the pulse is so low as not to be 
felt ; but more usually applied in medical 
language to that condition in which vitality 
is suspended, not from actual death, but 
from some cause interrupting respiration, 
as, for instance, when a person is partially 
hanged or drowned. 

Aspiration, aspee-rayshun (Latin, 
aspiro, to breathe upon). A breathing 
after ; an ardent wish or desire ; the act of 
pronouncing with full breath, as the aspi- 
ration of the letter H. 

Assa&etida, assah-fetty-dah (Latin, 
asa, a gum \f(£tida, tilthiness). A foetidgum 
obtained from the Persian plant, Femda 
assafoetida. It is chiefly employed in medi- 
cine as a remedy for spasmodic affections. 

Assassin, as-sassin (Arabic, hass, to 
km, to surprise). A murderer ; one who kills 
by treachery or sudden violence. The 
assassins were a clan or tribe of Ish- 
maehtes who took possession of the moun- 
tains of Lebanon, and became notorious 
for their lawless and murderous deeds. 

Assault and battery (French, 
assaut, battre). In law, a malicious act, by 
which not only violence has been offered, 
but actual injury done to another. With 
regard to battery, it is always an assault ; 
but an assault does not always imply bat- 
tery, as it may be made without beating. 

Assay, as-say (French, essayer, to try). 
A mode of trying metals or separating 
them from aU foreign bodies ; thus gold 
and sUver are assayed by the refiner, to 
obtain them in their purest state. 

Assets, as-setz (Latin, ad, to ; saMs, 
tJufiQcient). Goods left by a testator, sufii- 



cient to pay his debts and legacies. Tha 
available property of a bankrupt ; gene- 
rally, the possessions of a person which 
are capable of being converted into cash. 

Assignee, asse-ne (Latin, ad, to ; sig^io, 
set a sign upon). The person who is ap- 
pointed or deputed by another to do any 
act, or perform any business, or enjoy any 
commodity. Assignees in hankruj^tcy are 
persons appointed to realise a bankrupt's 
effects, and to superintend generally the 
administration of his estate. 

Assize, as-size (Latin, ad, to ; sedeo, to 
sit). A sitting or assembly of magis- 
trates ; a parochial session held by the 
judges of the superior courts in the coun- 
ties of England, for the purpose of trying- 
criminals, and determining civil suits. 

Aa#uage,as-swaje (Latin, ad, to ; suavis, 
sweet). To mitigate sorrow ; to render 
bodily or mental sufferings less painful 
and bitter. 

Assumpsit, as-sumsit (Lsitm,assumpsit, 
literally — he undertook). In law, a volun- 
tary promise, by which a person assumes 
or takes upon himself to perform for or 
pay anything to another. 

Asterisk, astur-isk (Greek, aste^-, a 
star). A mark like a star (*), made in 
books by way of reference to a note. 

Astringent, as-trinjent (Latin, ad, to ; 
stringo, to bind). Binding ; contracting ; 
opposed to laxative ; applied also to such 
substances as alum, which have a tendency 
to contract the mouth. 

Astrology, as-troUo-jy (Greek, <%.%ter, 
a star ; logos, a discourse). An art which, 
pretends to predict the course of human 
events from the situation and different 
aspects of the heavenly bodies. 

Astronomy, as-tronno-my (Greek, 
aster, a star ; nomos, a law). The science 
which treats of the sun, moon, earth, 
and other planetary bodies, showing their 
magnitudes, order, distances from each 
other; measuring and marking their 
risings, settings, motions, appearances, to- 
gether with eclipses and other phenomena. 

Astute. As-tewt (Greek, astu, a city). 
A mixture of penetration and cunning ; 
shrewd ; discerning ; sharp-eyed. The de- 
rivation of the word is from the circum- 
stance of people living in cities being: 
usually sharper than rustics. 

Asylum, a-sylum (Greek, a, not ; syleo, 
to piUage). Anciently a sanctuary ; a 
place of refuge for criminals. In its mo- 



26 



ATA 



ATT 



dem signification, a house for the support 
of the destitute, the bereaved, and the 
afflicted. 

A-Taunt. A term used by seamen to 
imply that a vessel is fully rigged. 

Atelier, at el-yea (French, Atelier, a 
workshop, a studio). A term applied espe- 
cially to the ante-rooms of sculptors and 
painters. 

A Tempo, ah-tempo (Italian, a tempo, 
in time). A phrase used in music, to sig- 
nify a retui'n to the regular measiu'e, after 
it has been inteni\pted. 

Athanasian Creed, atha-nazhian 
kreed. A fonxiula of faith ascribed to« 
St. Athanasius, occasionally read in the 
Liturgy of the Chiu'ch of England. 

Atheist, aythe-ist (Greek, a, without ; 
Theos, God). One -who denies or disbe- 
lieves the existence of a Supreme Being. 

Athenseiiiii, athy-neeum (Greek, 
Athene, one of the names of Minerva). In 
ancient Athens, a place where philoso- 
phers and poets declaimed and repeated 
then* compositions. In modem times, an 
institution devoted to literatiire, and the 
ai'ts and sciences. 

Atliletie, ath-lettik (Greek, athlos, la- 
bour). Strong of body ; robust ; belong- 
ing to exercises of strength, as wrestling, 
&c. The Athletce of ancient times were 
men of strength and agility, who distin- 
g-uished themselves by contending for the 
prizes at the Olympic, Pythian, and other 
games of Greece and Rome. 

Athwart SMps. In seaman's lan- 
guage, across the ship. The reverse of 
fore and aft. Athwart the forefoot, is a 
phrase applied to a shot being fired across 
a vessel's way, a little a-head of her, as a 
warning to bring to or to drop astern. 
Athivart hawse, expresses the transverse 
position of a vessel when driven across the 
fore-part of another, whether they come into 
collision or not ; it is most commonly applied 
to the case of a vessel under sail coming 
across another which is lying at anchor. 

Atlantean, atlan-tean. Pertaining to 
or resembling Atlas, who is usually re- 
presented as bearing the world on his 
shoulders. 

Atlas, at-las. A collection of maps, 
probably so called from having originally, 
on the title-page or cover, a representation 
of Atlas supporting the world. It also 
means a large square folio paper, such as 
maps are delineated upon. 



Atmosphere, atmos-feer (Greek, 
at7nos, vapour; sphaira, a sphere). The 
volume of air which surrounds the earth. 
An atmosphere as a medium of pressure is 
fifteen povmds to a square inch. This word 
is used fig-uratively, to imply pervading 
influence, as an atmosphere of kindness, 
an atmosphere of brutality. 

Atomic Theory, a-tomik the-oree 
(Greek, a, not ; temno, to cut). A theory 
which supposes the basis of aU bodies to 
consist of extremely fine pai-ticles, differ- 
ing in fonn and nature, and dispersed 
thi-oughout space. 

Atrabilious, atrah-bUyus (Latin, atra, 
dai'k; hilis, bile). A state of melancholy 
induced by a disordered condition of the 
bUe. A person of an habitually despond- 
ing disposition is termed atrabilious. 

Atrophy, at-ro-fee (Greek, a, not ; 
trepho, to nourish). A wasting of the body 
or any particular part of it, in consequence 
of defective nutrition. 

Attache, at-tahshay. A person con- 
nected with an embassy : one of the higher 
class of subordinates belonging to an am- 
bassador. 

Attainder, at-tainder (Latin, ad, to , 
tinctum, stained). In law, the stain or 
corruption of the blood of a criminal who 
has been convicted of felony or treason, 
and condemned to death ; taint ; stain ; dis- 
grace. A statute attainting a person is 
called an act of attainder. 

Attar of Roses. A highly fragrant 
oil obtained in India, from the petals of 
the rose. After they have been immersed 
in water and distilled, there apj^ears a yel- 
lowish scum, which, when cold, concretes 
into a white mass. So intense is the odour 
of attar of roses, that the smallest particle 
on the point of a needle wiU scent a room 
dtiring a whole day. One himdred pounds' 
weight of rose leaves are required to pro- 
duce three drachms of attar, under the 
most favourable circumstances. 

Attenuation, at-tennu-ayshun (Latin, 
ad, to ; tennis, to make thin). The act of 
making anything thin or slender ; the 
state of being made thin or less. The pro- 
cess by which a fluid becomes of less spe- 
cific grayjty, as when it undergoes fer- 
mentation, and parts with carbonic acid. 

Attic Salt. Figuratively, a delicate 
poignant kind of wit, peculiar to the old 
Athenians of Attica, in Greece ; peiiorm- 
ances having a delicate, pure, and clas- 



ATT 



AUT 



27 



Bical propei'ty, &T& said to possess an attic 
flavour, or to be seasoned with, attic salt. 

Attorney, at-tumy (Latin, ad, to ; 
tomo, to turn). One who is appointed by 
another to do a thing in his absence. An 
attorney -at-law is a person who prepares 
cases for trial in court. A poiver of attorney 
is a letter or document by which a person 
authorises another to act in his stead. 

Attraction, at-trakshun (Latin, ad, 
to ; traho, to draw to). In a general 
sense, the power or principle by which 
bodies tend towards each other, hence the 
figurative use of the word, ta imply the 
capability of a person to attract the atten- 
tion and regard of others. 

Attribute, attre-bewt (Latin, ad, to ; 
triluturii, to give to, as due). The quality 
which is assigned to any object ; thus, we 
say, goodness and mercy are attributes of 
the Almighty. 

Attrition, at-trishun (Latin, ad, to ; 
attritum, worn by rubbing). The act of 
wearing away the surface of things by 
rubbing one against the other ; excoriation 
of the surface, arising from friction or con- 
tusion of the parts ; sorrow for sin, arising 
solely from selfish motives or dread of 
punishment ; the lowest degree of repent- 
ance. 

A. U. C, for aimo urhe condita, from 
the building of the city of Rome. 

All Contraire, oa-kontrair (French). 
On the contraiy ; on the other hand. 

Au Courant, oa-koorong (French). 
Aware of ; acquainted with ; familiar with. 

Audi Alteram Partem, awdi 
altaram partem (Latin). Hear the other 
side of the question ; hear what the other 
disputant has to advance. 

Au Fait, oa-fay (French). Best manner 
of doing ; a complete and perfect acquaint- 
juace with any art. 

Augean, aw-jean. Belonging to Au- 
geas or his stables, the cleaning of which 
formed one of the labours of Hercules ; 
hence anything extremely filthy is termed 
AiLgean. 

Augur, aw-gur (Latin, augur, to con- 
jectui-e by signs). Augur was the name 
given by the Romans to a person appointed 
to foretell future events by the chattering, 
flight, and feeding of birds. Thus the 
word may be traced to av^is, a bird, and 
garritus, chattering. 

August, aw-gust (Latin, Augustus). 
The name of the eio^hth month of our 



year, so called from Augustus Csesar, the 
Roman emperor, and to whose honom* the 
month was dedicated, on account of the 
triumphs he achieved at that particidar 
time. It was previously called SextHis, of 
the sixth from March. The word august, 
in a general sense, means something ma- 
jestic or venerable, and is derived from the 
verb augeo^ to increase. 

Aularian, aw-larean (Latin, aula, a 
hall). The member of a hall, and so called 
at the- imiversities by- way of distinction 
from coUegians. 

Au Naturel, o-wn-atoorel (French). 
In its natural state. 

Au Reste, o rest (French, aii, to ; reste, 
remainder). In addition to this ; besides ; 
moreover. 

Au Revoir, awr-vooaur (French, au, 
to ; revoir, see again). An expression sig- 
nifying '' Farewell, until we meet again ! " 

Auricular Confession, aw-rikular 
con - fesshun (Latin, cmris, the ear). 
Confession of sins to a pziest in private, 
by whispering, as it were, into his ear ; 
disting-uished from public confession. 

Auri sacra fames, awri sakra faimcez 
(Latin). The accursed thirst for gold. 

Aurora Borealis, aw-rora bory-aylis 
(Latin, aurea, golden ; hora, hour ; bm-eas, 
■the northward). Literally, the northern 
dawn. An extraordinary meteor or lumi- 
nous appearance, frequently visible in the 
night time in the northern pax-ts of the 
heavens. 

Auscultation, awsk-ul-tayshun (Latin, 
auris, the ear ; cultum, cultivation). A 
term applied to several methods of detect- 
ing the nature and seat of disease by the 
sense of hearing, that is, listening to the 
sounds produced in the lungs by respira- 
tiqn, voice, cough, action of the heart, &c. 
See Stethescope. 

Auspices, awspy-siz (Latin, avis, a 
bird ; specio, to see). Literally, omens 
drawn from observing birds ; derived from 
the observations taken by the Roman 
augurs from the flight, kc, of birds. In 
common parlance the word signifies pat- 
ronage or protection. 

Auspicious, aw-spishus (derivation 
same as preceding). Ha\T.ng omens of 
success or happy results. 

Aut C89sar aut nullus, awt-soezar 
a-wt-nullus (Latin). Either Csesar or no- 
body. Used by a person to imply that he 
■will either be the highest in his walk or a 
nobody. 



28 



AUT 



ATE 



Autobiograpliy, awto-beografy 
(Greek, aicto, one's self ; bios, life ; grapho,. 
to wi-ite). A memoir or history of a per- 
son written by himself. 

Autocrat, awto-krat (Greek, a^ito, 
one's self; hras, the head). A sovereign 
possessed of absolute power ; the Emperor 
of Russia is termed an autocrat. 

Auto da Fe, awto-dah-fay (Spanish, 
auto, act; da, of; fe, faith). "The act of 
punisMng a heretic by burning, formerly 
exercised among Spaniards; also a sen- 
tence given by the Inquisition, and read to 
the criminal on the scaffold, just before he 
is executed. 

Autograph, awto-graf (Greek, auto, 
one's self ; grapho, to write). A person's 
own handwriting ; an original manuscript. 
A letter written by a sorer eign's own hand 
is called an auto(frapli letter, by way of 
distinguishing it from more formal com- 
munications. 

Automaton, aw-tomma-ton (Greek, 
auto, one's self; mao, to move). Any 
mechanical contrivance which, by means 
of concealed machinery, can cany on for 
some time certain movements more or less 
resembling animal exertion, as the automa- 
ton duck, the automaton chess- flayer, &c. 

Autopsy, aw-topsy (Greek, auto, one's 
self ; ofs, the eye). Ocular demonstration ; 
proof from actual obseiration. 

Autumn, aw-tum (Latin, augeo, to in- 
crease). The decline of the year. Auturon 
is so named because, at that season, the 
fruits of the year are a^igmented. 

Auxiliary, aug-zilyaree (Latin, a^(■x^ 
ilium, help). A helper ; an assistant ; 
helping ; assisting. The verb to he is an 
Kiuxiliary, because it. helps to conjugate 
other verbs. 

Avalanclie, avah-lansh (French, ava- 
Itr, to swallow). An immense accumula- 
tion of snow, which, on becoming detached 
from any mountainous height, is precipi- 
tated with violence, and often overwhelm- 
ing forests, villages, &c,, in its course. 

Avant Courier, avang cooriay 
(French, avant, before ; courier, messen- 
ger). One dispatched before the rest to 
notify their approach. The word is used 
figuratively, to express anything said or 
done, to prepare the way for what is to 
follow. 

Avast, a-vahst. A sea term, signifying 
hold ! stop ! enough 1 



Avatar, a-vahtar (Sanscrit, avatara). 
An incarnation of the Deity among the 
Hindoos. 

Avaunt, a-vawnt (Latin, ah, from ; 
ante, before). An exclamation signifying 
begone ; get hence ; a word of abhorrence, 
by which any one is driven away. 

Ave Mary, avee-mauy (Latin, ave, 
all hail). Among CathoHcs, the beginning 
of a prayer addressed to the Holy Virgin 
Mary, whence the whole prayer takes its 
name. The term Ave Mary, or Ave Maria, 
is also given to the little balls in rosaries, 
each of which denotes a prayer called Ave 
Maria, while the larger balls denote a 
fater-noster . 

Averuneate, aver - rungkate (Latin, 
avermnco, to dress or weed). In arbore- 
culture, to root up or tear up by the roots. 

Aviary, avee-aree (Latin, avis, a bird). 
A place in which birds are kept. 

Avidity, a-vidity (Latin, avidus, 
greedy). An intense desire; eagerness to 
obtain. 

Avoirdupois, avur-dewpoiz (French, 
avoir, to have ; du, of ; poids, weight). A 
weight for ordinary commodities, in which 
a pound contains 16 ounces or 7,000 troy 
grains. 

Aweatlier, a-wethur. A sea term, de- 
noting the weather-side ; towards the wind. 

A X i O m, ak-shiun (Greek, axiovia, 
worth). A self-evident proposition, or 
one requiring no proof, as " The whole is 
greater than the part" — "Nothing can 
produce nothing." 

Axis, ak-sis (Greek, axo7i, the axle-tree 
of a chariot). A term appMed to a straight 
line passing through the centre of a body 
and on which that body turns. This line 
may be real or imaginary, as the line sup- 
posed to pass through the centre of the 
earth, round which axis it revolves once in 
twenty-four hours. 

Ay, i (Saxon, ai, yes. Latin, aio, to 
say or afiirm). Yes ; certainly. This word 
is used in the plural, as ayes, signifying 
the persons or votes in favour of a motion, 
proposition, or resolution ; it is opposed to 
noes ; and in Parliamentary proceedings, or 
public debate, the ayes (those who say 
'' Yes") or the noes (those who say "No") 
are said to carry the question. 

Aye, ay (Greek, a^, always). Always ; 
for ever. 



AZI 



EAL 



29 



simutll, azee-muth (Arabic, al, tlie ; 
samath, path). In astronomy, the arc of 
the horizon intercepted between the meri- 
dian of the observer and any given vertical 
line. Magnetic azimuth, the azimuth from 
the magnetic meridian; azimuth circles, 
great circles of the sphere intersecting 
each other, in the zenith and nadir, and 
cutting the horizon at right angles. 

Azote, az-oat (Greek, a, without ; zoe, 
life). A gas, otherwise called nitrogen, the 
former name being given to it because it 
does not support life. 

Azure, a-zhure (Fi-ench, azur, faint 
blue). A fine blue pigment, commonly 
called smalt ; a colour resembling the blue 
of the sky. In heraldry, the blue colour 
in the coats of arms of aU persons under 
the degree of barons. 



Baeclianalian, bakkah-naylean 
(Latin, bacchanalia). A reveller ; a drunk- 
ard; a devotee to Bacchus, the god of 
wine. 

Background. In painting, the space 
behind a portrait or group of figures. The 
distance in a picture is usually divided into 
the foreground, middle-distance, and back- 
ground. 

Backsheesh. A word of Persian origin 
for present or gratuity, much used in the 
East. 

Backstays. In navigation, ropes 
reaching from the topmast heads to both 
sides of the ship, to assist the shrouds in 
supporting the mast when strained by a 
weight of sail. 

Baconian Philosophy, ba-konean 
filosofy. A system of philosophy, of which 
Lord Bacon was the foimder. 

Baculometry, baku-lommy-tre (Latin, 
laculus, a staff. Greek, metron, a measure). 
The art of measuring heights or distances 
with a staff. 

Badigeon, bad-ejun. A preparation 
of plaster and freestone well sifted and 
mixed together. Used by statuaries to 
fiU up the crevices and repair the defects 
in stones of which their work is made. 
This name is also given by joiners to a 
mixture of sawdust and glue, with which 
the imperfections of wood, after it is 
wrought, are made good. 

Badinage, badden-ahj (French). Eail- 
lery ; light or playful discourse. It is also 
a method of hunting wild ducks in France, 



by means of a boat covered with foliage, 
to which the birds are enticed and then 
speared or shot. 

Bagatelle, baggah-tel (French). A 
thing of no importance ; a trifle ; a game 
played on a board with baUs and a cue. 

Bailie, bay-le. In Scotland a magis- 
trate of a royal burgh, possessed of certain 
jurisdiction by common law as well as by 
statute ; the office is similar to that of 
alderman in England. 

Bailiwick. The hundred, or any other 
district wherein a bailiff has jurisdiction. 

Bairn, bayrrn (Gothic, ham. Saxon, 
learn). The name for a child, commonly 
used in Scotland. 

Bait, bate (Saxon, latan, a bite). Food 
placed in such a manner as to tempt and 
allure; hence, hait for fish; and hence, 
also, hait for travellers, who are invited to 
take refreshment at an inn. 

Balance of Power. That division 
of territory and degree of pohtical power 
which the European sovereigns severally 
enjoy, and which, placed one against the 
other, forms a sort of balance in the scale 
ct monarchy. 

Balderdash, bawlder - dash (Welsh, 
haldarddus, babbling). Unmeaning dis- 
course ; ribaldry ; a mere jargon of words. 

Baldric, bawl-drik (Saxon, helt, belt ; 
ric, rich). A girdle, belt, or sash, but 
most commonly a sword-belt. 

Baleful, bail-fuU (Saxon, healofull). 
Full of misery; sorrowful; replete with 
mischief. 

Balkers, baw-kurz. The name applied 
to persons who take up their station on 
the sea-shore, for the purpose of directing 
fishermen to the herring- shoals. 

Ballad, bal-lad (Italian, hallata, from 
hallare, to dance). A baUad was originally 
a song sung while dancing. 

Ballast, bal-last (Dutch, hallaste). Any 
heavy material placed in the hold of a ship 
to keep her course steady and prevent her 
from pitching or rolling. Ships are said to 
be in ballast when sailing without a cargo. 
The same term is also applied to the ma- 
terial used in fiUing up the spaces between 
the rails on a railway. 

Ballet, bal-ay (French, hallet). A 
theatrical dance ; a representation by 
which a story is told through the medium 
of gestures and pantomime, accompanied 
by dancing, and without speaking. 



30 



BAL 



Ballot, bal-lut (Jrench, hallotte, a small 
ball). A method of voting by means of a 
little ball or ticket being put into a box. 

Balsam, bawl-sum (Greek, halsamon). 
An aromatic substance exuding from plants 
and trees ; that which gives ease. 

Bambino, bam-beeno (Italian, lam- 
hino). The iiifant figure of our Saviour 
wrapped in swaddling-clothes, secured by 
ligatures ; as babies are dressed in Italy 
and the South of Europe, Such represen- 
tations occasionally form altar-pictures, 
the infant being surrounded by a halo 
and group of angels. 

Bam.boozle, bam-boozul (from ham, 
a cant word signifying a cheat). To trick ; 
to deceive ; to impose upon. 

Ban (Saxon, hannan, to proclaim), A 
public notice given of anything, whereby it 
is. openly commanded or forbidden; a 
curse ; a proclamation or edict ; hence the 
pubhcation of banns of marriage. 

Banana, ba-naynah. An Indian name 
for the fruit of a plant which grows in the 
West Indies and other tropical countries. 
It consists chiefly of a soft and luscious 
pulp, which is frequently converted into a 
kind of bread. 

Banco, bang-ko (Italian, banco, bank). 
Used for describing the bank-money of 
Hamburg and other places. In law, supe- 
rior courts are said to sit in lanco during 
term, the judges occupying the benches of 
their respective courts. 

Bandana, ban-dannah. An Indian 
name for those silk handkerchiefs with a 
uniformly dyed ground, usually blue or red, 
with figures of a circular, lozenge, or other 
simple form. The same term is applied to 
a style of calico-printing, in which white or 
brightly-coloured spots are produced on a 
red or dark ground. 

Bandy, ban-de (from landy, an instru- 
ment lent at the bottom for striking balls 
at play). To beat to and fro ; to give word 
for word ; hence, also handy-legs. 

Bane, bain (Saxon, hane, destruction, 
death). Deadly poison ; mischief ; ruin. 

Bankrupt, bank-rupt (Latin, hancuz, 
a bench ; ruptus, broken). A man in- 
debted beyond the power of payment. 
This word originated in Italy when the 
money-changers had benches, and when 
any became unable to pay, their hench was 
broken by the public functionaries. 

Banshee, ban-she. An Irish fairy, 
formerly believed to appear in the shape 



L-lli 

of a diminutive old woman, and to chant 
in a mournful strain, under the windows of 
a house, the approaching death of some 
member of the families of the great. In 
Scotland, the banshi was caUed the fairy's 
wife, and was equally busied in giving in- 
timation of approaching death. 

Banyan, ban-yan. The Indian fig- 
tree (ficus Indica). The branches of this 
famous tree descend, take root, and are in 
time converted into gi'eat trunks, so that 
a single tree, with all its props and stems, 
may cover a space of two thousand feet in 
circumference. 

Baptism, bap-tizum (Greek, bapto, to 
dip). The act of baptising, by immersion 
or sprinkling, practised as a rite on admis- 
sion into the Christian Church. 

Barb (Latin, barba, a beard). Any- 
thing that grows in the place of a beard ; 
the points which stand back in an arrow 
or fishing-hook ; also, a Barbary horse re- 
markable for its swiftness. 

Barbecue, bar-bekew. In the West 
Indies, a hog roasted whole, With us, any 
animal dressed whole. 

Bard (Welsh, hardd, a poet). The 
ancient poets among both the Gauls and 
the Britons ; they were also musicians and 
the instructors of the people, and were held 
in great reverence. 

Bargain, bar-gan (Welsh, bargen, to 
engage). A contract or agreement con- 
cerning the sale of something ; the thing 
bought or sold ; an article obtained 
for less than the usual price; interested 
dealing. 

Baritone, barry-tone (Greek, baryo, 
heavy ; tonos, a tone). A male voice 
partaking of the common bass and 
tenor. 

Bark, or, Barque. A three-masted 
vessel, having her fore and main-masts 
rigged like those of a ship, but her mizen- 
mast rigged like a schooner's main-mast. 

Barm (Saxon, bearma, coming from 
beer). Yeast ; the substance used in 
making leavened bread and fermenting 
liquors. 

Barometer, ba-rommy-tur (Greek, 
baros, weight ; metron, a measure). An 
instrument for measuring the weight of 
the atmosphere, and the variations in it, 
in order chiefly to determine the changes 
of the weather. 

Baron, bar-run (French, baron). A- 
title of nobihty next below that of viscount 



and above that of baronet. Barons of the 
Mxcheqmr are fovir judges, wlio detei-mine 
causes between the sovereign and the sub- 
jects relative to revenue^ Barons of the 
Cinque Ports are members of the House of 
Commons, elected for the seven Cinque 
Ports, two for each. 

Baronet, baron-et. A degree of honour 
next below a baron, and above a knight ; 
it is the lowest degree of honour that is 
hereditary. 

Barony, barrun-e. The honom* and 
territory which give title to a baron, inclu- 
ding the fees and lands of lords temporal 
and spiritual. 

Barouche, ba-roosh. A light four- 
wheeled open carriage with a m.ovable top, 
and seats placed opposite each other. 

Barratry, barrat-ry. In law, foul prac- 
tice. In marine insurance, when the mas- 
ter of a ship, or the mariners defraud the 
owners, or insurers, whether by running 
away with the ship, sinking or deserting 
her, or embezzling the cargo. 

Barricado, barry-kahdo (Spanish, har- 
racada). In fortification, a defence con- 
structed of stakes shod with iron ; crossed 
at the top with battens and erected in 
comers of streets. The term is also used 
to imply a bamcade of any kind. 

Barrister, barris-tur. A counsellor 
admitted to plead at the har. An inner 
barrister is one who is a sergeant or Queen's 
counsel; an outer barrister is one who 
pleads outside the bar. The term bar, in 
law, originates from the bar placed to 
hinder persons from incommoding the 
court. 

Barrow, bar-ro (Saxon, heorg). HiUs 
or mounts raised by the Saxons in honour 
of those who died on the field of battle. 

Barytes, ba-rytez (Greek, haros, 

weight). A ponderous earth, very brittle, 

and perfectly soluble in boiling sulphuric 

acid. It is compounded of oxygen and 

1 barium. 

Basalt, ba-zawlt (etymology uncertain). 
I A hard, dark-coloured stone, supposed to 
. be of volcanic origin. 

BasBleu,bah-bluh (French, bas, stock- 
ing ; l)leu, blue). Blue-stocking ; a term 
applied to a learned, pedantic woman. The 
name is supposed to arise from one of the 
acting members of a society of literary 
ladies wearing blue stockings. 

Base (Greek, basis, the bottom). Low 
!a value; mean; worthless. In architec- 



BAS 



31 



ture, the foot of a pillar, by which it is 
sustained. 

Bashaw, bash-aw. A title of honour 
in the Turkish dominions given to the 
grand officers of the court, as the capudan 
bashaw, the admiral or commander at 
sea; bostangi bashaw, the chief officer of 
the garden, &c. It is more frequently 
written and pronounced Pasha, or Pacha. 

Basis, bay-sis (Greek, basis, thebottom). 
Originally, the step or walk of an animal on 
the sole of the foot, on which the body is 
supported in walking; hence the word 
basis is used to express the foundation or 
support of an argument, calculation, &c. 

Bass, base (Italian, basso). In music, 
the lowest compass of the human voice, 
usually ranging from G or F below the 
bass-staff to D or E above it ; it also 
signifies generally the lowest or deepest 
pai^i of any composition. Thorough-bass is 
that which proceeds without intermission 
from the beginning to the end. Ground- 
bass is that which commences with some 
subject of its own, which is continually re- 
peated through the movement, whilst the 
upper parts pursue a different air. Covm- 
ter-bass is the second, when there are seve- 
ral in the same concert. 

Basso Relievo, basso relly-eevo 
(Italian, basso, low; relievo, relief). A 
term used to denote sculptured represent- 
ations raised upon a flat surface, or back- 
ground, in such a manner as to project 
from it less than one-haK of the general 
depth of the figure ; it is also called bass 
relief 

Bastile, bas-teel (French, bastille, a 
castle with towers or ditches). Originally, 
a royal castle bvdlt for the defence of 
Paris ; afterwards used as a state prison, 
and destroyed by the populace during the 
French Kevolution in 1789. 

Bastinado, bastee-nahdo. A punish- 
ment used among the Turks, consisting in 
beating the offender on the soles of the 
feet with a baston or wooden club. 

Bastion, bas-tshun (Old French, baster, 
to build). In fortification, a large mass of 
earth excavated from the ditch, usually 
faced with sods or bricks, and standing 
out from the ramparts, of which it forms 
the principal part. The leading principle 
in the construction of a bastion is, that 
every part of it should be defended by the 
flanking fire of some other part of the 
works. 



i 



32 



BAT 



BEA 



Bat-fowling, bat-fowl-ing. A method 
of catGhing birds at night while they are 
roostiog in bushes, hedges, &c. One of 
the party carries a torch, while another 
beats the bushes ; the birds fly towards the 
light, and are caught either by the hand 
or in nets. 

Bathos, ba-thos (Greek, hatlws, depth), 
A ludicrous descent from the elevated to 
the mean in writing or speaking. 

Baton, bat-ong (French, haton, a staff). 
The staff or truncheon given as a symbol 
of authority to generals in the French 
army; the staff of a field-marshal. In 
music, a rest of four semibreves ; also the 
staff with which the conductor of a band 
beats time. 

Batta, bat-tah. Allowances made to 
troops in India. Dry batta is money given 
in lieu of rations : wet batta, what is given 
in kind. 

Battalion, bat-talyun. A body of in- 
fantry, generally from five to eight hun- 
dred in number. A battalion of the line 
is usually composed of ten companies; 
each consists of a lieutenant, an ensign, 
three or four sergeants, and about seventy- 
five rank and file, under the charge of a 
captain. A regular staff of field-officers 
is appointed to every battalion ; the whole 
being under the immediate command of a 
lieutenant- colonel. A hattalion was origi- 
nally so called from battalia, a body of men 
arrayed in the order of battle. 

Batten, bat-tn (Teutonic, batten). To 
glut or satiate one's self ; to grow fat and 
gross ; to live luxuriously; applied to land, 
to make fruitful. 

Battens. In nautical affaii-s, long nar- 
row slips of wood nailed to the coverings 
of a vessel's hatches, in order to secure 
the tarpaulings which are placed over the 
hatches when required. This is called 
battening down the hatdies. Battens are 
also nailed in different parts of a vessel, to 
prevent those parts becoming chafed. 

Battery, batter-e (French, battre, to 
beat down). The name given to any place 
where cannon or mortars are mounted, 
either for the purpose of attacking the 
forces of an enemy, or of battering the 
fortification. 

Battle-piece. A painting which re- 
presents a battle, exhibiting large masses 
of men, or men and horses, in action. 

Battue, bat-too (French, battue). In 
bunting, a term denoting the practice of 



beating the bushes, and making a loud' 
noise for the purpose of turning out foxes 
and other animals of the chace. 

Bawbee, baw-bee. A word used in 
Scotland and the northern counties of 
England, for halfpenny. The term baw- 
bee took its rise from a copper coin issued 
after the death of James the Fourth of 
Scotland. He was slain in the battle of 
Flodden Field, and left a son a year old as 
his heu'. The effigy of the infant king was 
stinick upon a coin of the value of a half- 
penny ; and this piece of money was hence 
called the baby, which in the Scottish pro- 
nunciation becomes bawbee. 

Bawn. A word used in Ireland for a 
place near the house, inclosed with mud 
or stone walls, to keep the cattle in during 
the night; but its original signification 
was a fortified inclosure. 

Bay, bai (Teutonic, baeye, bulge). An 
arm of the sea, smaller than a gulf and 
larger than a creek. Bay, as applied to 
windows, is the same as bow. 

Bay-colour. A colour in horses re- 
semblmg the bay-leaf when dried. 

Bayonet, bayo-net. A kind of trian- 
gular dagger made to fit on to the muzzle 
of a firelock, so as not to interfere with 
the firing. It is a weapon used with great 
effect in attacking an enemy, or in receiv- 
ing the charge of cavahy. The name 
originates from Bayonne, in France, where 
the instrument was first made. 

Bay Salt. A salt made of sea-water, 
which is hardened by the heat of the sun, 
and receives its name from its brown colom*. 
It is made by letting the sea-water into 
square pits or basins ; its surface being 
struck and agitated by the rays of the sun, 
it thickens at first imperceptibly and be- 
comes covered with a shght crust, which, 
hardening by the continuance of the heat, 
is wholly converted into salt. 

Bays, baiz (Greek, baion, a branch). A 
poetical name for any honorary crown or 
garland, bestowed as a prize for any kind 
of victory or excellence ; or figuratively, 
for learning itself. 

Bazaar, ba-zar (an Oriental word, sig- 
nifying sale). An exchange, marketrplace, 
or spacious haU for the sale of mer- 
chandise. 

Beacon, beek-un (Saxon, hecun). A »» 
signal raised on an eminence, composed of 
some combustible matter, to be fired at 
night on the approach of an enemy. Also, 
any object serving as an occasional signal j 



BEA 



BEN 



33 



©r as a constant sea-mark, by means of 
which ships may be warned of danger or 
assured of the port. 

Beadle, be-dl (Saxon, lydel). A petty 
officer in a court or parish ; a messenger 
or servitor of a public body. 

Bead-roll (Saxon, head, a prayer). A 
list or catalogue of a certain number of 
prayers for the souls of the dead, which 
are generally counted by the members of 
the Romish Chm'ch on their beads. 

Bear. In commercial phraseology, one 
tvho contracts to deliver or sell a certain 
quantity of stock in the public funds on a 
forthcoming day at a stated place, but who 
does not possess it, trusting to a fall in 
public securities to enable him to fulfil the 
agreement and realise a profit. The term 
arises from an old proverb, to the effect 
that he who disposes of that which is not 
yet in his possession, sells the skin before 
he has caught the hear. See Bull- 
Beatitude, be-attytude (Latin, heattcs, 
blessed). Happiness ; felicity ; usually 
applied to the joys of heaven. 

Beau, bo (French, lean, a fop). An 
effeminate person of the male sex, who is 
passionately fond of dress and of decora- 
ting his person ; also the accepted sviitor 
of a lady. 

Beau Ideal, bo-i-deal (French, heaic, 
beautiful ; ideal, imaginary). In painting, 
that beauty which is fi-eed from the deform- 
ity and peculiarity found in nature, in aU 
individuals of a species ; its general signi- 
ficance is a model of excellence which the 
mind or the fancy has depicted to itself. 

Beau Monde, bo-mond (French, heaic, 
fine ; monde, world). The fashionable 
world ; the select portions of society. 

Bed of a River. The bottom of a 
channel in which the stream or current 
usually flows; 

Bedlam, bed-lam (corrupted from 
Bethlem). The name of a religious house 
in London, aftei-wards converted into a 
hospital for lunatics ; the term is now gene- 
rally applied to all mad-houses and lunatic 
asylums ; and coloquially to any place 
where there is much noise and discori 

Bedouin, bed-ooin (Arabic, hedoum). 
The name of certain Arabs who live in tents 
and are widely scattered. The term is 
applied generally to a wandering vagabond. 

Beefeaters (corrupted from the 
French word hufetieis, of buffet, a side- 
faoai\l ; in allusion to their being stationed 



by the sideboard at royal dinners). Tiie 
yeomen of the Queen's guard. 

Beelzebub, be-el-zebub (Hebrew, Baa- 
Km zehahim, the lord of sacrifices). A 
god of the Philistines, who had a famous 
temple at Ekron. A name given to the 
Prince of Darkness. 

Beetle-browed, bee-tul browd. 
Having prominent brows; heavy like a 
beetle. 

Behemoth, be-he-moth. An animal 
mentioned in the Book of Job, which some 
naturalists suppose to be identical with 
the sea-horse. 

Bel-Esprit, bel-espree (French, hel, 
vivacious ; esprit, wit). An agreeable viva- 
city in conversation or writing. 

Beldam, bel-dam. An old woman ; a 
hag. The term is probably derived from 
old French, helle dame, signifying an old 
woman, as helle age means old age. 

Beleaguer, be-le-gur (Danish, helegcren, 
to besiege). To besiege ; to block up in a 
place ; to sxirround with an army. 

Belle, bel (French, helle, a beauty). A 
beautiful, gay young lady. 

Belles Lettres, bel let-ter (French, 
helles, elegant ; lettres, literature). A term 
meaning polite literature. Its significance 
is somewhat vague, but it is generally 
understood to be restricted to poetry, 
rhetoric, and such prose writings as lay 
claim to elegance of style. 

Belle vue, bel - vuh (French, helU^ 
beautiful ; vue, prospect). A term applied 
to houses, terraces, &c., which are so 
situated as to command an extensive 
view of the coimtry. 

Bellicose, belly-koze (Latin, helium, 
war). Warlike ; contentious. 

Belligerent, bel-lidjerent (Latin, hel- 
ium, war ; gero, to caiTy on). An epithet 
apphed to states that are at war, or a war- 
like tendency. 

Bell Metal. A composition of tin 
and copper, usually consisting of three 
parts of copper and one of tin. Less tin 
is used for church bells than for clock 
bells, and for very small beJls a small 
quantity of zinc is added to the alloy. 

Bell-wether. A wether or sheep that 
leads the flock with a bell on his neck. 

Ben. A Hebrew prefix signifying son, 
as ^e?i-jamin. 

Benchers. The senior members of 
the Society in the Inns of Court. Thej 

D 



34 



BEN 



BJE 



have been readers, and being admitted to 
plead within the bar, are called inner 
barristers. 

Bend. In heraldry, a broad line di'awn 
from one comer of the escutcheon to the 
other ; supposed to represent a shoulder- 
belt or scarf, as a symbol of the bearer 
having been valiant in war. The bend 
dexter is formed by two lines drawn from 
the upper part of the shield, on the right, 
to the lower part of the left diagonals. 
The bend sinister is that which is traced 
from the left side of the shield to the 
right. 

Benedict. Benny-dikt. A newly- 
married man ; derived from the name of 
Benedick, one of the characters in Shakes- 
peare's Much Ado about Nothing. 

Benefice, benny-fis (Latin, bene, well ; 
facia, to make). A name applied to all 
Church preferments except bishoprics, 
deaneries, archdeaneries, and prebenda- 
ries. It is more especially appropriated 
to parsonages, rectories, and vicarages. 

Benefit of Clergy. In law, a privi- 
lege at first peculiar to clergymen, but 
afterwards made available to such of the 
la,ity as could read, they thereby being 
considered clerks. It consisted in the ex- 
emption, wholly or partially, from the juris- 
diction of the lay tribtmals. The felon, on 
being convicted by the latter, claimed 
benefit of clergy, had a book put into his 
hands, and if the ordinary pronounced 
these words. Legit ut clericus, "he reads 
like a clergyman," the culprit was handed 
over to the Ecclesiastical Court, for a new 
trial or purgation, which in the majority 
of cases resulted in the acquittal of the 
accused. Benefit of Clergy was abolished 
in the reign of George the Fourth. 

Ben^alese, ben-ga-leez. A native or 
-the natives of Bengal. 

Bent Grass. A name common to all 
the species of grasses composing the genus 
Agrostis. There are five British species. 

Berth.. A sea term ; a station at 
which a ship rides at anchor ; an apart- 
ment in a ship in which a number of men 
or oflBcers reside or mess ; a sleeping-place 
in a ship ; the place of a hammock ; an 
office or situation in which a person is 
employed. 

Betrothment, beet-roath-ment. In 
law, a mutual promise or compact between 
two parties, by which they bind themselves 
to marry. The word imports giving one's 
troth; that is, truth, faith, or promise. 



Bevel, bev-el. The slant of a surface 
at an angle greater or less than a right 
angle ; also an instrument used by masons, 
carpenters, joiners, &c. It differs from a 
square in having a movable tongue, so 
that the instrument may be set to any 
angle. 

Bevy, bev-e (Italian, beva, a flock). A 
flock of birds ; a company of persons ; 
applied generally, though not exclusively, 
to an assemblage of ladies. 

Bezel, bez-el. That part of a ring in 
which the stone is set. 

Bezonian, be-zonean. A low fellow ; 
a person addi9ted to vulgar habits. 

Bias, bi-as (Greek, bios, force). Origi- 
nally, a weight on one side of a bowl to 
make it turn from a straight direction ; 
hence, an undue tendency or inchnation of 
the mind to any particular study, pursuit, 
or opinion. 

Bibber, bib-bur (Latin, bibere, to drink). 
An habitual drinker; a tippler. Hence 
also, bib, which means properly a cloth 
tucked under the chin of a child during 
the process of eating and drinking. 

Bible, bi-bl (Greek, biblion, the book). 
The name applied by way of eminence to 
the collection of sacred writings forming 
the Old and New Testaments. 

Biblio gr ap her, biblee-ograh-far 
(Greek, biblos, a book ; grapho, to write). 
A person skilled in the history of books 
and literature ; one who compiles a history 
of literary productions. 

Bibliomania, biblee-o-maineah 
(Greek, biblos, a book ; mania, madness). 
Book-madness ; a disease which manifests 
itself in an over-anxiety to obtain old and 
scarce editions of books, without any 
consistent regard to the value of their 
contents. 

Bibliopolist, biblee-opolist (Greek, 
biblos, a book ; poleo, to sell). A book- 
seller. 

Bicarbonate, bi-karbon-ait (Latin, bis, 
twice ; carbonate). A carbonate contain- 
ing two equivalents of the acid to one ot 
the base. 

Biennial, by-en-yal (Latin, biennis, 
lasting two years). Continuing for two 
years. In botany, a class of plants which 
do not bear flowers and seed till the 
second year, after bearing which they die. 

Biestings, bees-tingz (Saxon, byst). 
The first milk given by a cow after 
calving. 



Bia 



BIS 



35 



Bigamy, bigga-me (Latin, lis, twice ; 
Greek, gamos, marriage). The crime 
of having two wives or husbands at a 
time. 

Bight, bite (Danish, hoyt). The double 
part of a rope when folded ; .the coU of a 
cable, not including its ends ; a bend or 
small bay between two points of land. 

Bigot, big-got. A person perversely 
and obstinately attached to a party, creed, 
sect, or practice ; a blind zealot. The 
etymology of this word is uncertain ; but 
some authorities have traced it to beautta, 
one of the appellations of the order of 
nuns, called Begfuins, who were distin- 
guished for their excessive zeal. 

Bijou, be-zhoo (French, Mjou). A jewel; 
trimket; anytMngvery precious, diminu- 
tive, or delicate. 

Bilbo, bil-bo. A rapier or sword, re- 
ceiving its name from BUboa, in Spain, 
where the best kinds were manufac- 
tured. 

Bilboes, bil-boze. In ships, long bars 
of iron with shackles sliding on them, and 
a lock at the end, used to confine the feet 
of offenders. Hence, also, the punish- 
ment of offenders in this way is called by 
the same name, and is equivalent to the 
punishment of the stocks on land. 

Bilge, bilj (Gothic, lulgia, to swell). 
The protuberant part of a cask, which is 
usually in the middle. The bilge of a ship 
is the \mder part of the ship's-floor, which 
approaches to a horizontal direction, and 
on which the vessel would rest if aground. 
When this portion of the ship is fractured, 
she is said to be bilged ; the water which 
lies in the bilge is called the bilge-water, 
and the pump adapted to withdraw it is 
called the bilge-pump. 

Bin of Jlealth. A certificate or in- 
strument signed by consuls or other pro- 
per authorities, and delivered to the mas- 
ters of ships at the time of their clearing 
out from all ports or places suspected of 
being particularly liable to infectious dis- 
orders, certifying the state of health at 
the time such ship sailed. A clean bill of 
liealth imports that at the time the ship 
saUed no infectious disorder was known 
to exist there. A suspected bill of liealth, 
commonly called a touched patent or bill, 
imports that no infectious disease had 
actually broken out, but that there eS:isted 
rumours of such. A foul bill of health de- 
notes that the place was affected when the 
vessel left; tnis latter circumstance is 



commonly known by the absence of a 
clean bill, a foul bill not having been 
worth leaving. 

Billet (French). A small note or paper 
in writing ; a ticket directing soldiers 
where to lodge. Billet-doux, a love mis- 
sive, an affectionately-written epistle. 

Billion, bil-yun (Latin, his, twice; 
million). A million of mUlions ; in figures, 
1,000,000,000,000. 

Bills of Mortality. Periodical re- 
gisters of the deaths and burials which 
take place in and near London. Thfse bills 
usually contain, also, a summary of births, 
christenings, &c. 

Bilocular, bi-lokewlar (Latin, bis, 
twice ; loculus, a small place or cell). 
Having two cells. 

Bimana, bi-maynah (Latin, his, twice ; 
manus, a hand). Two-handed animals. 
The bimana constitute the first order of 
mammalia — comprehends but one genus, 
and that genus is man. 

Binnacle, bin-nah-kl (French, hoiU 
d'aguille, needle-box). A box containing 
a ship's compass, and the ship's light, to 
show it at night. 

Biographer, byograh-fur (Greek, Hos, 
life; grapho, to write). One who writes 
an account or history of the life and ac- 
tions of a particular person; a writer of 
lives. 

Biology, byollo-jy (Greek, hios, life; 
logos, a discovtrse). A description of life 
and of the animal structure in its Uviog 
state ; the science of life ; physiology. 

Biparous, bip-parus (Latin, bis, two at 
one time ; pario, to bring forth). Pro- 
ducing two at a birth. 

Biped, by-ped (Latin, bis, twice ; pedes, 
a foot). An animal with two feet. 

Bird's-eye TobtiH^co. A kind of 

tobacco which has in it rmmerous diminu- 
tive knots resembling the eyes of birds. 

Bird's-eye View. A term applied 
to pictures of places, and to landscapes, 
denoting that such a view might be ob- 
tained by a bird in the air. 

Biscuit, bis-kit (Latin, bis, twice: 
coctus, baked). A kind of bread baked 
very hard. Among the Romans, the hit- 
cuit was tioice prepared in the oven, and a 
diminution of one-fourth was ordinarily 
calciilated upon as the consequent loss ol 
weight. 



36 BIS 

bisection, be-sekslmn (Latin, bis, 
twice ; sico, to cut). A diidsion into two 
equal pai-ts, as the cutting of an orange 
into halves. 

Bishop, bish-up. A prelate or person 
consecrated for the spiritual government 
of a diocese. The derivation of this word 
is from the Latin episcopus, (Greek, epis- 
hopos). By the omission of the first sylla- 
ble, and the usual apocope (piscop), and 
the change of p into 6 (biscop), and sc 
into sh, the word bishop is produced. The 
term means literally an overseer, or over- 
looker. 

Bissextile, bis-sekstil. Leap-year. A 
year consising of 366 days, the additional 
day being added to the month of February. 
This is done every fourth year, on account 
of the excess of six hours, by which the 
ordinary year really exceeds 365 days. 
The name is derived as follows: — The 
Romans, instead of making a 29th day 
of February, reckoned the 24:th day twice, 
and called the 24th day sexto calendas 
Martias ; that is, the sixth day before the 
kalends of March. This, with the prefix 
bis, to denote that it was reckoned twice, 
gave the name bissextilis, which we vsrite 
bissextile, to the leap-yeax. 

Bitter Principle. The bitter parts 
of vegetable substances, which may be 
extracted by chemical processes. 

Bitumen, bit-u-men (Latin, from 
Greek, pitis, the pitch-tree). The generic 
name given to a number of inflammable 
substances, found in a liquid or viscid 
state. It constitutes the inflammable 
principle of coal, and is a compound of 
carbon and hydrogen. 

Bivalves, by-valvs (Latin, bis, twice ; 
valvce, shutters). That class of shell-fish, 
the shells of which are composed of two 
pieces or valves, formed together by a 
hinge, as the oyster and the mussel. 

Bivouac, biv-wak (French, bivouac). 
The guard or watch of a whole army during 
th« night; also the modern system by 
which the soldiers in service lie in the 
open air without tents, in opposition to 
the old system of camps and cantonments. 

Bizarre, be-zar (French, bizarre). Odd ; 
fantastic; strange; whimsical. 

Black Act. The statute 9 Geo. I., 
which makes it felony to appear armed in 
any park or warren, for the pm-pose of 
hunting deer ; or stealing fish from rivers, 
and with the face blackened, or otherwise 
•*tafigured. 



BLA 

Black Art. Necromancy; witchcraft; 
or sleight-of-hand, so called from its being 
conjectured that the professors are aided 
in their operations by diabolical agency. 

Blackballing. The act of voting 
against any person or thing — usually a 
candidate for admission into a club or so- 
ciety — by di'opping into the ballot-box a 
ball, commonly of a black colour. 

Black Cattle. A general name far 
all cattle of the ox kind, reared expi-essly 
for slaughter, in distinction to dairy-cattle. 

Black Letter. The old English 
alphabet. 

Black Mail. In Scotland, a soit of 
yearly payment, formerly made for pro- 
tection to those bands of armed men who, 
down to the middle of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, laid many parts of the country under 
contribution. The term is still used con- 
ventionally, to imply any fee or gratuity 
which is made compulsory, and takes the 
form of exaction. Mail, in this case, 
means tax or rent. 

Black Monday. A day so termed 
from Easter Monday, the 14th of April, in 
the thirty-fourth year of the reign of 
Edward III., the British troops then lying 
before Paris, and the day being remarkably 
dark and cold. This term is applied to 
any day that has disagreeable associations, 
as the day on which boys return to school 
after their holidays, or the day when Par- 
liament resumes its functions, &c. 

Black Bod. A name given to the 
usher who carries the black rod, with a 
golden lion on the top of it, at assemblies 
of the order of the Garter, and in Par- 
liament. 

Blanc-mange, bluh-mawnj (French, 
blanc, white ; manger, to eat). In cookery, 
a preparation of isinglass, milk, sugar, 
cinnamon, &c., boiled into a thick con- 
sistence, and served to table as a kind of 
jelly. 

Blank Verse. Any kind of verse in 
which there is not rhyme. 

Blaspliem.y, blas-feemy (Greek, bltipto, 
to strike or hurt ; plienie, reputation). Ir- 
reverent or impious langiiage uttered 
respecting the Deity or his atti-ibutes. 

Blast Furnace, blast furnas. A fur- 
nace blown by means of steam-power, used 
chiefly for smelting iron and other refrac- 
tory ores. 

Blatant, bla-tant (Saxon, blceian). 
Bellowing like a calf ; noisy. 



BLA 

Slazou, bla-zun (Dutch, hloazen, to 
blow). In herakiry, the art of expressing 
the several parts of a coat of arms in 
proper terms. All persons beneath the 
degjee of a noble must have their coats 
Uazoned by metals and colours. The term 
is derived from the fact of a herald Uowing 
a trurapet and calling out the arms of a 
knight when he entered the lists at a 
tournament. In this sense, blazon is used 
figuratively for making anjrthing public. 

Blockade, blok-aid (Teutonic, llocTc- 
hiiys). A fortress or bulwark erected to 
stop up or to secure a passage, A town 
or fortress is said to be blockaded when 
all ingress and egress is precluded by the 
troops which siirround it. The object of 
the blockade is generally to compel the 
garrison to surrender, when the provisions 
and ammxmition shall be expended. 

Blockhead, blok-hed. A figurative ex- 
pression, used to imply a person of dull 
apprehension; want of parts; intensely 
dull — whose head may be said to be like a 
block of wood or stone. 

Blood Hound. A variety of the com- 
mon dog, remarkable for its perfection of 
the sense of smell. Owing to this circum- 
stance, the blood-hound was formerly much 
employed in pui-suing criminals, and track- 
ing runaways. 

Blue Peter. In nautical affairs, a flag 
having a blue ground, with a white square 
in the centre. It is hoisted as a signal 
that the ship is about to sail. 

Boatswain, bose-un (boat, and Saxon 
Sicein, a servant). An officer on board of 
.ships, who has charge of the boats, sails, 
rigging, colours, anchors, cables, and cor- 
dage. His office is also to summon the 
crev.' to their duty, to relieve the watch, 
assist in the necessary business of the ship, 
seizing and pimishing offenders, &c. The 
hoatswain's mate has charge of the long- 
i)oat, for sotting forth and weighing an- 
chors, warping, towing, and mooring. 

Bolt Rope. In nautical affairs, the 
rope to which the edges of the sails are 
so:.'cA to strengthen them. That part of 
it en the perpendicidar side is called the 
hack rope ; those at the bottom, the foot- 
rope; that at the top, the head-rope. 

Bomb, bum (Greek, homhos, a buzz, a 
noise). In artillery, a hollow iron ball or 
shell, filled with gunpowder, and furnished 
vdih a vent for a fusee, or tube filled with 
oombustible matter, to be thrown out from 
:» rnortar ; its name is taken from the loud 
noise made by its report. 



BOO 



37 



Bombard, bum-bard. To assault a 
town or fortress by projecting into it 
bombs, shells, &c., in order to set fire to 
and destroy the houses, magazines, and 
other buildings. 

Bombast, bum-bast. A stuff of a 
loose texture, formerly used to swell gar- 
ments ; hence, an inflated style or manner 
is termed bombast. 

Bomb ketch, bum-ketch. A small 
vessel strongly built, and strengthened 
with large (".teams to bear the shock of a 
mortar at sea, when bombs are to be thrown 
from it into a town. 

Bona Fide, bo-nah fy-de (Latin, lonus, 
good ; fides, faith). A term signifying in 
good faith; without fraud or subter- 
fuge. 

Bonded Goods. Those goods for which 
bonds are given at the Custom-house, as a 
guarantee for the payment of duty. 

Bonhomie, bo-no-me (French, hon- 
horaie). A free and easy manner; good 
nature; cordiality. 

Bon mot, bong-mo (French, hon, good ; 
r}iot, word). A good saying; a witty re- 
partee. 

Bonny, bon-ne (French, Ion, good, or 
excellent). Handsome; beautiful; pleasing 
to the sight. 

Bon-ton, bong-tong( French, hon, good ; 
ton, tone, or manner). Fashion ; the 
height of fashion. 

Bonus, bo-nus (Latin, homis, good). A 
premium given for a loan, right, or privilege, 
above its prime or original cost. A term 
commonly used to express an extra divi- 
dend or allowance to the shareholders of a 
joint-stock company out of its accumidated 
profits. 

Bon-vivant, bong-ve-vang (French,, 
hon, good ; vivaiit, living person). A free 
liver ; a jovial companion. 

Booby, boo-be (German, huhe, a boy). 
In natural history, the name of a water- 
fowl of the pelican tribe, common in the 
West Indies; they allow themselves to b' 
attacked by other birds, which force ther « 
to yield up the fish they have captured. 
The term is also applied to a dull, stupid 
fellow, who suffers himself to be imposed 
upon. 

Bookworm. A small insect which 
breeds and eats holes in books, especially 
when in a damp state. This name is also 
given to any one who is continually poring 
over books. 



38 BOO 

Boom, (Saxon, beam, a bar). Among 
mariners, a long pole used to spread out 
the clue of the studding-sail, main-sail, or 
fore-sail, as the jib-boom, studding-sail boom, 
main-boom, square-sail boom. A strong iron 
chain fastened to spars, and extended across 
a river or the mouth of a harbour, to pre- 
vent an enemy's ships passing. A pole set 
up as a mark to direct seamen to keep the 
channel in shallow water. 

Boon (Saxon, lene, a prayer or petition). 
A favour granted ; a welcome present ; a 
gift. 

Borough. English, bur-ruh English. 
A customary descent of lands or tenements 
in certain parts of England, by which the 
youngest son becomes inheritor instead 
of the eldest ; or, if the late possessor had 
no issue, to the younger instead of the 
elder brother. The custom only holds good 
in a few ancient boroughs and copyhold 
manors. 

Bosky, bos-ke (French, bosquet, a 
thicket ; from bois, wood). Woody ; a- 
botmding with wood. 

Boss (French, bosse, hunch or bump). 
A stud or ornament raised above the rest 
of the work ; a shining prominence ; the 
prominent part of a shield j a thick body 
of any kindl 

Botany, bot-an-e (Greek, botane, a 
plant). The science which comprehends 
all that relates to the vegetable kingdom. 

Botch (Italian, bozza, a swelling). A 
swelling or eruptive discolouration of the 
skin. Figuratively, the part of any work 
clumsUy done or ill-finished, so as to pre- 
judice the whole. 

Bottomry, bottum-re. In commerce, 
the borrowing money upon the keel or 
bottom of a ship, whereby, if re-payment 
be not made on the day appointed, the 
ship becomes the property of the creditors ; 
also the lending of money payable on the 
return of the ship, but not to be claimed 
*in the event of the vessel being lost. 

Boudoir, boo-dwor (French, boudoir). 
A small room or cabinet, generally adjoin- 
ing the bed-room or di*essing-room, for the 
retirement of the master or mistress of the 
house. 

Boulders, bowl-ders. A provincial 
term for large lounded blocks of stone 
lying on the surface of the ground, or in 
some instances embedded in the loose soil ; 
differing in composition from the rocks in 
their vicinity, and supposed to have been 
transported from a distance. 



BEE 

Bouquet, boo-kay (French, bouqmt). A 
nosegay ; a bunch of flowers carefully 
cuUed and arranged with taste. 

Bourbon Family, boor-bawng. A 
line of sovereigns who reigned in France 
from 1589 to 1848, except during the period 
of Napoleon Buonaparte's term of power. It 
is a branch of the stock of Capet, being 
descended from a brother of Philip the 
Fair. 

Bourgeois, boor-zhaw (French, bouv 
geois, a burgess). A term used generally 
for citizen ; answering to the English 
burgess. 

Bourse, boorse (French, bourse). Lite- 
rally, a piu-se ; used to denote the place of 
exchange in France. 

Bouts Bimes, boo -re -ma (French, 
bouts, end ; rimes, rhymes). A terra for 
certain rhymes which one person furnJohes 
to the unfinished lines written down by 
another person. 

Bovine, bo-vine (Greek, hovos, an ox). 
Eelating to cattle of the ox kind. 

Bowie-knife, bow-e-nife. A long 
knife or short sword, carried by himters 
in the western states of America. 

Bo"wline, bo-line. In nautical lan- 
guage, a rope fastened near the middle of 
the perpendicular edge of the square-sails, 
and used to keep the weather- edge of the 
sail tight forward, when the ship is close 
hauled. 

Braggad.ocio, brag^go-do-sho (from 
Braggadocchio, the name of a vain-glorious 
knight, in Spenser's "Faery Queen"). A 
bragger ; a vain boaster ; one who invents 
or exaggerates deeds of valoui' performed 
by himself. 

Brahmin, brah-min. The priests or 
philosophers among the Hijiioos. They 
take their title from Abraham, whom they 
called Brahma, and affected to imitate the 
life of the patriarch by living in deserts. 
The word Bramah also means " knowledge 
of laws," and is the name of the first 
person in the Trinity of the Hindoos. 

Bravura Air, brah-voorah (Italian, 
bravura, courage). An air consisting 
chiefly of difficult passages and divisions, 
in which many notes are given in one 
syllable, therefore requiring great energy 
and spirit, as weU as considerable skill, in 
the execution. 

Breach. In military affairs, an opening 
or gap effected in the works of any fortified 
place, by the fire of the eno'::y.-J axtillery. 



BPiB 



BRI 



Breakers, bray-kurs. In marine lan- 
guage, rocks wMch lie immediately under 
the surface, and break the waves as they 
pass over them ; when these are discerned 
at a distance, a cry is raised of Breakers 
a-head ! to warn the helmsman to steer out 
of their course ; they also sijjnify the 
billows which break against the rocks. 

Breakwater. Something raised or 
sunk at the entrance of a harbour, or any 
projection from the land into the sea, — as 
a mole, pier, or jetty, so placed at the en- 
trance, that it may hreah the force of the 
waves as they roll inwards. 

Breastwork. In fortification, a para- 
pet usually made of earth, thrown up as 
high as the hreasts of the troops defend- 
ing it ; also a sea term for the balustrade 
of the quarter-deck. 

Breecli. In gunnery, the hinder part 
of a gun ; the solid part of a piece of ord- 
nance behind the bore. 

Bressummer, bes-summur (French, 
hrasse-mur). In architecture, a beam placed 
horizontally to support an upper wall or 
partition ; as the lower beam of a church 
gallery, and that over a shop window ; 
this word is also spelt hrestsummer. 

Breve, breev (Latin, hrems, short). The 
name of a note in music ; the breve with- 
out a dot after it, is equal to four minims, 
and is called imperfect ; but when dotted, 
it is equal to sis minims, and is called 
perfect. 

Brevet, bre-vet (Latin, hrevis, short). 
A. term borrowed from the French, signify- 
ing a royal act granting some favour or 
privilege ; and applied in England and 
America to a nominal rank in the army, 
higher than the regimental commission 
held by the officer. In garrison and brigade 
duties, it confers precedence according to 
seniority. Thus, a heutenant-colonel, being 
made colonel by brevet, enjoys the pay 
only of the former, but the honour and 
privileges of the latter. 

Breviary, breev-ya-re (Latin, Irevis, 
short). An abridgement ; an epitome ; a 
book containing the daily services of the 
Romish Church, as contradistinguished 
from the missal. 

Bridewell. A name now generally 
given in England to houses of correction. 
The term is derived from the locality of the 
■ancient house of correction in London, 
bmlt on the site of St. Brides Well, in Black- 
friars, first built as a palace, and afterwards 
used both as ;a hospital and a prison. 



Brief, breef (Latin, hrevis, short). I 
law, an abridgement of a client's case, con 
taining in a concise form the proofs and 
objections that may be urged by the oppo- 
site side, with answers thereto written for 
the instruction and giiidance of a counsel 
during a trial. 

Brig. A square-rigged vessel with two 
masts. One of the peculiarities, of a brig 
is, that she bends her boom-mainsail to the 
mainmast. 

Brigade, bre-gade (French, brigade, 
gang). A division of troops composed of 
several corps, or of detachments of cavalry 
and infantry, under the command of a 
general officer. A hriyade-major is an 
officer appointed to assist the general com- 
manding a brigade in all his duties. No 
officer under the rank of a captain is^ 
eligible to hold this post, nor can effec- 
tive field officers of regiments be appointed 
majors of brigade. A brigadier is the 
general officer who has command of a 
brigade. He is in rank next below a major- 
general. 

Brigantine, briggan-tine. A small, 
flat, open vessel, which is propelled with 
sails and oars, or with either, and is chiefly 
employed in fighting or in giving chase. 
Brigantines are used principally by the 
corsairs or sea brigands, for the purposes of 
piracy. Among British seamen this is a 
square-rigged vessel with two masts, and 
is distinguished by having her mainsails 
set near in the plane of her keel, whereas 
the mainsails of larger ships are hung 
athwart. 

Bring-to. In nautical language, to 
check a vessel's course, when advancing, 
by reg-ulating the sails, so that they shall 
counteract each other, and keep the ship 
almost stationary. 

Brisket, bris-kit (French, h-echet, 
breast-bone). The breast of an animal, 
or that part of the breast adjoining the 
ribs. ' * 

Bristol Board. A kind of paper 
made for drawing upon, formed by pasting 
sheets of drawing-paper together, and 
submitting them to the action of a power- 
ful press, so named from the place of its 
original manufacture. 

Bristol Stone. A species of soft 
diamond, found chiefly in St. Vincent's 
Eock, near Bristol. 

Bristol "Waters. Mineral waters of 
the lowest teinperatur6 of any in Eugland,_ 



40 



BRO 



BUh 



being the fourth in degree among the 
waters which are esteemed warm. 

Broach to. In navigation, to incline 
suddenly to windward of a ship's course, 
when she sails with a large wind ; or, when 
she sails directly before the wind, to 
deviate suddenly from the ship's line of 
course, bringing her side to windward, 
and thereby exposing her to the danger of 
upsetting. 

Broad Cloth. The better kmd of 
cloth used for male attire : it was so called 
from its great breadth, requiring, in the 
weaving of it, two persons to sit on either 
side, and fling the shuttle to one another. 

Broadside. The whole side of a 
vessel. In reference to a naval engage- 
ment, it signifies a simultaneous discharge 
of all the gfuns on one side of a ship of war. 

Brochure, bro-koor (French, brochure, 
51 stitched book). A pamphlet ; a literary 
performance of slender materials and 
trivial interest. 

Brogue, broag (Irish, h'og). A defec- 
tive pronunciation of a language, par- 
ticiilarly applied to the Irish manner of 
speaking Enghsh. 

Bronchitis, brong-kytis (Greek, hi-on- 
ihars, the windpipe). An inflammation of 
some part of the bronchial membrane. 

Brooch, broach (from hroacli, a spit, 
from its having a little pin or spit, by 
which it is fastened to the dress). A 
bosom-biickle or pin ; a jewel. 

Browbeat. To endeavour to move a 
person by stern and severe looks, by 
knitting and depressing the brows, &c. 

Bro"WTiie, brow-ne. In Scotland, a 
spirit formerly supposed to haunt old 
houses ; so called, it is conjectured, from 
its pretended dusky or tawny colour, in 
contradistinction to the -^airy, from its 
fairness. 

Brownists. A religious sect, the In- 
dependents, so called from their founder, 
Eobert Brown, a Puritan, who lived at the 
end of the sixteenth centmy. 

Brown Study. A reverie; deep 
thought ; abstraction. It is said to be a 
comaption of brow study, from the old 
German hraiin, brow; or a^ig-hraun, an eye- 
brow. 

Bowsprit, bo -sprit. A large spar 
which projects over the stem of a vessel, 
to carry it forward ; as a general rule, its 
length should be two-thirds of the main- 
mast, and as thick as the mizzen-mast. 



Bruit, brute (French, hruit). A report; 
rumour ; something noised'abroad. 

Brunette, broo-net. A woman of a 
dark or swarthy complexion. The word is 
a diminutive form from the French word 
brun, brown, or burned-looking. 

Brutum fulmen, broo-tum ful-men 
(Latin, hrutnm fulmen). Aloud but harm- 
less thj-eatening. 

Buccaneer, bukkah-neer (French, lou- 
canier, a freebooter). A name given to 
the pirates who infested the coasts of the 
West Indies and South America, in the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 

Bucolic, bu-kolik (Greek, houkolikos, 
belonging to oxen). A term applied to 
tastes and pursuits of a pastoral tendency ; 
also a pastoral poem or song. 

Buddhist, bud-dist. A believer in 
the doctrines of Buddha, the founder of a 
religion in Asia, who is supposed to have 
lived about a thousand years before Christ. 

Bude Light. An intense flame, pro- 
duced by the union of the carburetted 
hydrogen and oxygen gases ; so named 
from having been invented by Mr. Golds- 
worthy Gm-ney, of Bude, in Cornwall. 

Budget, budj-et (French, lougette, a 
bag). In parliamentary language, the 
annual proposition put forward by the 
Chancellor of the Exchequer, in connection 
with the public revenue, comprehending a 
general view of the national debt, income 
and expenditure, the imposition and re- 
mission of taxes, &c. 

Buffer (Irish, buffer, a boxer). A kind 
of cushion, fitted to the end of a railway 
carriage, in order to deaden the percussion 
of another carriage, or any opposing body. 

Buffo, buf-fo (Italian, buffo). The 
comic actor in an opera, hence buffoon, a 
low jester, a grimacer. 

Bugbear, bug-bare (Welsh, biog, a 
goblin). A frightful object; any imaginarj- 
di'ead ; false terror. 

Buhl-work, bul-wurk (from the name 
of the inventor). Wood inlaid with metal, 
tortoise-shell, &c. 

Bulb (Latin, bidlus, a globular body). 
A term applied generally to round bodies ; 
in botany, the designation is especially 
applied to roots of a round form, as of 
onions, tulips, &c. 

Bulkheads. Partitions built up in 
several parts of a ship between two decks, 
either lengthwise or across, to form and 
separate the various apartments. 



BUL 

Bull (Latin, hulla, a little round orna- 
ment or seal). In the Roman Catholic 
Church, a letter, edict, or rescript of the 
Pope, published or transmitted to the 
churches over which he is the head, con- 
taining a decree, order, or decision. The 
bull is written on parchment, and provided 
with a leaden seal, or, on rare occasions, a 
seal of gold or of wax, hence the name of 
the instrument. 

Bull. A cant word used on the Stock 
Exchange, to denote a person who nomi- 
nally buys stock, for which he does not 
pay, but receives or pays the difference 
consequent upon the rise or fail of stock. 

Bulletin, bullet-een (French, bulletin, 
a bill, a ticket). A letter with an official 
seal appended, and hence an official ac- 
count or statement. This word is a dimi- 
nutive of bulla, a little round ornament or 
amulet, worn about the necks of Roman 
children, and afterwards applied t6 a 
seal. 

Bulwark, bool-w\irk (Teutonic, bolle, 
round ; ^uerk, work). A fortification ; fort ; 
security ; railing round a ship's deck. 

BumbailifF (corruption from bound- 
bailiff). An under-bailiff or subordinate 
civil officer, appointed to serve writs, and 
to make arrests and executions, and bound 
with sureties for a faithful discharge of his 
trust. 

Bumboat (Welsh, bum, or bon, mean, 
insignificant). A small boat, used to carry 
provisions to vessels lying at a distance 
from shore. 

Bumper, bum-pur. A cup or glass 
filled to the very brim, and usually called 
into ■ requisition on festive and convivial 
occasions, to honour any favourite or 
special toast. This word is said to origi- 
nate as follows:— In Catholic countries the 
Pope's health used to be toasted after 
dinner, in overflowing glasses, under the 
appellation of bo7i pere (good father), hence 
the corruption of bumper. 

Bungalow, bungah-lo. An East 
Indian term for a house with a thatched 
roof. 

Bunkum, bunk-um. An American- 
ism, signifjing an appeal to the vulgar, or 
an inconsequential narration, promulgated 
with a view of creating political or literary 
capital. 

Buntlines. Small lines made fast to 
cringles on the bottom of the sails of a 
ship, their use being to trice up the bunt 
of a sail to facilitate the furling. 



BYZ 



41 



Buoy, boy (French, bois, wood). A 
mass of wood, cork, or other light sub- 
stance, moored and floating on the surface 
of the water ; their uses being to mark out 
the place of a ship's anchorage, or to point 
out dangers, and to direct navigators into 
the safest channels. The word buoy is 
used in the figurative sense of supporting 
hopes and expectations, and keeping the 
spirits from sinking. 

Bureaucracy, bm-o-crassy (French, 
bureau, a desk). The centralisation of 
power, by making all the bureaux, or de- 
partments of a Government, the mere 
instrument of one chief. 

Burglar, bur-glvu' (Saxon, bicrh, a, 
house. French, larron, a thief). One 
guilty of breaking into a house by night. 

Burke. To strangle or to suffocate by 
covering the mouth ; to put a sudden end 
to, as to burke a speech or purpose. This 
word owes its origin to a criminal of the 
name of Burke, who was concerned in the 
murder of several persons in the manner 
indicated. 

Burlesque, bur-lesk (Italian, hcrlare, 
to ridicule). A species of humour, which 
consists in forming together images which 
are highly discordant ; a dramatic compo- 
sition, which generally selects some well- 
known tragedy or tale, and turns it into 
ridicule. 

Burletta, bur-lettah (Italian, bicrla, 
raillery). A light comic species of musical 
drama. 

Bursar, bur-sar (Latin, bursa, a pouch). 
A student to whom an allowance is paid 
out of a burse, or fund appropriated to the 
maintenance of poor students. 

Bushmen (Dutch, bosjesmannen, men 
of the wood). A name given by the Dutch 
colonists to several roving tribes in the 
vicinity of the Cape of Good Hope. 

Buskin, bus-kin (Dutch, brosekeu). A 
kind of high shoe or boot worn by the an- 
cient tragedians upon the stage, to give 
them a more heroic appearance. The word 
is used in a figurative sense to express 
tragedy. 

Bye-law. A particular law made b\' 
a corporation, company, or any other dis- 
tinct portion of the community, for the 
regulation of the affairs of its members, 
in such of their relatioMs as are not reached 
by the ordinary legal enactments. 

Byzantine Art. A style of decora- 
tive art patronised by the Romans, after 
the seat of the empii'o was removed from 



43 



CAB 



the East. It is an engraftment of Oriental 
elaboration of detail upon classic forms, 
ending in their debasement. ' 



Cabal, ka-bal. A small body of men 
secretly plotting for political advancement. 
In British history, one of the cabinets of 
Charles II., which consisted of five men 
famous for their intrigues : — Clifford, 
Jishley, Buckingham, Arlington, and 
iauderdale — the initial letters of whose 
names form the word cabal. 

Cabalistic, kabah-listik (Hebrew, 
Icibel, to receive). Kelating to mysterious 
agency ; something that has a hidden 
meaning. The word is derived from ca- 
bala, a pretended secret science of the 
Jewish rabbins, by which they could in- 
terpret difficult passages of Scripture. 

Cabinet Council, kabby-net kown- 
sil. The confidential council of a sovereign 
or executive magistrate. In England, it 
usually comprises the principal ministers 
or members of the Cabinet, and is con- 
vened, from time to time, as circumstances 
connected with home or foreign policy 
demand. Cabinet is the diminutive of 
cabane, a very small apartment or private 
room. 

Cabinet Picture. A picture of a 
small and generally a finished character, 
suitable to a small room, and for close 
inspection. 

Cable's Iiengtb. The measure of 
one hundred and twenty fathoms. 

Caboose, kah-booz (German, habitse, 
a little room). The kitchen or cook-room 
of a ship ; in smaller vessels, the inclosed 
fireplace, hearth, or stove, for cooking on 
the main-deck. 

Cabriolet, kab-reo-lay (French, cabri- 
cole, a goat-leap). A two-wheeled vehicle 
drawn by one horse, and carrying two pas- 
sengers and a driver. These, as well as 
vehicles of a similar class having four 
wheels, are known under the contracted 
name of cab. \ 

Cachet, kash-a (French, cachet). A 
seal. Lettres de cachet were, under the 
ancient French Government, warrants to 
which the king's private seal was appended, 
and put in force for the imprisonment of 
any one. They were abolished in 1790. 

Cachinnation, kachy-nayshun (Latm, 
cachinno, to laugh loudly). Loud and im- 
oaoderate laughter. 



CAD 

Caeography, kak-koggrafee' (Greek, 
kakos, bad ; grapho, to write). Bad spelling. 

Cacopbony, ka-koffenee (Greek, 
Icakos, bad ; p^ione, sound). A disagreeable 
and harsh sound of words ; a discordance 
or indistinctness of the voice. A fault of 
style, consisting in harsh and disagreeable 
sound produced by the meeting of two 
letters or syllables, or by the too frequent 
repetition of the same letters or syllables. 

Caeoetbes, kakko-eethiz (Greek, 
lakos, bad ; ethos, custom). In medicine, 
a bad habit of body ; in general parlance, 
an ill habit or inordinate propensity, as 
cacoeihes scribendi, an itch for scribbling or 
authorship. 

Cactus, kak-tus (Greek, laTctos, the ar- 
tichoke). A genus of succulent plants of 
very various and often grotesque forms, 
generally without leaves, having the stem 
and branches jointed, for the most part 
armed with pines in bundles, with which, 
in many species, bristles are intermixed. 

Cadaverous, ka-dawer-us (Latin, 
cadaver, a dead body). Appertaining to a 
dead body ; having a pale, death-like ap- 
pearance. The changes induced in a corpse 
by putrefaction are called cadaveric phe- 
nomena. 

Cadence, kay-dens (Latin, cadens, 
falling). In reading or speaking, a cer- 
tain note is taken, which is the key-note 
on which most of the -wordi? are pronounced, 
and the fall of the voice below this is 
called cadence. In music, a pause. or sus- 
pension at the end or an aar, pr at the 
termination of a proper chord. 

Cadet, kah-det (French, cadet, yoimger 
brother). The youngest or younger son of 
a family ; a gontJeman who serves in the 
army with a view ot qualitytng himself for 
the military proiession aua obtaining a 
commission ; a young man attending a 
military school. In Franco it was the al- 
most invariable custom for the younger 
son of good families to embrace the mili- 
tary profession, and hence, when he arrived 
at a suitable age, he. became a cadet. 

Cadueeus, ia^lovnious. The fabled 
staff of Mercury, which gave the god 
power to fly. It is represented as a staff 
with two serpents twining about upwards, 
and at the top a pair of wings. This staff 
is used as a herald of peace, and was sup- 
posed to possess tLt? power of bestowing 
happiness and ncLe.s healing the sick, 
raising the dead, and summonixig spirits 
from the lower worliL 



CMf^ 



CAT, 



43 



Caesura, se-sura (Latin, cmsura, a divi- 
sion). The separation or pause which is 
made in the body of a verse in utterance, 
dividing the line, as it were, into two 
members. The most advantageous posi- 
tion for the caesura is generally after the 
fourth, fifth, or sixth syllable, although it 
does occasionally take place after the third 
or tho seventh. 

Cafe, kaf-fay (French, caje). A coffee- 
house. 

Caffeine, kaf-fajdn. A peculiar prin- 
ciple of mild, bitter taste, obtained from 
coffee or tea. 

Caftan, kaf-tan. A Turkish or Persian 
robe or vestment. 

Cairn, kayrn. A name given to a heap 
of stones, common in Great Britain, par- 
ticularly in Scotland and Wales, generally 
of a conical form and covered with a flat 
stone. Cairns were anciently used, by 
way of monuments, over the ashes of the 
great and illustrious : the word is of Celtic 
origin. 

Caisson, kay-soon (French, caisson, a 
chest). A wooden chest, into which bombs 
or gunpowder are put, and placed under 
ground in such a manaer as to explode at 
a certain moment. 

Caitiff, kay-tiff (Italian, cattivo, a slave). 
A base fellow ; a mean, despicable villain. 

Cajole, kah-jole (French, cajoler, to 
coax). To influence or delude by flattery ; 
to wheedle over by specious representations. 

Calabash., kalla-bash. A light vessel 
formed of the shell of the fruit of the 
calabash- tree emptied and di'ied j a popular 
name for the gourd plant. 

Calamity, kah-lammy-ty. Any sudden 
and unexpected misfortune ; a condition 
of things involving great distress. The 
term is derived from a storm which de- 
stroys the harvest by breaking {calamos) 
the stalks of com. 

Calcination, kalsy-nayshun (Latin, 
call, chalk or lime ; cineraceous, ashy). A 
kind of burning, from which latter pro- 
cess it differs in the action of the fire 
being prolonged ; as bones heated in a 
covered vessel until they become black 
are termed burnt bones; but when, by the 
further operation of heat with contact of 
air, they become white, they are terrued 
calcined bones. . 

Calculus, kal-kewlus (Latin, calcheus, 
a little stone). A term applied to hard or 
stony substances which form in the body. 



In mathematics, the differential calculus ia 
the finding an infinitely small quantity, 
which, being taken an infinite number of 
times, shall be equal to a given quantity. 

Caledonian, Kally-done - yan {Cale- 
donia, the ancient name for Scotland^ 
Relating to Scotland. 

Calendar, kalen-diu* (Greek, Icaleo, to 
call). A register of the year, in which the 
months, weeks, and days, festivals and 
holidays; and stated times, are marked. 
A calendar month is a month consisting of 
either thirty or thirty- one days, with the 
exception of February, and is distino'uished 
from lunar month. 

Calends, kal-ends (Greek, kaleo, to 
call). With the Komans, the first days of 
the month so named ; because, on those 
days, it was customary to cail aloud or 
proclaim the number of holidays in each 
month. 

Calibre, kal-ebur (French, caaOre, Dore 
of a gun). The bore or size of the bore of 
a gun ; the diameter of a body ; figm'a- 
tively used to denote mental capacity. 

Caligrapliy, kallig-raffy (Greek, 
kalos, beautiful; grajpho, to write). Ele- 
gant penmanship ; a neat and regular style 
of writing. 

Calipash and Calapee. In cookery, 
terms used to denote the shell and the 
flesh of the turtle. 

Calisthenics, kallis-theniks (Greek, 
Jcalos, beauty ; sthenos, strength). A com-se 
of bodily exercises, designed to promote 
grace of movement and strength of frame. 

Call of the House. A parliamentary 
term for an imperative call or summons 
sent to every member of Parliament to 
attend at his place in the House. 

Callosity, kal-lossy-ty (Latin, callositas, 
hardness). An unusual hardness of the 
skin, as a corn. 

Callous, kal-lus (Latin, callus, har- 
dened). Hardened; insensible; unfeeling. 

Callow, kal-lo (Latin, calvus, bare). 
Unfledged ; naked ; without feathers. 

Calomel, kalo-mel (Greek, X-a/o.y,fair ; 
melos, black). A medicinal preparation of 
mercury, sublimated so as to render iti 
more gentle in its operation. 

Caloric, kal-lorik (Latin, calor, heat). 
A philosophical term applied to that agency 
which produces the phenomena of heat 
and combustion ; that fluid or condition 
which is diffused through all bodies. 



u 



CAL 



Calotype, kalo-type (Greek, fcalos, 
beautiful; t>/pos, type). The name given 
by the inventor to the producing' of pic- 
tui'es on paper, or other surfaces, by the 
agency of light. See Daguerreotype, 
Photography, &c. 

Calumet, kal-umet. A kind of pipe, 
the bowl of which is usually made of red, 
soft marble, and the tube of a reed orna- 
mented with feathers. It is used by cer- 
tain Indian tribes as the ensig-n of peace, 
and corresponds to the European flag of 
truce. This pipe affords a pass and safe 
conduct among all the allies of the nation ; 
and, in embassies, the ambassador carries 
it as an emblem of peace. 

Calumniate, kal - lumnyate (Latin, 
calumnior, to slander). To accuse falsely ; 
to slander ; to charge with crime or dis- 
honourable conduct, with a view of tar- 
nishing or destroying reputation. 

Calvary, kalva-ry (Latin, caharia, 
a skull ; from calvus, bald). The place 
■where Christ was cnicified ; the name 
denoting a place of skulls. In heraldry, 
a cross so called set upon steps. 

Calvinism, kaivin-izm. A system 
of religious doctrine and church govern- 
ment taught by John Calvin, and main- 
tained by his followers. The tenets of 
this system are embraced in five points, — 
namely, predestination, particular redemp- 
tion, total depravity, irresistible grace, 
and the certain perseverance of the saints. 
The great leading principles of the system, 
however, are the absolute decrees of God, 
the spiritual presence of Christ in the 
Eucharist, and the independence of the 
Church. 

Calyx, ka-liks (Greek, lahjx. a cover- 
ing). A term used in botany, to designate 
the external covering of a flower, generally 
resembling the leaves in colour and texture. 

Cambist, kam-bist (Latin, camhio, to 
exchange). A name given to those who 
trade in notes and bills of exchange ; also 
applied to a book which treats of the notes 
of exchange, and the equivalent values of 
different moneys. 

Cambrian, kam-breean (Camlria, the 
ancient name of the principality of Wales). 
A native of Wales is so called. 

Camellia, kah-mcel-yah. A genus of 
beautiful flowering evergreen shrubs, 
natives of China and Japan, and pro- 
ducing a rose-like flower, highly prized and 
worn in the hair or about the person on 
particular occasions. The name is given 



CAN 

in honour of G. J. Kamel, or Camellus, a 
Jesuit. 

Cam.eo, kammy-o (Italian, cameo). A 
term usually applied to gems or stones 
upon which figures are carved in relief. 
The name originates from camahuia, the 
Oriental term for the onyx. 

Camera Lucida, kammy-rah lu-seda 
(Latin, camera, a chamber ; lucida, light). 
An optical instrument used for tracing 
landscapes from nature, and for copying- 
drawings ; also for the purpose of causing 
any object to appear on the wall in a light 
room, either by day or night. 

Camera Obseura, kammy-rah ob- 
skewra (Latin, camera, chamber ; obsctira, 
dark). An optical instrument for throw- 
ing the images of external objects on to a 
screen in a darkened chamber or box. 

Cam.paign, kam-pain (Latin, campus, 
a plain). A large open, level tract of 
ground without hills ; the time an army is 
actively engaged in war, or keeps the field 
without entering into quarters. 

Campanology, kampah-nollojy). 
(Latin, campana, a bell). The art of 
ringing bells. The science which teaches 
the various powers and sounds of bells. 

Camphine, kam-feen. A spirit for 
burning in lamps, said to consist of oil of 
turpentine, with a species of naphtha. 

Canaille, kan-naih (French, canaille, 
rabble). The lowest of the people ; the 
mob ; the class commonly known as roughs. 

Canard, kan-ard (French, canard). A 
hoax ; an idle rumour ; a report ; a mere 
invention. 

Candelabrum, kandel-ahbrum (Latin, 
candelabrum.) A branched candlestick ; a 
tall stand or support for lamps. 

Candlemas, kandl-mas (compound of 
candle and mass). A Roman Catholic fes- 
tival, celebrated on the 2nd of Febmary, 
in honom* of the purification of the Virgin 
Mary, and so called from the large num- 
ber of lights or ca?zcZ^6s used on the occasion. 

Canescent,kah-nessent (Latin, canesco, 
to grow hoary). Growing white or hoaiy. 

Canicular, kah-nikewlar (Latin, 
canknla, a little dog). Belonging to the 
dog-days, which in our almanacks occupy 
the time from July 3rd to August 11th. 

Canine, kah -nine (Latin, caninus, rela- 
ting to a dog). Belonging to or ha^'ing the 
qualities or nature of a dog. Canine teeth 
are two sharp-edged teeth in each jaw, one 
on eitJier side. 



CAN 



LAP 



45 



Canister. A name applied to musket 
balls, stones, scraps of iron, &g., put into 
cases and shot out of mortars. 

Cannel Coal, kan-nel kole. A species 
of coal which has obtained its name from 
the bright flame unmixed with smoke 
which it yields during combustion ; candle 
being pronounced cannel, in the locality 
where the coal is found. It is sufficiently 
solid to be cut and polished, and worked 
into trinkets and ornaments. 

Cannibal, kan-ny-bal. A human being 
who eats human flesh. 

Canny, kan-ne. A word of common 
use in Scotland, signifying cautious, in- 
offensive ; and in some parts of the North 
of England, a frequent expression, applied 
to a nice, neat, and housewifely woman ; 
also, sometimes for a clever or shrewd per- 
son. It may be referred, perhaps, to cun- 
■imig, intelligent, knowing ; or from Saxon, 
cunnan, whence our old verb can, to know. 

Canoe, kan-noo. An Indian boat, 
made of the trunk of a tree hollowed ; or 
sometimes, from pieces of bark fastened 
together. 

Canon, kan-un (Greek, Icanon, a rule, 
a precept). An established doctrine, law, 
or n^le ; a code of ecclesiastical laws. In 
the Church of England, a person in pos- 
session of a prebend or revenue, for the 
performance of cathedral (chanting) service. 
The canons of criticism are certain prin- 
ciples which regulate the judgment given 
upon works of art, literary performances, 
&;c. 

Canonical, kah-nonny-kal (Greek, 
Icanonikos). According to, or included in 
the canon. Cano/iical hours are stated 
times set apart for the several offices of the 
Church. Canonicals, a term applied to the 
full dress of a clergyman. 

Canonization, kano-nezayshun. The 
act or ceremony of declaring a deceased 
person a saint. 

Cant, kant (Latin, canto, to sing). A 
whining, affected manner of speaking ; pre- 
tensions to goodness ; a word or phrase, 
hackneyed, corrupt, or peculiar to some 
profession ; in a general sense, slang. 

Cantata, kanta-tah (Italian, cantata). 
A piece of music for one, two, or more 
voices, chiefly intended for a single voice 
with a thorough bass. 

Cantatrice, cantah-treech. A song- 
stress ; a female singer. 

Canteen, kan-teen (French, cantine, a 
bottle-case^. A small vessel made of tin- 



plate or wood, in which soldiers, when en 
their march or in the field, carry their liquor ; 
also, the name of a tavern, attached to a 
camp or barrack. 

Canter, kant-ur. A slow gallop, slower 
than a trot ; a person who endeavours to 
make the world believe that he is pious, by 
a whining voice, and the semblance of 
religion. This word is supposed to bo 
associated with Canterlury. 

Canterbury Tale. A term denoting 
any exaggerated or improbable stoiy, so 
called from Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. 

Canticle, kan-ty-kul (Latin, canto, to 
sing). A song, applied to some hymn in 
Scripture, and used in the plural to signify 
Solomon's Song. 

Canto, kan-to (Italian, canto, a song). 
Used to denote the division of a poera, 
otherwise called a book. In music, the 
treble, or higher part of a piece. 

Canton, kan-ton (French, canton). 
Division of a country, as the Swiss cantons, 
governed by its own chief and magistrates ; 
a small community or clan ; a division or 
parcel of land. In heraldry, a small square 
which occupies only a corner of a shield. 

Cantonment, kan-tunment (French, 
cantonnement). The detachment and quar- 
tering of troops in a town or village, and 
made to be as near as possible to each other. 

Canzonet, kan-zo-net (Italian, canzo- 
netta). A little song in one, two, or three 
pfirts. 

Caoutchouc, kah-oot-chook. The ve- 
getable substance. India-rubber, and gum- 
elastic. It is the juice of a South Ameri- 
can tree, made to ooze from incisions, and 
thickened by exposure to the atmosphere. 

Cap of Maintenance. One of the 

insignia of state, carried before the 
sovereigns of England at their coronation ; 
and also before the mayors of some cities. 

Cap-a-pie, kap-ah-peai (French, cap- 
d-pie). From head to foot ; usually applied 
to a person who is armed or attired in a 
warlike fashion. 

Caparison, kah-parry-zun (Spanish, 
caparazon). The dress or trappings of a 
horse ; the clothing or covering spread 
over any horse of state. 

Cape (Latin, caput, a head). In geo- 
graphy, a headland or projecting portion 
of the coast. It sometimes terminates in an 
acute angle, and is then called a point If 
the projecting portion is small and low, the 
affix ness is employed in England, as in such 



46 



CAP 



CAR 



terms as Dungenesa, Sheerness ; and in 
Scotland, that of mull, as the mull of Gallo- 
way. 

Capet, kah-pai. The name of the 
founder of the Capet dynasty of French 
princes. He is said to have been of low 
origin, and to have usurped the throne in 
the tenth century. On the accession of 
the house of Bourbon, the name of Capet 
was either given to them, or taken by them ; 
thus, all the processes in the trial of 
Louis X VT. were made against Louis Capet. 

Capias, kay-peeas (Latin, capio, to 
take). In law, a writ of two kinds ; one 
before judgment, termed capias ad respon- 
dendum, in an action personal, if the sheriff, 
upon the first writ of distress, return that 
he has no effects in his jurisdiction ; the 
other is a writ of execution after judgment, 
termed capias ad satisfaciendum, in which 
the sheriff is commanded to take the body 
in execution. 

Capillary, kap-illah-ry (Latin, capil- 
laris, relating to the hair). Resembling 
a hair ; small, minute. Capillary attraction 
is the power* by which a liquid ascends in 
the interior of a capillary tube — or tube 
of small bore — above the surface of the 
liquid which surrounds it. 

Capitalist, kappit-a-list. A person 
possessed of large property ; one who has 
a considerable capital sunk in trade, or 
advanced in speculation. 

Capitol, kappy-tol (Latin, capitoUicvi). 
The temple of Jupiter, built upon the 
Tarpeian rock at Rome. Here the senate 
assembled, and in this temple they made 
their vows, and took the oaths of allegiance. 

Capitulate, kap-ittu-late (Latin, capid, 
the head). To yield or surrender on cer- 
tain stipulations ; to draw out a document 
in heads or articles. 

Caponier^, kappo-neer (French, capo- 
niere). In fortification, a passage from one 
part of a work to another, protected by a 
parapet. 

Capriccio, kah-pritsh-eo (Italian, 
capriccio, fancy). In music, appUed to 
passages where the composer indulges his 
fancy, without being bound to keys or 
moods. Perhaps from the Latin, caper, 
a goat. 

Caprice, kah-preese (Italian, capriccio, 
whim). Sudden or unreasonable change of 
mind or humour ; freak ; fancy ; whim. 

Capricorn, kapry-kawm (Latin, capri- 
Gomu$). In astronomy, one of the twelve 



signs of the zodiac, represented in the form 
of a goat ; it is the first of the winter, and 
fourth of the southern signs. 

Capriole, kap-reole (French, cabriole). 
That kind of leap which a horse makes in 
the same place without advancing. 

Capstan, kap-stan (French, calestan). 
A large piece of timber in the shape of a 
cone, usually placed behind the windlass 
of a ship, to weigh anchors, hoist up or 
strike down top-masts, strain ropes, or 
heave any heavy, bulky thing on board 
ship. 

CapSTile, kap-sule (Latin, capsula, a 
small receiver or case). A term applied in 
botany, to a membranous or woody seed- 
vessel, internally consisting of one or more 
cells, splitting into several valves, and 
sometimes discharging its contents through 
pores or orifices, or filUng out entire with 
the seed. 

Caption, kap-shun (Latin, captio). In 
English law, a certificate subscribed by 
commissioners in chancery, declaring when 
and where the commission was executed. 
In Scotch law, a writ issued commanding 
the apprehension of a debtor. Peers and 
married women are secured against per- 
sonal execution by caption upon civil debts. 

Captious, kap-shus (Latin, captiosus, 
sophistical). Snarling; easily provoked j 
given to quarrelling. 

Caput Mortuum,kap-ut mor-tewum 
(Latin, caput, the head ; mortuum, death). 
A fanciful term, formerly used to denote 
the remains in a retort after distillation, or 
drying. It is now called Residuum. Figu- 
ratively used to imply anything worthless. 

Caracole, karra-kole (French, caracole). 
In horsemanship, an oblique movement of 
a horse, tread out in half-rounds, changing 
from one side to the other without observ- 
ing a regular ground ; also, the half-turn 
which a horseman takes after his discharge, 
to pass from front to rear. 

Carat, kar-at (French, carrat). A term 
used in a relative sense to express the fine- 
ness of gold. It means the twenty-fourth 
.part of any given weight of that metal, or 
of its alloy. If such a weight be pure 
gold, it is saidtobe24: carats fine ; if three- 
fourths only be gold, it is 18 carats fine. 
The diamond carat, however, is a definite 
weight, equal to 3|th troy grains ; and the 
pearl carat equal to four-fifths of a troy 
gi'atn. 

Caravan, karrah-van (Spanish, cara- 
vana). A company of merchants, or 



CAR 

pilgrims, in the East, who travel in an 
org'anised body through the deserts. 

Caravansary, karrah - vansaree 
(Spanish, caravana). A large building in 
the East, which serves as a kind of inn for 
caravans of travellers. The building usually 
forms a square, in the middle of which is 
a spacious court, and under the arches or 
piazzas that surround it, there runs a bank 
raised some few feet from the ground, 
where the merchants and travellers take 
up their lodgings, the beasts of burden 
being tied to the foot of the bank. 

Carbine, kar-byne (French, carabine). 
A short ^n carrying a ball 24 to the pound, 
borne by light horsemen. 

Carbon, kar-bun (Latin, carbo, coal). 
The pure, inflammable part of charcoal, free 
from all the hydrogen and earthy particles 
which charcoal usually contains. 

Carbonate, karbun-at. A salt formed 
by the combination of carbonic acid with 
different bases, as carbonate of copper, &c. 

Carbonic Acid, kar-bonik as-sid. A 
compound of carbon and oxygen, called 
also fixed air. It is gaseous, colourless, 
and cannot support respiration or combus- 
tion. 

Carboy, kar-boy. A large glass or 
bottle cased in basket-work, generally em- 
ployed for holding vitriol and other acids. 

Carcass, kar-kas. In building, the 
shell of a house before it is lathed or plas- 
tered, or the flooring laid down. 

Cardiac, kar-deeak (Greek, JcarcUa, the 
heart). Belonging to the heart. 

Cardinal nSTumbers. These are the 
numbers, one, hoo, three, &c. ; in distinction 
from first, second, third, kc, which are 
ordmal numbers. 

Cardinal Points. The four points or 
divisions of the horizon ; namely, North, 
South, East, and West. 

Cardinal Virtues. These are fre- 
quently alluded to as the "four cardinal 
virtues;" namely, prudence, temperance, 
justice, and fortitude. 

Cardinal Winds, are those winds 
which blow from the cardinal points. 

Careen, ka-reen (French, carener). 
To heave or lay a vessel on one side for the 
purpose of repairing. 

Caret, kay-ret (Latin). A mark (A) 
used in writing, and placed where some 
word has been omitted, which is inserted 
either above the caret or in the margin. 



CAR 



47 



Caricature (Italian, caricatura). The 
representation of a person or circumstance 
in such a manner as to render the original 
ridiculous. 

Caries, ka-re-es (Latin, caries). A 
term used to designate the ulceration of a 
bone, or that state of a bone which is 
analogous to ulceration of the soft parts. 

Carminative, kar-minnah-tiv (Latin, 
carmen, a charm). A specific which allays 
spasmodic affections, and dispels flatulence. 

Carnage, kar-naje (French, carnage). 
Great slaughter ; considerable bloodshed, 
without distinction of persons. 

Carnival, kar-ny-val (Italian, carna- 
vale). A season of revelry and feasting 
observed in Roman Catholic countries, just 
previous to Lent. 

Carnivorous, kar-niwer-us (Latin, 
carnis, flesh; voro, to devour). Flesh 
devouring ; applied to animals which feed 
on flesh. 

Carotid, kah-rottid (Greek, Jcaroo, to 
cause sleep). The term applied to an 
artery on each side of the neck. Its name 
is derived from the supposition of the 
ancients, that an increased flow of blood to 
the head caused sleep. 

Carousal, kah-rowzal. A festival ; a 
revel; a noisy drinking bout. Some autho- 
rities derive this word from the Italian, 
carricello, a chariot ; an entertainment con- 
sisting originally of a contest of chariots and 
horses, and afterwards used to denote what 
is now understood as a carousal. 

Carpology, car-polo-jy (Greek, Jcarpos, 
fruit ; logos, a discourse). In botany, that 
branch of the science which treats of fruits. 

Cairngorm,- kayrn-gorm. A species of 
quartz, of various colours and sizes, found 
on Cairngorm, a mountain of Scotland, 
belonging to the Grampian Hills, The 
cairngorm are also called Scotch pelUes, 
and are used for seals, brooches, and othe>' 
trinkets. 

Carrion, karry-un (Latin, caro, carnis, 
dead flesh). The putrid carcass of animals : 
flesh so corrupted as to be unfit for food. 

Carte, kart (French, carte). A bill ot 
fare ; a list of the various dishes prepared 
for a repast. 

Carte Blanche, kart blaush (French, 
carte blanclie). A blank paper with a sig- 
nature only attached, and, if necessary, 
sealed by the party against whom it is to 
be used, in order that it may be fiUed up 
with such conditions as may be thought 



48 



CAB 



proper by the party to wLom it is delivered. 
This term is also used in a general sense, to 
imply unrestricted authority granted to a 
person, to be used according to his own 
pleasure and discretion ; also, an order to 
disburse money, or inciir responsibilities, 
without any limit being set by the person 
Du whose behalf the transactions are under- 
taken. 

Cartel, kar-tel (Spanish, cartello'). An 
agreement between two belligerent states 
for the exchange of their prisoners of war ; 
also a -RTitten challenge to fight a duel. 

Cartilagejkarty-lidj (Latin, cartilago). 
A smooth, elastic, glistening substance, 
softer than bone and harder than muscle, 
commonly called giistle. 

Cartoon, kar-toon (Italian, cartone). 
Tn painting, a design dra^vn on thick paper, 
to be afterwards traced through, andti-ans- 
ferred on to the fresh plaster of a wall, to 
be painted in fresco. 

Case, (Latin, c«5i«5, afalHng). Literally, 
that which falls ; hence an event or state of 
things which are sometimes alluded to as 
having "fallen" upon a certain day. In 
g^mmar, case denotes the variation in 
writing and speaking, expressmg the rela- 
tion in which it stands to some other part 
of the sentence. 

Case-hardening. A method of pre- 
paring iron and making it hard, so as to 
render it capable of resisting any edged 
tool. 

Caseine,kay-se-in. One of the impor- 
tant elements of animal nutrition ; found 
in milk, in the seeds of leguminous plants, 
&c. 

Casemate, kase-mate (Italian, casa- 
matta). In fortification, a vault of mason's 
work in the flank of a bastion, serving as 
a battery to defend the opposite bastion 
and ditch. 

Castalian,kas-tale-yaE. Pertaining to 
Castalia, a fovmtain of Pai*nassus, sacred 
to the Muses. The waters of this fountain 
were fabled to have the power of inspiring 
those who diamk them with the true fire of 
poetiy. 

Castanet, kastah-net (Spanish, casta- 
neta). An instrument formed of concave 
shells, ivory, or hard wood, fastened to the 
fingers, and sounded to the time of a dance 
or song. 

Caste, kast. A name for the tribes of 
different employments into which the 
Hindoos are separated or classified, through 
successive generations ; collo(i\iially, the 



CAT 

term is used among us to imply station 
in life, or social position, so that a person 
who commits any disreputable action is 
commonly said to have lost caste. 

Cast-iron. The iron as it is extracted 
from the ores, being cast in a species of 
moulds ; called also ^^i^-troJi, and cast 
metal. 

Casting Vote. The vote of a person 
who presides over an assembly, or council, 
where the votes generally are the same on 
either side, and that of the president de- 
cides the matter at issue. 

Casuistry, kazhu-istry (Latin, casus, an 
event). The doctrine or science of con- 
science ; or the doctrine of resolving cases 
of doubtful propriety, and determining the 
lawfulness or unlawfulness of certain acts 
and opinions, by the application of i-ules 
from Scriptm-e, laws from society, or from 
equity and natural reason. 

Casus Belli, kay-zus bcl-le (Latin, 
ca^us belli). The cause of war ; a plea for 
making war. 

Catabaptists, kattah-baptists (Greek, 
Jcata, against ; haptizo, to baptise). A term 
used to denote those who oppose infant 
baptism, or deny the necessity of baptism 
at all. 

Catacomb, kattah-kome (Greek, Jcxta, 
against ; hymhos, a hollow place). A grotto, 
cave, or subterraneous place, for the burial 
of the dead. 

Catafalque, kattah-falk (Italian, cata- 
falco). A scaffold, or temporary structure 
of carpentiy, decorated with painting and 
sculpture, representing a tomb, and used 
in funeral ceremonies. 

Cataleetic, kattah-lektik (Greek, 'kata- 
leldikos, deficient). In classic poetry, a 
verse deficient of one syllable of its proper 
length. 

Catalepsjr, kattah-lepse (Greek, Tcata- 
lamhano, to seize). A milder form of apo- 
plexy or epilepsy. It consists in a total 
suspension of sensibility and voluntarj' 
motion, and generally also of mental power, 
the pulsation of the heart and breathing- 
continuing ; the muscles remaining flexible, 
the body yielding to and retaining any 
given position. 

Catalogue, kattah-log (Greek, iata, 
down ; logos, word). An enumeration or 
list of men orthiugs methodically arranged. 
Catalogue raisoam, is a catalogue of books 
classified according to their subjects. 



CAT 



CAT! 



4& 



Cataplasm, katah-plazm {(ireck, 
kata, against ; plasso, to form). A soft, 
moist application ; a poiiltice. 

Catamaran, katah-ma-ran. A species 
•of light boat which the ancient Egyptians 
■ased for crossing the Nile or floating on its 
waters ; it is constructed of the humblest 
materials, and bound togetlier as a sheaf. 
Also the name of a floating battery, with 
an apparatus for blowing up ships. 

Cataract, katah-rakt (Greek, kata, 
against ; rasso, to dash), A great fall of 
water over a precipice ; a disease of the 
eye from the opacity of the lens or pupil. 

Catarrh., kah-tar (Greek, lata, down ; 
rheo, to flow). A term for a cold in the 
head, or on the chest ; it is usually accom- 
panied by a discharge from the nostrils. 

Catastrophe, kat-astrofeo (Greek, 
l-ata, against ; strophe, a turning). A final 
event or conclusion ; the termination of a 
dramatic plot ; misf ortxme ; disaster. 

Catcall. A small squeaking instru- 
ment, formerly used to convey disappro- 
bation in theatres ; the peculiar noises still 
made by the frequenters of the galleries 
go by the same name. 

Catch. A musical composition of a 
humorous kind, arranged for three or four 
voices, with as many verses or couplets as 
there are parts. The catch is so contrived, 
that a meaning is given to the lines alto- 
a-cther different from that which ap- 
pears when they are read in an ordinaiy 
manner. 

Catchpenny. A low-priced pamphlet 
or other publication, which practises on 
popular credulity for the purpose of ex- 
torting money. 

Catch-word. A word formerly placed 
at the bottom of a page, intended as the 
leading one of the page succeeding. 

Catechism, katty-kizm (Greek, lata, 
against ; echeo, to sound). A form of 
instruction by means of question and an- 
swer. In its primary sense, an induction 
into the principles of the Christian re- 
ligion, delivered by word of mouth, and 
so as to necessitate frequent repetitions 
from the disciple or hearer of what has been 
\ittered. 

Category, katty-gorry (Greek, lata, 
against; agora, a discourse). In logic, a 
system or assemblage of aU the beings 
under one kind or genus ; in a general 
sense an arrangement of persons, things, 
ideas, &c., into classes. 



Cater, kay-tur (French, acheter, to li-uy/.- 
To provide food ; to purchase provisions ; 
to procure for other persons. 

Cater-cousin, kay-tur kuz-in. A pej- 
son related to another by blood in a remote 
degree ; the word is a corruption of quatre- 
cousin ; it is used conventionally to denota 
close intimacy from friendship. 

Cates, kates (Belgic, latter). Dainty 
and delicious food ; cakes ; rich dishes. 

Cathartic, ka-thartik (Greek, lathartes, 
a scavenger). Purgative ; applied to medi- 
cines of an active and aperient nature. 

Catholic, katho-lik (Greek, lata, re- 
ferring to ; holos, the whole). Pertaining 
to the Koman Catholic Chm'ch ; the word 
in a general sense means universal; em- 
bracing the whole ; comprehensive ; vmre- 
stricted. Thus, a person who entertains a 
subject in a liberal and comprehensive 
manner, is said to exercise a catholic spirit. 

Cat's-paw. Among seamen, a light air 
perceived in a calm by rippling on the 
surface of the water; conventionally, a 
person who does something for a principal 
which he is ashamed or afraid of doing 
himself. 

Caucasian, kaw-kayzh-yan. Pertain- 
ing to Caucasus, a celebrated mountain 
range between the Euxine and Caspian 
Seas. The Caucasian race forms one of the 
five principal varieties of mankind, to 
which the nations of Europe and some of 
the western Asiatics belong. In this class 
the head is almost round, and of the most 
symmetrical shape ; the cheek-bones witJi- 
out any projection ; the face oval ; and the 
features moderately prominent. 

Caudal, kaw-dal (Latin, caucia, a tail). 
Pertaining to the tail, as the caudal fin of 
a fish ; also, the thread which terminates 
the seed of a plant. 

Caul, kawl (Latin, caula). A membrane 
found on the heads of some newly-born 
children. It is viL^o;arly supposed that any 
individual having a child's caul upon his 
person, cannot be drowned ; hence cauls 
are frequently advertisedf or by superstitious 
persons, and high prices given for them. 

Caulking, kaw-king. In nautical lan- 
guage, ^he repairing of a ship by forcing 
oakum or other matter into the seams of 
the planks, and afterwards applying a 
mixture of taUow and pitch, or tar. 

Causality, kaw-zality. Agency of a 
cause. In phrenology, the "iaculty of 
tracing effects to causes. 



50 



CATT 



CEN 



Caustic, ka-w-stik (Greek, kaio, to 
bum), Bumiug ; hot ; acting like fire. 
Lunar caustic, nitrate of silver iised for a 
corrosive. In a figurative sense, stinging, 
cutting, pungent ; as a caustic speech. 

Cauterize, kawtur-ize (Greek, IcoAo, to 
bum). To bui-n or sear -with a hot iron, or 
with caustic. 

Cavalier, kavah-leer (Greek, 1:aballes, 
a horse on which loads are thi-own). An 
amieGl horseman : a knight ; a gay, sprightly 
military man ; a term applied to the 
adherents of Charles I. In fortification, a 
work raised within the body of tt place, 
above the other works. 

Cavalierly, kavah-leerly. Disdainfully; 
haughtily ; in the manner of a cavaUer, 

Cavalry, kaval-re (Greek, Tcdballes). 
Miliiary horsemen. This branch of the 
service is divided into light and heavy 
cavalry, being armed and mounted accord- 
ingly, A regiment of cavahy is divided 
into four squadi'ons, and each of these 
into two troops. 

Cavatina, kavah-teenah (Italian, cavo.- 
tina). A short aii- without a return or 
second part, which is sometimes reUeved 
by a recitative. 

Caveat, ka}-ve-at (Latin, caveat, let 
him beware). In common law, a term 
denoting a formal notice or caution to stop 
proceedings ; also, an intimation or notice 
of intention to apply for a patent for some 
invention. 

Caviare, kav-yare (German, lavlar). 
A food prepaa-ed from the roes of certain 
fish, especially that of the sturgeon, salted ; 
it is consiuned in lai-ge quantities in 
Eussia. 

Cavil, kav-il (Latin, cavillor, to satii-ise). 
To raise captious or futile objections. 

Caw, kaw (foiTued from the sound). 
To make a noise like a rook, raven, or 
crow. 

Cayenne Pepper, kay-yen pep-per. 
A very pungent pepper, obtained from the 
pods of several species of the capsicum ; 
which originally came from Cayenne, in 
South America. 

Cede, seed (Latin, cedo, to yield). To 
give up to another ; to yield ; to reUnqmsh 
possession. 

Cedilla, se-dHlah (French, cedille). A 
small mark placed imder the letter c 
(thus, c"), to denote when that letter is to 
be pronounced soft ; it is chiefly used in 
French words. 



Celibacy, selly-ba-se (Latin, ccelels, a 
bachelor). Single life ; unmarried stata 
The clergy of the Church of Rome are 
obliged to conform to celibacy. 

Cellular Tissue, sell-lewlar tis-shu. 
(Latin, cellula, a little cell). The elastic 
connecting tissue of the vaiious parts of 
animal and vegetable bodies, consisting of 
cellules or vesicles of various fig-ures ad- 
hering together in masses. 

Celtic, sel-tik. Pertaining to the Celts, 
or eai'ly inhabitants of Britain, Gaul, Spain, 
and the south and west of Europe. 

Cemetery, semmy-tere (Greek, Jccimai, 
to be dead). A place set apart for the inter- 
ment of the dead. 

Cenotaph, seno-taf (Greek, Jcenos, 
empty ; taphos, a sepiilchre). A monu- 
ment erected to the memoiy of a person, 
whose remains he buried in another i^lace ; 
such are the majority of the monuments in 
Westminster Abbey. 

Censer, sen-sur (French, encensoir, per- 
fuming pan). The pan or vessel in which 
j incense is burned. 

Censor, ser.-sor (Latin, censor). In 

I Rome, a magistrate who corrects tlie 

I morals and manners of the people ; hence, 

a person who undertakes to correct others 

is so called. 

Census, sen-sus (Latin, census). An 
enumeration of the inhabitants of a 
country taken by Government authority. 
In Great Britain a census of the popula- 
tion is taken every ten years. 

Cent, sent (Latin, centum, a himdred). 
In commerce, a term used to express the 
profit or loss, per hundred, arising from 
the sale of any commodity, the rate of 
commission, exchange, the interest of 
money, &c. ; as 10 per cent, is the tenth 
part of a hundred, 20 per cent, the fifth 
part, and so on. Cent is also the name of 
a copper coin of the United States, of the 
value of one hundredth part of a dollai', and 
answering very nearly to the English haif- 
pennj. 

Centaur, sen-taur. In mythology, a 
fabulous monster, depicted 'as half a 
man and half a horse; it also represents 
Sagittarius, the archer, one of the signs of 
the Zodiac. 

Centenarian, senty-narean (Latin, 
centum, a hundred). A person who hai 
attained one hundred years. 

Centennial, sent-enny-al (Latin, ce7i- 
tum, a hundred). Consisting of a hundred 
years ; happening every century. 



CEN 



CES 



51 



Centime, son-teem (Fi-ench, centime). 
The hundredth part of a franc ; ten centimes 
answer to the English penny. 

Centipede, senty-peed (Latin, centum, 
a hundred ; ^jgs, a foot). The name com- 
monly but erroneously given to insects 
which have many feet. In some species 
they are found to number twenty-six pairs. 

Cento, sen- to. In poetrj', a piece 
wholly composed of the verses of other 
authors, wherein sometimes whole lines, 
and at others, half verses are borrowed, 
but set down in a new order, and applied 
to a subject different from that in which 
they were originally introduced. 

Centre of Gra"vity. That point 
about which the parts of a body, in any 
situation, balance each other ; if this con- 
dition be not' maintained, the body yields 
or falls ; thus, a coach or a boat which 
overturns, does so because it loses its centre 
of gravity. 

Centralization, sentral-izayshun 
(Greek, kentron, a point). Tendency to a 
centre ; the act of centralizing. 

Centrifugal, sent - rifu - gal (Latin, 
centrum, a centre \.fugio, totiy). Tendency 
to recede from the centre. The centri- 
fugal force of a body is that force by 
which any body moving in a curve en- 
deavours to recede from the centre. 

Centumviri, sen-tum-ve-ri. Roman 
judges, who were chosen three from each 
of the thirty-five tribes, making in all one 
himdred and five, though they were esti- 
mated in round numbers as one hundred 
men, and so called. 

Century, sentu-re (Latin, centum, a 
hundred). A hundred years ; usually em- 
ployed to specify a certain period, as the 
nineteenth century ; sometimes the word is 
used simply to denote a hundred. 

Cephalic, sefah-lik (Greek, JcepJiale, a 
head). Appertaining to the head ; a medi- 
cine for the head. 

Cerate, se-rat (Latin, ceratum, was oint- 
ment). A preparation, or healing plaster, 
of which wax forms the principal ingredient. 

' Cerberus, serby-rus. In mythology, 
a dog or monster with three heads, who 
guarded the entrance of the infernal 
regions; a surly and jealous -doorkeeper 
is ironically thus named. 

Cereal, seree-al {Ceres, the goddess of 
agriculture). A term applied to grain 
yielding food to man or beast ; as wheat, 
oats, barley, rye, &^ 



Cerebral, seree-bral (Latin, cereh-umj 
the brain). Pertaining to the brain. 

Cerecloth, sear-kloth (Latin, cera, 
wax ; and cloth). Cloth smeared with wax 
and other substances; employed by the 
ancients in wrapping around dead bodies. 

Ceremony, seiTy-munny (from Ceres, 
the goddess of agriculture, who was wor- 
shipped with much solemnity). Outward 
rite ; external form of religion ; impres- 
sive forms of state ; frigid civility. 

Certes, ser-tez (French, certes). An old 
word, signifying certainly, truly, indeed. 

Certiorari, sershio-rari. In law, a VTrit 
issued out of Chancery or other superior 
court, to call up the records of an inferior 
court ; or remove a cause then pending, 
that it may be tried in a superior court. 
This writ is obtained upon complaint of 
a party that he cannot in an inferior court 
receive justice, or that he is not certain of 
receiving it. 

Certificate, ser-tiffy-kate (Latin, certus, 
certain). A testimony given in writing to 
certify or make known any truth ; as cer- 
tificate of marriage, of baptism, of bank- 
ruptcy. 

Cerulean, se-rulean (Latin, coeruleus, 
blue). Sky-coloured, or sky-blue. 

Cerumen, seru-men (Latin, cerumen). 
Wax secreted by the ear. 

Cervical, servee-kal (Latin, cervix, the 
neck). Belonging to the neck. 

Cessavit, ses-sayvit (Latin, cessavit, 
he hath ceased). In law, a writ issued to 
recover lands, when the tenant or occupier 
has ceased for two years to perform the 
service or pay the rent which constitutes 
the condition of his tenure, and has not 
sufficient goods and chattels to be dis- 
trained. 

Cessio Bonorum, seslj-sheobon-orum. 
A Latin law phrase, meaning the surrender 
by an insolvent debtor of his entire pro- 
perty to his creditors. This exempts him 
from all personal penalties. 

Cession, sesh-shun (Latin, cesso, .to 
cease). The act of sun'endering, or yielding 
up to a creditor, the goods, property, &c., 
of a debtor. In Ecclesiastical law, when 
a person accepts a second benefioo or 
dig-nity in the Church, which is incomjjatiblo 
by law with that which he previously held, 
the latter is said to bo void hy cessiof., 

Cesspool, ses-pool. A well sunk voder 
ground to receive water and refuse from 
drains. 



52 



CES 



CHA 



^Ceetue, ses-tus (Latin, ccstus). The 
girdle of Venus, or marriage girdle, which 
was fabled to invest the person who wore it 
with irresistible charms. 

Cetacea, se-taysheah (Greek, hetos, 
a whale). An order of animals inhabiting 
the ocean, of which the whale and the dol- 
phin are examples. These animals re- 
semble fishes in their general natures, but 
they breathe air, have warm blood, and a 
double circulation ; the tail is also horizontal, 
and .not vertical as in true fishes. 

Chafe, tshafe (Latin, calefacere, to 
make warm). To warm by rubbing ; figu- 
ratively, to heat a person's temper by a 
contradictory or peevish manner. 

Chaffer, tshaf-fur (German, havfen, to 
buy). To haggle ; to bargain ; to treat 
about a purchase. 

Chafing Dish, tshafe-ing dish. A 
utensil made use of to contain live coal, or 
charcoal, for keeping anything warm, or 
for heating anything when cold. 

Chagrin, sha-green (French, cUacp-in). 
Displeasure, iU-humoui-, or peevishness 
arising from anything done to vex, or in 
opposition to a person's inclinations. 

Chalice, chal-lis (Latin, ccdix', a cup). 
A vessel formerly used as a di-inking-cup ; 
but the term is now applied to the cup 
which contains the wine in the celebration 
of the communion, or Lord's sujDper. 

Chalybeate, kah-libby-ate (Latin, 
chalyls, iron or steel). Impregnated with 
iron ; a word applied to water, medicines, 
or other fluids containing iron in solution. 

Chamberlain, chambur-lin. An ofl[i- 
cer charged with the management and 
direction of a chamber. In England, the 
Lord High Chamherlain is the sixth officer 
of the Crown. He has to perform certain 
duties at the coronation, and has under 
him ushers, yeomen-ushers, and door- 
keepers. The Lord Chamberlain of the 
Household is the overseer of aU officers 
belonging to the royal chambers, except 
the bed-chamber, wardrobe, &c., and ad- 
ministers the oath to all officers above- 
stairs. The Chamberlain of the Exchequer, 
of London, of Chester, of North "Wales, 
&c., are commonly receivers of rents and 
revenues, and have certain rights and im- 
munities attached to their situations. 

Chameleon, kahmeel-3nin (Greek, 
charjiai, on the ground; leon, lion). An 
animal of the lizard tribe, originally sup- 
posed to live on air. Its most remarkable 
charactei'istic is, tlie assuming the coloxir of 



the thing to which it is applied, but its 
•natural colour, in the shade, and at rest, is 
a blueish grey. 

Chamois Leather, sham-oy leth-ur. 
A soft leather made from the skin of the 
Chamois, an animal of the goat kind. 

Champagne, sham-pain. A brisk, 
sparkling wine, named from Champagne, 
one of the former provinces of France. 

Champaign, sham-pain (French, 
Champagne). A flat, open country. 

Champerty, tsham-purty (French, 
champart, field-rent). In law-suits a species 
of maintenance, being a bargain with a 
plaintiff or defendant, to divide the land or 
other matter at issue between them, if they 
prevail ; whereupon, the champerior is to 
carry on the party's suit at his own ex- 
pense. 

Champion, tshamp-eon (Latin, campiis, 
a plain). One who undertakes a combat 
in the place of another, or in his own 
cause. The Champion of England is 
a person whose office is hereditary, and 
who, upon the day of coronation, rides into 
Westminster Hall, and throws down his 
gauntlet as a challenge to any one who 
dare contest the sovereign's right. 

Chance-Medley. In law, the acci- 
dental killing of a person in a fray or 
in self-defence. 

Chancel, tshan-sel (Latin, cancelU, 
lattice work). The eastern part of a 
church, where the altar stands. 

Chancellor, tshan-sellur (Latin, can- 
celU, cross-bar or ruling). A high officer of 
state or of some public establishment. 
The Lord High Chancellor of England is 
the first person in the realm, after the 
sovereig-n and princes of the blood. The 
Chancellor of the Exchequer, has the custody 
and control of the funds of the nation. 

Chancery. The highest court of 
justice in Great Britain next to Pai'liament, 
consisting of two distinct tribunals: — one, 
ordinary, being a court of common law; 
the other extraordinary, being a court of 
equity. 

Chanticleer, tshanty-kleer (French, 
chant, crowing ; clair, clear). The name 
given to the cock, from the shrillness and 
loudness of his crow. 

Chantry, tshan-tre (Latin, cano,^ to 
sing). A church or chapel endowed for 
the maintenance of one or more priests, for 
the purpose of singing masses for the souls 
of the donors, or such as the donors have ' 
appointed to be prayed for. 



CHA 

Chaos, kay-os (Greek, cliaos). Con- 
fuseclness ; disorder ; undistinguishable mix- 
ture of elements. 

Cliaotic, kay-otic (Greek, chaos). A 
state resembling chaos. 

Chapeau, sliah-po (French, chapeau). 
A hat or cap. In heraldry, an ancient cap 
of dignity worn by dukes ; it is frequently 
borne above a helmet instead of a wreath 
under gentlemen's crests. 

Chaperon, shaper-ong (French, chape- 
ron). A kind of hood; a lady's attendant 
and protector in pubhc. 

Chapfallen, tshap-fawln. Having the 
mouth shrunk or the jaw fallen down; 
originally applied to a helmet ; figura- 
tively, it denotes the expression of a per- 
son's face who has met with any serious 
loss or disappointment. 

Chaplet, tshap-let (French, chapelet). 
A garland or wreath to be worn aroxxnd the 
head; a string of beads used by Roman 
CathoUcs, by which they count the number 
of their prayers. 

Chapman, tshap-man (Saxon, ceap- 
man). One who offers goods for sale; a 
cheapener ; a buyer and sellei'. In Scot- 
land, a travelling dealer or packman. 

Chapter, tshap-tur (French, chapitre). 
The division of a book ; a society or com- 
munion of clergymen belonging to cathe- 
drals and collegiate chm-ches ; also, a meet- 
ing of the members of an order of knight- 
hood. 

Char, tshar (Saxon, cerran, to burn^. 
To turn to a black cinder. 

Characteristic, karak-teristik (Greek, 
charahter, a mark, or impression). A 
distinguishing feature; that which con- 
stitutes the character' of a person or thing. 

Charade, shah-rahd (French, charade). 
A species of riddle, the subject of which is 
a name or word that is proposed for solu- 
tion from an enigmatical description of its 
several syllables, and of the whole word. 
An acting charade is one in which the 
actors illustrate the composition by appro- 
priate action, leaving the spectators to 
divine the meaning. 

Charcoal, tshar-koal. The residue of 
wood after having been charred, being car- 
bon in a nearly pm-e state. 

Charge d' Affaires, shar-zhay daf- 
fair. In diplomatic missions, the third 
and lowest class of official enti-usted with 
the affairs of a state at a foreign court. 



CHA 



53 



Charger, tshar-jur. A high-mettled 
horse used in war to charge, or advance 
swiftly towards the enemy. 

Charivari, shar-e-va-ree (French, cha- 
rivari). A mock serenaiie of discordant 
music. This is the title of the principal 
comic journal of France, answering' to the 
English PuRch. 

Charlatan, sha,rlah-tan (French, ckarla,- 
ian). A mountebank; a quack; a more 
pretender. 

Charles's "Wain. In astronomy, 
seven remarkable stars, the constellation 
of the '"'Great Bear" forming the figure of 
a rustic ■waiii, or luaggon. 

Charnel House, tshar-nel house 
(Latin, carnis, flesh, and house). A de- 
pository for the bones of the dead. 

Chart, tshart (Latin, charto). A term 
applied to a marine map for the use of 
navigatox's, showing the sea-coasts, rocks, 
sands, bearings, kc. The chart globular 
is a projection, so called from the confor- 
mity it bears to the globe itself. 

Charter, tshar- tm* (French, chartre). 
A legal instrument executed with custo- 
mary fonns, given as evidence of a grant, 
or something done between man and man. 
In its more general sense, it is the instru- 
ment of a grant, conferring powers, rights, 
and privileges from some sovereign or 
party having power to grant such charters. 

Charter Party. In maritime affairs, 
a deed or written contract for the letting 
to freight the whole or part of a vessel for 
one or more voyages : the ship is then said 
to be chartered for the voyage. 

Chartism, tshar-tizm. In England, 
the principles held by the democratic 
body called Chartists ; consisting of five 
leading points, namely : — universal su ffrage, 
annual parliaments, vote by ballot, elec- 
toral districts, and payment of members of 
parliament. 

Charybdis, karib-dis (Greek, charyb 
dis). A dangerous whirlpool in the Strait of 
Messina, in Sicily, nearly opposite to Scylla, 
a rock on the coast of Italy. In figura- 
tive language, these two words are used to 
express two difffrent kinds of danger. • As, 
to '^ escape Charybdis only to meet with. 
Scylla." 

Chasseurs, shas-surze (Freneh, chas- 
seurs). A French term for a select body of 
light infantry, who are required to be par- 
ticulai'ly agile and expert in their move- 
ments. 



54 



CHA 



Chateau, shah-to (French, chateau). 
A country seat ; a gentleman's mansion. 
Formerly used to denote a castle or baro- 
nial hall in France. 

Cheap- Jack. The name given to an 
itinerant huckster, or dealer in hai-dware, 
&c., and who puts his goods up to auction 
among the crowd, indulging at the same 
time in volleys of coarse wit, and random 
assertions, respecting the wares he has to 
offer. 

Checkmate. The movement on a 
ihess-board which hinders the opposite 
men from moving, and terminates the 
game. Mate is from the Spanish matar, 
tokiU. 

Checker "Work, tshek-ur wurk. 
Work varied alternately, as to its colours 
or materials. 

Cheek by Jo"wl. Side by side. Said 
often of persons in such close confabulation 
as almost to have their faces touch. 

Chef d'CEuvre, shay-durver (French, 
chefcPosuvre). A master-piece ; a perform- 
ance of distinguished merit. 

Chegoe, tzheg-o (Spanish, chiguito, 
small). A tropical insect which enters the 
skin of the feet, producing great pain and 
annoyance. 

Cherub, tsher-ub. A word used in 
Scripture for certain symbolical figures 
with one or more heads, and furnished 
with wings ; a celestial spirit ; a :beautiful 
child. The plural of this word is cherubim. 

Chevalier, shevah-leer (French, cheva- 
lier). A knight ; a horseman ; ■ a gallant 
young man. 

Chevaux de Frise, shevo-deh-freez 
{Yrench., chevaiix de f rise). In fortification, 
a piece of timber armed with spikes to 
defend a passage ; also applied to the 
spikes set in, ordinarily, on the top of a 
wall. 

Chevron, shev-run (French, chevron). 
4. military badge worn on the coat-sleeve. 
In heraldry, an honourable ordinary, repre- 
senting two rafters of a house set up as 
they ought to stand. In architecture, a 
simple ornament consisting of short lines, 
joining at angles. 

Chiara Oscuro, kyah-rah-osku-ro 
(Italian). In painting, that important part 
which relates to light and shade ; referring 
not only to the mutable effects which light 
and shade produce, but also to the per- 
manent differences in lightness and dark- 
ness. 



CHO 

Chiboque, tcm-oooKe. j\. Turkish' 
pipe. 

Chicanery, shekain-aree (French, 
chicanei-ie). Mean artifice or stratagem ; 
sophistry ; evasion. 

Chiltern Hundreds. Stewardship 
of. A name applied to a nominal 
stewardship which a member of parliament 
accepts when he abandons his seat. By 
law, no member can resign his seat in the 
House of Commons ; therefore, when he 
wishes to retire, he accepts the above post, 
which, being a place of profit and honour 
under the Crown, at once disqualifies him 
for retaining his seat. This office was 
originally appointed over a portion of the 
high lands of Buckinghamshire, known by 
the name of Chiltern HUls. 

Chimera, kim-eera. A fabulous mon- 
ster ill mythology, represented as having a 
lion's head, a goat's body, and the tail of 
a dragon. In Christian art, the chimera 
is a symbol of cunning; figm-atively, it 
expresses a wild or extravagant fancy, an 
illusory or unnatural conception of the 
mind. 

Chirographer, ki-rograh-fur (Greek, 
cheir, the hand ; grapho,to^'Y\ie). One who 
exercises or professes the art or business 
of writing ; an officer in the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas, who engrosses fines. 

Chiromancer, kiro-mansur (Greek, 
cheir, the hand ; manteia, divination). The 
pretended art of divining fortunes and 
future events by the lines of the hands. 

Chiropedist, ki - roppy - dist (Greek, 
cheir, the hand ; pous, a foot). One who 
extracts corns from the feet. 

Chirurgery, ki-nir-jery (Greek, chein 
the hand ; ergorc, work). Surgery, or that 
department of medical science in which the 
hand, either alone, or with instruments, is 
employed for the prevention or cure of 
diseases. 

Chivalry, tshiv-alry [(French, cheval- 
erie). The duties and privileges of a 
knight ; the qualifications or characteristics 
of knighthood ; heroic adventure ; dis- 
interested conduct. 

Choir, kwire (Latin, chorus, a body of 
singers). An assembly or band of singers, 
especially in Divine service ; also that paii; 
of the church allotted to the choristers. 

Choleric, kcllur-ik (Greek, chole, bile). 
Passionate ; hasty ; petulant. 

Chop-stick. A Chinese implemen' 
for taking food with. 



Clio 

Choregraphy, korcg-rafTy (Latin, 
cJoorea, a dance. Greek, (/I'ap/w, to de- 
scribe). Tlieart of representing dancing 
by signs, as singing is by notes. 

Cliorography, koro-graffy (Greek, 
lora, a district ; (/ro/pho, to describe). The 
arc of describing or delineating by maps a 
pai-ticvilar region, in contradistinction to 
geography and topography. 

Chowder, tshow-der. A dish of fresh 
fish boiled with biscuits, &c, 

Cliristendoni,kris'sn-dum. The por- 
tion of the world inhabited by Christians, 
and aclcnowledging Christianity ; Christians 
as a body. 

Chromatic, kro-matik (Greek, chroma, 
colour). Eelating to colour; in music, 
marking a species of notes by semi-tones. 

Chromatype, kro-mah-type (Greek, 
chroma, colour ; ttqws, representation). A 
process of photography, which consists in 
washing paper with a solution, and ex- 
posing it to the influence of sunshine, with 
the object to be copied superposed, and 
afterwards washed with a solution of 
nitrate of silver. 

Chronology, kron-ollo-je (Greek, 
chronos, time ; loc/os, a discourse). The 
science of computing and adjusting dates 
or periods of time, and of ascertaining the 
correct periods or years in which particular 
events occurred. 

Chronometer, kro-nommy-tiu- (Greek, 
chronos, time ; raetron, a measure). A time- 
piece constructed in such a manner as to 
note time perfectly. Watches of this kind 
are used at sea ; they generally beat half- 
seconds. 

_ Chronic, kron-ik (Greek, chronos, 
^ime). A term applied to such diseases 
as are of long duration, in opposition 
to those of more rapid progress ; this 
term is also applied in a social sense to 
imply bad habitude, asa " chronic state of 
insolvency." 

Chum (Armoric, chom). A familiar 
term for a chamber-fellow, or one who 
lodges in the same apartment ; a word in 
common use at imiversities. 

Church Service. The common 
prayer, collects, and other parts of public 
worship performed according to the forms 
of the Church of England. 

Chyle, kile (Greek, c7iy?os). A white 
fiaid contained in the stomach, consisting 
of the finer and more nutritious parts of the 
food, which is received into the lacteal 



CIR 55 

vessels, and serves to form the blood.- 
Chylification is the process of digestion, by 
which the food taken is converted into 
chyle. 

Chym.e, kime (Greek, chymos, juice). 
The pulpy substance into which food is 
converted after being subjected for a while 
to the action of the stomach, and from 
which the chyle is prepared. 

Chrysalis, krisah-lis (Greek, chrysos, 
gold). In insect life, that state which 
occurs between the caterpillar or grub form 
and the perfect winged insect. In this 
stage the animal lies inactive, takes no food, 
and is inclosed in a transparent covering, 
which has often a metalhc lustre and a 
golden hue ; hence its name. 

Cicatrice, sikkab-tris (Latin, cicatrix). 
The scai- or seam on the flesh after a wound 
has healed. 

Cicerone, che-che-ro-ne (Italian, cice- 
rone). Any person who acts as a guide; 
one who points out objects of interest, 
and explains curiosities. This word is 
derived from Cicero, the great Eoman 
orator. 

Cid, sid (Arabic, seid, lord). The name 
given to a geat hero among the Spaniards, 
celebrated for his exploits, Roderigo Diaz, 
count of Bivar. 

Ci-devant, seed-vawng (French, ci- 
devant, heretofore). Belong-ing to former 
times, or other days ; pertaining to a 
system of things gone by. 

Cimmerian, sim-meery-an. Dark 
and gloomy, as it is with the Cimmerii, a 
people dwelling on the western coast of 
Italy, where it is extremely dark. 

Cinerary, sinny-rary (Latin, cineres, 
ashes). Relating to ashes. 

Cinque Ports, singk-portse (French, 
cinq, five, and 2^orts). The five sea-port 
towns of Dover, Hastings, Sandwich, 
Hythe, and Romney ; to which three 
others were afterwards added — namely, 
Winchelsea, Rye, and Seaford. These 
towns possess peculiar privileges, and are 
under the government of a lord-warden. 

Cipher, si-fur (French, chiffre). The 
figure (0) in numbers ; an interweaving of 
letters or the initials of a name ; a secret 
manner of writing. 

Circassian, ser-kash-yan. A native 
of Circassia ; pertaining to Circassia, a 
countiy situated on the southern declivity 
of IMount Caucasus. 



56 



CIS, 



Circuit, ser-Kit (Latio, circum, rdund). 
Tiio journey ox- progress which the judges 
take twice every year, through the counties 
of England and Wales, to hold courts and 
administer justice. Thus England is divi- 
ded into six circuits— The Home Circuit, 
Norfolk Circuit, Midland Circuit, Oxford 
Circuit, Western Circuit, and Northern 
Circuit. In Wales there are two cu-cuits, 
the North and South. In Scotland there 
are three — the Southern, Western, and 
Northern. 

Circular, sirku-lur. An advertising 
letter intended for circulation; it is usually 
printed mth a fly-leaf, in contradistinction 
to a hill, which has no fly-leaf. 

Circulating Medium. In com- 
merce, a term denoting the medium of 
exchanges, or purchases and sales, whether 
this medium be metallic coin, paper, or 
any other article. 

Circumambient, serkum-amby-ent 
(Latin, circum, round ; amhio, to encom- 
pass). Surrounding ; encompassing ; in- 
closing. 

Circumference, ser - kumfer - ens 
(Latin, circumferentia). The line that 
bounds a circle ; the line encompassing any 
figure. 

Circumflex, serkum-fleks (Latin, cir- 
cnmflexus). An accent used to regulate the 
pronunciation of syllables, including or 
participating of the acute and grave — it is 
marked thus ('■). 

Circumlocution, serkum-lo-kewshim 
(Latin, circumlocutio). The describing a 
thing by many words, which might be ex- 
plained in a few. 

Circumnavigation, serkum-nav^^;^- 
gayshun (Latin, circumnavigo). The act of 
sailing round. 

Circumscribe, serkum-skribe (Latin, 
nrcicm, round ; scriho, to write). To con- 
fine with certain limits ; to inclose ; to set 
bounds to. 

Circumspect, serkum-spekt (Latin, 
circum, around ; specto, to look). Prudent ; 
watchful ; cautious ; wary. 

Circumstance, serkum-stans (Latin, 
circum, around ; sto, to stand). Something 
attending on or a relative to a fact, though 
not essential thereto. Circumstarotial evi- 
dence is composed of those circumstances 
which either naturally or necessarily attend 
facts of a peculiar nature, which cannot be 
demonstratively evinced, and which so 
agree as to render them worthy of reliance 
until the contrary be proved. 



CLA 

Circumstantial Evidence. lula^.v-, 
that evidence which is obtained from cir- 
cumstances which usually attend facts or tv 
pax'ticular nature, from which arises pre- 
sumption. I 

Circumvallation, serkum-va-Iayshua 
(Latin, circum, arouud ; 'callum, a rampart). 
The act of casting- up fortifications around 
a place ; the fortification or trench thrown 
around a besieged town. 

Circumvent, serkum-vent (Latin, cir- 
cum, around ; venio, to come). To over- 
reach ; to delude. 

Circumvolution, serkum-vo-lewshun 
(Latin, circum, arouud ; volo, to fly). The 
act of rolling or turning round. 

Cirrus, sir-rus (Latin, cirnis, a lock of 
hair curled). A term applied to the curl- 
cloud, charactei'ised by its curlinfj form, 
by the lightness of its appearance, and the 
manj^ changes of its figure. 

Cistern, sis-tum (Latin, cista, a chest). 
A large receptacle for water, either above 
or below ground. 

Citadel, sitah-del (French, ciiadelle). 
A fortress situated on the most commanding 
ground about a citij. It serves to keep the 
inliabitauts in awe, axid in the event of the 
place being taken, becomes a retreat for 
the garrison. It is separated from the 
to'wn by an esplanade, which is a space of 
level ground, clear of buildings, so that no 
pei'son can approach unperceived. 

Citation, site-ayshun (Latin, cito, to 
call). A summons to appear in court ; an 
official call ; quotation ; mention. 

Civic Crown. A garland of oak- 
leaves, which was given to a Roman soldier 
who had saved the life of a citizen. 

Civil Engineer. One employed in 
civil engineering, such as the constructing 
of machinery for the purposes of manu- 
facture or locomotion ; as opposed to 
military engineering. 

Civil Law. The law of a state, 
city, or country. 

Civil List. The oflBcers of civil 
government ; also the revenue appropriated 
to support civil government. 

_ Civilian, siv-ilyan (Latin, civis, a 
citizen). One eng-aged in civil pursuits, as 
distinguished from military, clerical, &c. 
A. professor of the civil law. 

Clairvoyance, klare-voyans (French, 
clair, clear; voyance, seeing). A faculty 
which some persons are reputed to possess 



CLA 



CLI 



57 



of discerning things invisible to the senses 
when submitted to mesmeric influeuce. 

Clan, klan (Iiish, claim). A family ; a 
race, A tribe consisting of many families 
bearing tlie same surnarae^ who, accord- 
ing to traditioUj descend from a com- 
mon ancestor, as the Campbells of Scot- 
land; the O'Connors of Ireland, &c. 

Clandestine, klan-destin (Latin, clam, 
secret). Concealed from view ; secret ; 
underhand ; fraudulent. 

Clangour, klang-gor (Lectin, clangor). 
A harsh, sharp sound. 

Clapperclaw, klappur-klaw. To scold; 
to rail at. 

Clap-trap, Idap-trap. A term applied 
to anything said to the multitude for the 
purpose of extracting applause ; it takes 
its name from a kind of clapper used in 
theatres. 

ClarencieiLX, klaren-shu (French, 
clarancicux). An heraldic ofl&ce ; the second 
king at arms, so called from the Duke of 
Clarence, son of Edward III., who fii'st bore 
the office. 

Clarification, klai-ry-fekayshun (Lat. 
clarus, clear ; faclo, to make). The process 
of freeing any liquid from its impurities 
by boiling or by chemical applications. 

Clarion, klarry-un (French, clairon). 
A kind of trumpet with a narrower tube 
than the ordinary trumpet, anciently much 
used in war, on account of the shiUlness of 
its tone. 

Class. A term used to denote an assem- 
blage of beings or things having some 
marked character in common. Classes are 
made up of orders. What the genus is to 
the species, or the order to the genera, the 
class is in respect to the orders. Every 
class comprehends part of the series of 
genera collected into several orders ; every 
order is an assemblage of genera, every 
genus an assemblage of similar species, and 
every species is made up of homogeneous 
individuals. 

Classical, klassy-kal (Latin, classicns). 
Ilelating to the pure and elegant literature 
of wi'iters in any ianguao^e, but more espe- 
cially to tne ancient autliors of Greece and 
Rome. 

Clause, klawz (Latin, clausula, the end). 
A sentence, or so much of it as will make 
sense ; an article in a contract or particu- 
lar stipulation ; an especial provision in- 
serted in Acts of Parliament. 



Clavicle, klawy-kul (Latin, clavicula, 
a little key). The collar-bone ; the bone 
situated between the shoulder- bone and 
breast-bone. 

Claymore, kiay-more (Gaelic, claid- 
heamhmoT). A large sword formerly used 
by the Scottish Highlanders. 

Clearing. In commerce, the act of 
setting imported goods free by official 
examination, and the computation and pay- 
ment of customs duties. Among London 
bankers, a method adopted for exchanging 
the cheques drawn upon each other. A 
clearing house is appointed for this pur- 
pose, whither the representative of each 
banker repairs at a certain hour daily, 
taking with him all the cheques on the 
other bankers which have been paid into 
his principal's house that' day. Balances 
are struck from aU the accounts, and the 
claims are transferred from one to another, 
until each clerk has only to settle with two 
or three others, and then balances are 
immediately paid. 

Clear Starch. To stiffen with starch, 
and clear by clapping the articles between 
the hands. 

Clef, kief (French clef, key). In music, 
a character placed at the commencement 
of a stave, to determine the degree of ele- 
vation occupied by that stave in the sys- 
tem, and to point out the names of all the 
notes contained in the line of the clef. 

Clemency, klemmen-se (Latin, demen- 
tia, mildness). Mercy ; indulgence ; dis- 
iion to treat with favour and kindness. 



Clerk, klark (Greek, Ueros, heritage). 
This word was originally used to denote a 
man of letters, or a learned man ; and a 
clergyman is still designated a clerk in holy 
orders. It is now .a common name for 
assistants in offices, counting-houses, &c. 
The name was originally given to clergy- 
men, to imply that they were the peculiai' 
heritage or property of God. 

Cleve, ClifF, or Clive. In the name 
of a place, either of these syllables occur- 
ring at the beginning or end of a word, 
denotes that such place is situated on the 
side of a rock or hill, as Cleveland, Clifton, 
Stancliff. 

Client, kli-ent (Latin, cliens). A person 
who receives legal advice and assistance, 
or who intrusts the management of his 
affairs to a lawyer. 

Climacteri?, klimak-terik (Greek, 
JclimaXf a ladder, or scale). Among th^ 



58 



CLl 



COA 



ancient physicians and astrologers, the 
name given to certain periods in human 
life, which were supposed to be verj'- criti- 
cal, and denoting some extraordinary 
change. According to some, every seventh 
year is a climateric, while others recognise 
only those years produced by 7 and multi- 
phed by the odd numbers 3, 5, 7, and 9. 
These years are said to bring with them 
some remarkable change, with respect to 
life, health, and fortune. The grand cli- 
macteric is the sixty-third year. The other 
olimaterics are the 7th, 21st, 35th, 49th, 
and 56th. 

Climax, kli-maks (Greek, Idiraax, a 
ladder, or scale). Gradation ; ascent. A 
figure in rhetoric, by which the sentences 
or particulars rise gradually, forming a 
whole in such a manner, that the last idea 
in the former member becomes the first in 
the latter, till the chmax or gradation is 
completed. 

Clinical, klinny-kal (Greek, Jdvies, a 
bed). In medicine, a term used to signify 
the treatment of patients in bed, for the 
more exact discovery of the nature of dis- 
ease. A clinical lecture is a discourse de- 
livered by the bed-side of a patient, whose 
peculiar condition is made to illustrate the 
several points alluded to. 

Clique, kleek (French, clique). A 
narrow set of persons ; a party holding 
aloof from other persons, save those having 
similar views and jsrinciples, andoccupj-ing 
the same position as themselves ; a gang ; a 
clan ; a coterie. 

ClodllOpper. A dull, heavy, clownish 
fellow, who is associated with clods or 
lumps of earth ; one who follows the 
plough, or labours in the fields, is com- 
monly so called. 

Cloister, kloys-tur (Saxon, claustcr, a 
closet). A retirement; a place of seclusion 
from the world ; especially applied to the 
principal part of a monastery, consisting of 
a square built on each of its sides, between 
the church, the chapter- house, and the re- 
fectory, where the monks meet for conver- 
sation. In architecture, a court which has 
buildings on each of its four sides ; a peri- 
style, or piazza. 

Close-quarters. In a ship, strong 
bairiers of wood, used for defence when 
the vessel is boarded ; the term is used 
conventionally to imply persons being 
crowded uncomfortably together. 

Clove-Pink. A plant so named from 
the supposed resemblance which the odour 



of the flower bears to the clove of com- 
merce. 

Cloven-footed. Having the foot oi 
hoof divided into two parts, as in the ox. 
Satan is generally rej^reseuted with a 
cloven foot, and a persou who deals 
knavishly and deceitfully with another is 
said to skoio the cloven foot. 

Club Law. Government by brute 
force or violence. 

Clue, klue (Saxon, cliwe). A ball of 
thread ; anything which furnishes a guide 
or direction. In nautical language, the 
lower corner of a square-sail, and the aft- 
most comer of a stay-sail. C'leio-garaets are 
a rope and pulley, made fast to the clews of 
the main and fore-sails. 

Clyster, klis-tur (Greek, lli/zo, to 
wash). A medicated liquid, injected by 
means of a pipe into the larger intestine. 

Co, ko. An abbreviation of con, when 
prefixed to words signifying wit/i or together. 
In commerce, an abbreviation for the word 
company, as relating to a partnership; 
thus. Smith and Co. 

Coadjutor, ko-adjew-tur (Latin, con, 
with ; adjutor, an assistant). A person 
engaged in assisting another ; a helper in 
the same department or pursuit. In canon 
law, one who is empowered or appointed 
to perform the duties of another. 

Coagula,te,ko-adjew-late (Lat. coagulo, 
to cause to curdle). To thicken ; to clot : 
as milk turns into curds by means of 
rennet. 

Coalesce, koah-less (Latin, coalesco, to 
become one in gro^vth). To unite ; to 
grow together ; generally applied to the act 
whereby persons unite in opinion or action 
for a common cause. 

Coalition, koah-lishun (Latin, coalesco, 
to grow together). Union in a body or 
mass; union of persons, or parties, as a 
coalition ministry. 

Coast- Guard. An officer appointed 
to watch a certain portion of the sea-coast, 
Avith a view of preventing smuggling, or 
committing any other breach of the law ; 
and also for the purpose of reporting any 
strange vessel, which he may happen to dis- 
cern: upon eniergencies, the coast-guai'd 
are also called ajjon to serve in the royal 
navy. 

Coat of Arms. A kind of surcoat 
worn by the ancient knights over their 
arms. This coat was diversified cj bands 
and tillcts of several colours, called devices. 



COB 



COG 



59 



bemg composed of several pieces sewed to- 
gether. Hence, the representation of these 
in heraldry is stiU called a coat of arms. 

Cob. A pony of a thick, strong build ; 
also a rounded mass, as a coh-coal, a coh-nut. 

Cobalt, ko-bawlt. A mineral of gray 
colour, consisting of silver and arsenic, 
which latter is obtained from it in great 
quantities. It has never been found in a 
pure state, but mostly in the state of an 
oxide, or alloyed with other metals. Its 
name is derived from hohold, German for 
devil, from the German miners, igno- 
rant of its real value, considering its pre- 
sence unfavourable to the existence of more 
valuable ores in the places where it 
occurs. 

Cocliineal, kotshy-neel (Spanish coclii- 
nilUt) . An insect which turn s red by means 
of the food which it eats, and when dried 
affords a beautiful purple colour made use 
of in dyeing. 

Cockatrice, kokah-tris. A fabulous 
monster, described with legs, wings, a 
winding tail, and a crest or comb like that 
of a cock. Its generation was ascribed to 
a cock's egg, hatched under a toad or ser- 
pent, and it was thought so venomous as to 
be capable of killing with its look : figura- 
tively, the term is applied to a person of 
an insidious, venomous, and treacherous 
disposition. 

Cockney, kok-ne. A contemptuous 
term used to designate a native of 
London. The derivation of this word is 
uncertain ; it has, however, been traced to 
the Latin word coquina, a kitchen. Origi- 
nally it meant probably a cooJc ; ' next a 
person fond of coohery or good living, as 
the citizens of London are generally 
reputed to be ; lastly, a luxurious, idle, 
and effeminate citizen. In French, jiays 
(h cocagne is a sort of aldermanic Para- 
dise. 

Cockpit. In a ship of war, an apart- 
ment beneath the lower deck, used by the 
surgeon and his assistants dm'ing an action. 

Cockswain, kok-sn. An officer on 
board a ship who has the charge of the 
boat and the boat's-crew; with rowing- 
parties, the person who manages the 
rudder, and directs the movements of his 
companions. 

Cocoon, kok-koon (French, cocoii). 
The ball or case in which the silk-worm 
and other insects involve themselves ; serv- 
ing as a defence against enemies, and a pro- 
tection from the changes of temperatm-e. 



Code, kode (Latin, codex, a roU, or 
volume, or a board on which accounts were 
written). A digest of laws; a book of the 
civil law, appropriated by way of emi- 
nence to the collection made by Justinian, 
the Eoman Emperor, and hence called the 
Justinian code; hence also the code Napo- 
leon of France, proceeding from the 
changes effected i<n the laws by Napoleon 
Bonaparte when consisi. 

Codicil, koddy-sill (Latin, codicUlus, a 
little book). In law, a supplement to a 
will, made for the purpose of adding to, or 
altering, or explaiuing the contents of the 
will itself. 

Co-equal, ko-eekwal (Latin, con, with ; 
cequs, equal). Equal with another; having 
the same rank or authority. 

Coerce, ko-urs (Latin, con, with ; arceo, 
to hinder). To restrain with force; to 
keep back, or keep under. 

Coeval, ko-eeval (Latin, con, -with; 
csvum, an age). Of the same or equal age 
with another. 

Co-existent, koeg-zistent (Latin, con, 
with; existo, to exist). Existing at the 
same time with- another. 

Coffer, kof-fur (Saxon, co.fre). A chest 
for keeping money; figuratively, a trea- 
sure. 

Coffer-dam, koffur-dam. A curb or 
close box of timber, to bo sunk at the 
bottom of rivers or other water, and the 
water pumped out ; used in laying the 
foundation of piers and abutments in deep 
water. 

Cog, kog. The tooth of a wheel, by 
which that wheel acts upon another. 

Cogent, ko-jent (Latin, cogo, to drivB 
together). Having great force ; calculated 
to convince. 

Cogitate, kodjy-tate (Latin, cogiio, to 
reflect). To think deeply and anxiously ; 
to revolve in the mind. 

Cognate, kog-nate (Latin, con, with ; 
nascor, to be born). Born together ; pro- 
ceeding from the same stock: allied by 
nature. 

Cognizance, konny-zanse (Latin, con, 
with ; nosco, to know). In law, an ac- 
knowledgment ; a badge to distinguish 
certain occupations, and to make known 
by whom the wearers are engaged; in a 
general sense, notice or acknowledgment, 
or acquaintance with. 

Cognomen, kog-nomen (Latin, con, 
with ; jionwi, a name). Surname ; family 



eo 



COG 



name ; or name added from any accident 
or quality. 

Cognovit, kogno-vit (Latin, cognovit) . 
In law, an acknowledgment made by the 
defendant in a case, that the claim of the 
plaintiff is a j ust one. 

Cognoscen-fe, kogno-sen-te (Italian). 
A person having a thorough knowledge of 
anything, commonly termed a " knowing 
one." The plm-al is cognoscenti. 

Co-heir, ko-ayr (Latin, cohcerere, to 
join together). A joint heir ; one of two 
or more persons, among whom an inheri- 
tance is to be divided. 

Colierenee, ko-herens (Latin, cohcerere, 
to join together). A joining together ; a 
union of parts ; connection or dependence 
arising from the mutual or natural relation 
of parts to each other, as in the arrange- 
ment of a discourse. 

Cohort, ko-hort (Latin, cohors). Among 
the Romans a body of soldiers niimbering 
about 500 oi- 600. In poetical language, 
a body of warriors. 

Coif, koyf (French, coiffe). A kind of 
cap or head-dress ; the covering for the 
head, worn by serjeants-at-law. 

Coigne, koyn (Irish, cuinne, a corner). 
A corner of a building, and angle of a wall. 

Coin, ko;m (Greek, gonia, a corner. 
Latin, cuneus, a wedge). A piece of metal, 
generally fiat and circular, legally stamped 
and issued for circulation as money. C'wr- 
rent coin, is coin legally stamped and cir- 
culating in trade. Foreign, coin, coin valued 
according to the assayer's report of its 
purity, regarded in this country merely as 
bullion 

Colchicum, koltshy-kum. Another 
name for meadow saffron ; a plant with a 
bulbous root and bright flowers, growing 
in several parts of Great Britain. 

Cold Blood. A term used to imply a 
calm and delibei-ate frame of mind. Thus, 
when a person is in a passion or angry, his 
Mood is literally roused; but when nothing 
occurs to disturb the system, the circula- 
tion of the blood continues at the same 
even flow. A murder committed without 
provocation, or long after the provocation 
has been given, is termed a *' cold-blooded 
murder." 

Coleoptera, kolly-opterah (Greek, Jco- 
leus, a sheath ; pteron, a wing). The name 
given to a class of insects characterised by 
having four wings, of which the two supe- 
rior are not adapted for flight, but form a 
covering or protection for the two under. 



COL 

CoUaborateur, kol - labah - rahtiu 
(French, collahoraieur, a feJ low-labourer). 
An associate in employment ; an assistant ; 
a coadjutor in office. 

Collapse, kol-laps (Latin, con, with ; 
laioso, to fall). A falling together, or clos- 
ing ; a sudden prostration of strength. 

Collate, kol-late (Latin, con, together ; 
latus, side). To compare one thing with 
another of the same kind ; to examine with 
a view of arrangement and completeness. 
In ecclesiastical matters, to confer a bene- 
fice on a clergyman. 

Collateral, kol-lattural (Latin, con, 
together ; latus^ side). Placed side by side. 
Collateral descent is that which stands in 
equal relatio^^ to some common ancestor ; 
collateral security is a securitj'- for the per- 
formance of covenants, or pecuniat-y obli- 
gations, in addition to the principal securi- 
ty, as a deed made of other lands, besides 
those granted by the deed of mortgage. 

Collation, kol-layshun (Latin, con, 
with ; latus, side). Comparison of one 
copy or one thing of the same kiud with 
another ; the act of confei-ring or bestow- 
ing a gift ; also a repast between meals. 

Colleague, kol-leeg (Latin, con, with ; 
lego, to choose). A partner in office ; an 
associate in employment. 

Collectanea, kol-lektah-neah (Latin, 
collectanea). A collection. In literature, a 
selection of notes or observations, gathered 
from a variety of works. 

Collier, kol-yer. A vessel employed 
exclusively in the coal trade ; also, a 
labourer in a coal mine. 

Collocation, kollo-kayshun (Latin, col- 
locaiio, a placing in order). The act of 
placing; disposal; the state of being 
placed. 

Collocution, kollo-kewshun (Latin, 
collocutio). A speaking together ; confer- 
ence ; conversation. 

Colloquial, kol-lo-kweal (Latin, collo- 
quium, a discourse). Pertaining to ordinary 
conversation ; expressions commonly used. 

Collusion, kol-lewzhun (Latin, co7i, 
with ; ludo, to play). A secret agreement 
between persons, to defraud and deceive. 
In law, a deceitful contract or agreement 
between two or more persons, for the one 
to bring an action against the other, in 
order to defraud a third party of his right. 

Colophon, kolo-fon. An end ; an 
achievement ; the conclusion of a book, 
formerly containing the place^ or year, or 



COL 

botli, of publication. The name is taken 
from a city of Ionia. 

Colossus, ko-lossus (Latm, colossus, a 
stattie larger than life). A brass statue of 
Apoilo erected across the harboui* of 
Khodes, is called the Colossus of Rhodes ; 
its height was 126 feet; large ships could 
pass between its legs; and few persons 
could span its thumb. 

Colporteur, kol-por-tur (French. From 
the Latin, collum, the neck ',porto, to carry). 
Originally a hawker or pedlar, so called 
from having his pack suspended about his 
ne'.lj. In France the hawking of books in 
remote districts is undertaken by colpor- 
teurs. 

Coma, ko-mah (Greek, loma, profound 
sleep). In pathology, a morbid condition 
of the brain, attended with the loss of 
sensation and voluntary motion, the patient 
lying meanwhile as if in a profound sleep. 

Combe, koom. A word which wholly 
or partly forms the name of many places, 
as Wycombe, Ilfracombe. It has been 
defined as that tinwatered portion of a 
valley which forms its continuation beyond 
and above the most elevated spring that 
issues into it — at this point or spring-head, 
the valley ends, and the ravine begins ; a 
narrow, undulating ravine, 

Comm.ander,kom-mandur. In mari- 
time affairs, the master of a merchant 
vessel. In the royal navy, it is a title given 
to officers, next in rank above lieutenants, 
appointed to the command of ships, pre- 
viously to their being posted as captains. 

Commensurable, kom-menshurah-bl 
(Latin, con, together ; mensura, measure). 
Having a common measure. 

Coinm.entary, kommen-tar-e (Latin, 
con, with ; tnens, mind). An exposition ; 
an illustration or explanation of difficult or 
obscure passages in an author's writings , 
a book of annotations or remaj-ks ; a 
memoir, or historical narrative. 

CoTnmination, kommy-naysb.m (Lat. 
con, with ; minor, loss). A threat of punish- 
ment ; a denunciation ; the recital of God's 
threatenings, as contained in the iitm-gy 
of the Church of England, and appointed 
to be read on the first day of Lent. 

Commiserate, kom-mizzarate (Latin, 
con, with ; imser, pitiful). To pity ; to 
sympathise with ; to feel sorrow or pain for. 

ComLm.issariat, kommis-sary-at (Old 
French). A body of persons attending an 



COM 



61 



army, who are commissioned to reguiata 
the procuring and conveyance of ammu- 
nition, stores, &c. 

Conunissary, kommis-sa-re (Latin, 
commisserius, a commission). In ecclesias- 
tical affairs, a deputy of the bishop, in 
parts of tne diocese remote from the see. 
In military affairs, an ofiicer who has the 
charge of furnishing provisions, &c. for 
the army. A commissary -general is an 
oflBcer appointed to inspect the muster- 
rolls, and keep an exact statement of the 
strength of the forces. 

Commission, kom-mishun (Latin, con, 
with ; mitio, to send). In law, the warrant 
or letters patent by which a person is 
authorised to exercise jurisdiction. In 
military affairs, the warrant of authority 
by which an officer holds a post in the army. 
In commerce, the order by which one 
traffics or negotiates for another ; also the 
per centage given to agents and factors for 
transacting the business of others. 

Committee, kom-mittee (Latin, con, 
with ; mitto, to send). Those to whom the 
consideration of any business or question 
is referred, either by a legislative body, a 
society, or any number of individuals. 
Committee of tlce House is a parliamentary 
phrase, denoting that the members, as a 
body, resolve themselves into a committee, 
suspending the standing rules of debate, 
and permitting the members to make their 
observations. Standing Committees are such 
as are appointed for a definite period, to 
take charge of any particular matters. 
Special Committees are such as are appointed 
over a special subject, and whose office 
ceases as soon as they have reported to 
their constituents, or brought the matter 
under their charge to an issue. 

Commitment, kom-mitment (Latin, 
con, with ; mitto, to send). The act of 
sending a person to prison by warrant, 
either for a crime or misdemeanour ; a 
parliamentaiy expression when a bill is re- 
ferred to a committee for consideration, 

Commixt'DTe, kom-miksture (Latin, 
con, together ; misceo, to mix). The act of 
mingling ; the state of being miitgied ; in- 
corporation ; the mass formed by mingling 
different things, &c. 

Comm.odore, kommo-dore (Spanish, 
comendador, a commander). A senior cap. 
tain in the royal navy appointed to the 
command of a squadron of ships of war 
destined on some particular service ; his 
vessel cax-ryiug a broad, tapei'ing pendant. 



62 



COM 



COM 



If appointed to the permanent rank of 
commodorej his pendant, which receives 
the name of a broad-pendant, is forked. 
The leading ship of a fleet of merchant- 
men also has the name of commodore. 

Common Law. The body of rules 
for administering justice within the king- 
dom, grounded upon the general customs 
or usages of the realm, and distinguished 
from the statute laws, as having been the 
law of the land before any of the acts of 
j)arliament now extant were made, 

Com.m.orL-place Book. A sort of 
register or orderly collection of things 
worthy to be noted in a book. 

ComLm.011 Pleas. In law, pleas inclu- 
ding aU civil actions between subject and 
subject ; for the deciding of these, there is 
instituted the Court of Common Pleas, con- 
sisting of a chief and other three judges. 

Commonage, kommon-adj (Latin, 
con, with ; munus, a gift). The right of 
using or pasturing on a common ; the just 
right of enjoying anything in common 
with other persons. 

Commonalty, kommon-alty (Latin, 
cow, with ; mumts, a gift.) The common 
people ; those classes below the rank of 
nobihty, 

ComzDLOner, kommun-ur, A member 
of the House of Commons ; a student of 
the second rank in the universities of 
England ; a term also apphed to private 
gentlemen generally. 

Commons, kom-munz. The lower 
House of Parliament, consisting of the 
representatives of cities, boroughs, and 
coimties; the vulgar; the common people, 
or those who have neither honours nor 
titles ; food provided at a common table, as 
at colleges, inns of court, &c. 

C omjnon"we altli, kommun - welth 
(from common, and iceal or wealth). The 
entire bulk of the people of any state in 
their social and pohtical relations; an 
established form of civil polity or govern- 
ment ; a republic, or that form of govern- 
ment emanating from the franchises of a 
free people. 

Commune, kom-mewn (Latin, com- 
munico, to share). To converse or talk to- 
gether ; to impart sentiments mutually ; 
to indulge in meditation. A French com- 
nmne is a small territorial division or 
district of the country. 

Comjnnnicant, kom-munikant. One 
who partakes of the sacrament of the 
Lord's Supper. 



Comjnimism. kommu-n zm. Com- 
munity of property among all the citizens 
of a state. 

Commutation, kommu-tayshun (Lat. 
con., with; TO ?( to, to change). Change; alter- 
ation ; exchange for another. In law, the 
change of a penalty or punishment from 
a greater to a less, as when death is com- 
muted to transportation. 

Companion. In a vessel, a raised 
hatch, or covering, to the cabin or stair ; 
the companion ladder is that by which 
officers ascend to and descend from the 
quarter-deck. 

Company. In miUtary affairs, a body 
of infantry, consisting usually of from 
sixty to a hundred men, commanded by a 
captain, who has under him a lieutenant 
and an ensign. 

Comparative Anatom.y. The ana- 
tomy of aU organised bodies, animal or 
vegetable, compared with a view to illus- 
trate the general principles of organisation. 

Com.patible,kom-patty-bl (Latin, con, 
with ; peto, to seek). Consistent with duty ; 
well adapted for. 

Com.patriot,kom-patry-ot (Latin, con, 
with ; patria, one's country). A fellow- 
countryman; a patriot of the same 
nation. 

Compeer, kom-peer (Latin, con, with ; 
par, equal). An equal ; a companion ; an 
associate. 

Compendiiim, kom-pendy-um (Latin, 
con, with ; pendeo, to hang). A summary ; 
an abridgment ; a brief compilation or 
composition. 

Compete, kom-peet (Latin, coii, with ; 
peto, to seek). To contend with ; to enter 
into rivalry with another ; to strive for 
something that another is striving for. 

Complacent, kom-playsent (Latin, 
con, with ; placeo, to please). Evincing a 
mildness of manners ; showing pleasure or 
satisfaction. 

Complaisance, komplah-zans (French, 
complaisance). Suavity; mildness of de- 
portment ; coui-teous behaviour. 

Complement, komply-ment (Latin, 
con, with; plenv^, ivi\.). In a numerical 
sense, the complement of a nnmherr is what 
is wanted to make it 1, 10, or 100, or any 
number consisting- of 1 with the annexa- 
tion of ciphei's ; in a general sense it is 
used to denote that the reqmred or proper 
number is attained, as an omnibus having 
its complement of passengers. 



COM 

Complex, kom-pleks (Latin, compledor, 
to comprehend). Complicated; involved; 
composed of many parts. 

Complication,^ komply-kayshim ( Lat. 
con, together; plico, to be knit). A 
mixture of many things; an entangle- 
ment. A complication of disorders denotes 
the simultaneons existence of many dis- 
eases, not exactly dependent on each 
other. 

Comtpline, kom-plin. The closing 
prayer of the day in the Eomish breviary. 

Com.plot, kom-plot (Latin, con, to- 
gether ; and plo€). To conspire together ; 
to combine for the purpose of executing 
any design generally understood as of a 
criminal nature. 

Com.ponent, kdm-ponent (Latin, con, 
with ; pono, to place). Forming a com- 
pound ; an elementary part of a compound 
body. 

Composite Order, kompo-zit. (Lat. 
con, together ; pono, to place). Made up 
of parts. In architecture, the last of the 
five orders of columns, composed of the 
lonic-and Corinthian. 

Com.posite USTumbers. Such num- 
bers as some other number beside units 
will measure, as 12, which is measured by 
2, -3, 4, and 6. 

Com.position. In music, a piece 
written according to the rules of art. 
In painting, the putting together the 
several parts of a picture, so as to display 
the whole to the best advantage. In 
commerce, an agreement entered into be- 
tween an insolvent debtor and his credi- 
tor, by which the latter consents to accept 
a pai-t of the debt in compensation for the 
whole. 

Com.positor, kom-pozzy-tur. In letter- 
press printing, one who sets or composes 
type, and makes it up into forms and 
pages for the press. 

Com.port, kom-port (Latin, con, to- 
gether ; porto, to carry). To conduct ; to 
behave one's self ; to agree with ; to suit. 

Compost, kom-post (Italian, composta). 
In agriculture, a composition consisting of 
various manming substances. The word 
is frequently pronounced coviipo. 

Compreliension, kompre-henshun 
(Latin, con, with ; prehendo, to take). 
Capacity ; understanding ; a compendium 
or 3„bridgment in which much is com- 
prise. 



CON 



63 



Compromise, kompro-mize (Latin, 
con, with; promitto, to promise). A 
mutual promise of two or more parties, 
who cannot agree, to refer the settlement 
of their case to a decision of arbitrators ; 
this word is also used to imply a pledge 
undertaken for another without his con- 
ciurrence or consent ; the subjecting an- 
other person to hazard. 

Com.pulsion, kom-pulshun (Latin, con, 
with; pello, to drive). The act of com- 
pelling to something ; force or violence 
used to gain some object. 

Com.punction, kompunkshun (Latin, 
con, with ; pungo, to prick). Kemorse ; 
grief from the consciousness of ha-ving 
acted wrongly. 

C om.p"ur gation, kompur - gay shun 
(Latin, con, with ; purgo, to purge). In 
law, the act of justifjdng the veracity of 
one person by the testimony of another. 

Com.piitation, kompu-tayshun (Latin, 
con, together ; puto, to reckon). The act 
of reckoning ; the process by which sums 
or numbers are estimated ; the collection, 
distribution, or settlement by calculation. 

Con Amore, konnah-mor-e (Italian, 
con amore, with love). In good earnest ; 
with one's whole heart and soul ; perform- 
ing anything not as a set task, but as a 
pleasurable occupation. 

Concatenation, kon-katty-navshun 
(Latin, con, with ; catena, a chain). A 
series of links ; a connection or union of 
things, depending on each other, in suc- 
cessive order. 

Concave, kon-kave (Latin, concaviis, 
boUow). Hollow in the inside ; rounded, 
as the inner surface of a cup ; opposed to 
convex. 

Concentrate, konsen-trate (Latin, 
con, with ; centrum, the centre). To bring- 
to a common point or centre ; to bind in 
close union ; to cause to occupy less space ; 
to render more dense. 

Conception, kon-sepshun (Latin, con, 
with ; capio, to take). The action by 
which a new being is produced ; the action 
of the mind, by which we perceive certain 
relations between ideas and the objects 
they refer to; notion; idea; image in the 
mind. 

Concert Pitch. The degree of ele- 
vation principally adopted for a given note, 
and by which the other notes are governed. 



cox 



CON 



Concerto, kon-serto (Italian, concerto),. 
A piece of music, consisting of several parts, 
played by the various instruments com- 
prising an orchestra. 

Concession, kon-sesliun (Latin, con, 
with ; ceclo, to yield). The act of granting 
or yielding a matter; pajdng a deference 
to the wishes of others. 

Concliology, kon-kollo-jy (Latin, 
concha, a shell ; logos, a discourse). That 
science which treats of shells ; their form, 
i-elations, and classification. 

Concierge, konsy-airzh (French, con- 
cierge). Porter ; portress ; door-keeper ; 
keeper of a place or castle. 

Conciliate, kon-silly-ate (Latin, con- 
cilio, to bring together). To win by kind- 
ness ; to gain ; to reconcile. 

Concisely, kon-sise-le (Latin, con, 
with; coesvjm, cutting). Briefly; shortly; 
expressing much in a few words. 

Conclave, kon-klave (Latin, con, to- 
gether; kleio, to shut^. In a general 
sense, a private assembly of persons for 
the discussion of some important matter ; 
it applies especially to the assembly of 
cardinals, when the election of a pope 
takes place, and is so termed, in con- 
sequence of the cardinals being locked up 
in separate apartments during the days of 
election. 

Co:pclusive, kon-klewzir (Latin, con, 
together; claudo, to close). Decisive; 
putting an end to debate ; giving a final 
detennination. 

Concoct, kon-kokt (Latin, con, with ; 
coctum, digested). To digest; to mature, 
or bring to perfection. 

Concomitant, kon-kommy-tant (Lat. 
€071, with ; comes, a companion). Ac- 
companying ; conforming with ; coming 
and going with, as collateral 

Concordance, kon-kordans (Latin, 
con, with ; cor, the heart). An index or 
dictionary to a book, in which all the lead- 
ing words used are alphabetically arranged, 
with references to the places where they 
are to be found. 

Concordat, kon-kordat. In canon 
law, an agreement respecting some bono- 
ficiaiy matter, in particular when made 
between the Pope and a prince. 

Concrete, kon-kreet (Latin, con, to- 
gether ; cresco, to gi'ow). United in growth ; 
formed by a union of separate particles. 



Concur, kon-kur (Latin, con, together; 
arrro, to run). To meet at one point ; to 
agree together in the same principles. 

Concussion, kon-kushshon (Latin, con, 
together; qnassum, shakev). The act of 
shaking or striking together; a sudden 
shock or jar. In pathology, generally 
applied to injuries of the brain, indepen- 
dent of fracture of the skull by blows or 
fallii. 

Condense, kon-dens (Latin, con, to- 
gether ; densus, close). To compress into 
a smaller compass ; to make thick ; to ope- 
rate on any body, so as to cause its consti- 
tuent particles to unite more closely, and 
render the body itself of less bulk. 

Condign, kon-dine (Latin, con, with; 
dignus, worthy). Worthy of a persou. 
It is used of something deseiwed by crime, 
as condign punishment — deserved pimish- 
ment. 

Condiment, kondy-ment (Latin, co7i- 
dimentum, a provoker of the appetite). 
Seasoning ; sauce ; anything used to give 
rehsh to food, or excite the appetite. 

Condole, kon-dole (Latin, con, with ; 
doleo, to grieve). To grieve with others ; 
to express sorrow or concern for the dis- 
tress of others. 

Condonation, kondo-nayshmi (Latin, 
con, with ; dono, to give). Pardoning or 
overlooking an offence ; forgiving an in- 

Condottieri, kondot-te-e-re (Italian. 
condottieri). In Italian history, a class of 
military mercenary adventurers, who, 
during the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries, had followers at their commajid 
amountiug to armies, which were hired out 
to sovereign princes and states. 

Conduce, kon-dewse (Latin, conduco, 
to lead to). To promote or serve towards 
a purpose, as exercise conduces to health. 

Condllit, kon-dwit (French, condvAt). 
A canal or pipe made use of for the con- 
veyance of water ; a place furnished with 
a tap, whence people are publicly supplied 
with water. 

Cone, kone (Greek, Jconos, tending to a 
point). A solid llgure, tapering regularly 
to a point from a circular base, as a sugar- 
loaf, or a pine. 

Confabulate, kon-fabu-late (Latin, 

con, together ; fabnlo, to talk). To talk 

familiarly together; to discv«3S withoiit 
ceremony. 



CON 



CON 



65 



Confection, ken-fekshun (Latin, con, 
with; facio, to make). A sweetmeat; a 
preparation of fruit, sugar, &c. 

Confederate, kon-fedder-at (Latin, 
C071, together ; fcedus, a league). An accom- 
plice ; an associate in vice or crime, hy 
agreement or contract. 

Conference, konfur-ens (Latin, con, 
with ; fero, to bear). Formal discussion ; 
an appointed meeting for discussing some 
point. 

Confidant, konfe-dant (Latin, con, 
with ; fido, to trust). One entrusted with 
the secrets or private affairs of another. 

Configuration, kon - figu - rayshun 
(Latin, con, with ; figuro, to form). Exter- 
nal form or shape ; the form of the various 
parts of anything as they are disi^osed to 
each other. Aspect of the planets. 

Confirmation, konfirm-ayshun (Latin, 
con, with ; firmo, to make firm). The act 
of establishing or confirming by undeniable 
proof. In the English Church, the cere- 
mony of laying on of hands in the 
admission of baptised persons to the enjoy- 
ment of Christian privileges. 

Confiscation, konfis-kayshun (Latin, 
con, with ; fiscus, tribute-money). The act 
of condemning as forfeited, and adjudging 
the property of the public treasury; as 
smuggled goods are seized and sold for the 
benefit of the Crown. 

Conflagration, kon - flah - grayshun 
^Latin, con, together ; flagro, to burn). A 
large tire ; an object burnt in every part ; 
the burning of many things together, as 
the portion of a city or of a forest. 

Conflict, kon-flikt (Latin, con, together ; 
fligo, to strike against). A violent opposi- 
tion ; contest ; combat ; struggle. 

Confluence, kon-flewens (Latin, con, 
together ; fluo, to flow). A flowing together ; 
the junction or union of two or more 
streams ; a concourse or meeting together 
of many people. 

Conform, kon-form (Latin, con, with ; 
formo, to form). To make like ; to adapt 
to a form ; to comply with ; to live or act 
according to. 

Confound, kon-fownd (Latin, con, to- 
gether ; fundo, to pour). To mingle ; to 
mix together; to throw into disorder; to 
regard or treat one thing as another; to 
astonish ; to stupefy ; to amaze. 

Confrere, kong-frair (French, confrere). 
A compeer ; a brother in a professional or 



social sense ; anything worthy of being pre- 
sented with another. 

Confident, kon-frunt (Latin, con, with ; 
frons, front). To stand in fuUview ; to set 
face to face as the accuser and the accused ; 
to compare one thing with another. 

Confute, kon-f ewt (Latin, con., together ; 
fundo, to poiu"). To destroy an argument 
by proving its fallacy; to prove to be 
erroneous. 

Conge, kong-zhay (French, conge; leave, 
dismissal). The act of reverence ; bow ; 
curtsey ; farewell. A person who is dis- 
miaeed from an employment is said to have 
received his cong^. 

Conge d'Elire, kong - zhaide - leer 
(French, cong^, leave ; d'elire, to elect). 
The writ and licence given by the sove- 
reign to the dean and chapter to choose a 
bishop. 

Congeal, kon-jeel (Latin, con, together ; 
gelo, to freeze). To change from a fluid 
to a solid state ; to bind or fix, as by cold ; 
to freeze or harden into ice. 

Congener, konjy-nur (Latin, con, 
with; genus, same kind). One of the 
same stock ; a thing partaking of a simi- 
lar nature. 

Congenial, kon-jeen-yal (Latin, con, 
with ; genus, same kind). Partaking of the 
same genus, disposition, or nature. 

Congenital, konjenny-tal (Latin, con, 
with; genitus, bom). Of the same birth. 
In pathology, applied to any defect of eon- 
fignration, infirmity, or disease which 
exists in an individual at the time of 
bkth. 

Congestion, kon-jestyun (Latin, con, 
with ; gero, to bear). Unnatural accu- 
mulation of blood or humours. 

Conglomerate, kon - glommy - rate 
(Latin, con, with ; glomus, a heap, or ball). 
To coUect together into a heap or mass ; to 
make a compact of irregular fragments. 

Congratulate, kon-r^atu-late (Latin, 
con, with; gratus, aa-r'^ able). To wish 
joy or happiness to another on any auspi- 
cious occasion, as a marriage, a birth, or 
an honourable appointment. 

Congress, kon-gress (Latin, con, 
with ; gradus, a step). A meeting, as of 
the sovereigns or representatives of states ; 
the name of the national legislature of the 
United States of America, consisting of a 
house of representatives and a senate, the 
former being chosen by the people erorf 



66 



CON 



^cond year. The senate is composed of 
two members from each state ; the sena- 
tors are chosen for six years, by the legis- 
lature of the states they represent. 

Congruity, kon-grewity (Latin, con- 
graere, to coma together). Fitness, suit- 
ableness ; the relation of agreement between 
things. The Latin word gnis signifies a 
crane, anii this word means literally to 
come together as cranes do, in a flock. 

Conical, konik-al. Having the form 
of a cone. 

Conic Section. A branch of mathe- 
matical science, which treats of the pro- 
perties of certain curves which are formed 
by the cutting of a cone in different 
directions. 

Conirostres, kon-e-ros-tres (Latin, 
conus, a cone; rostrum, a beak). In 
natural history, a numerous family of 
perching birds, distinguished by their 
strong conical beaks, as the bullfinch, the 
crow, &c. 

Conjecture, kon-iektm*e (Latin, con, 
together; jacio, to throw). An opinion 
without proof, or founded only upon slight 
probabilities. 

Conjoint, kon- joint (Latin, con, with; 
jungo, to join). United; mutual; inti- 
mately associated in labour. 

Conjugal, konju-gal (Latin, con, to- 
gether ; jugo, to join). Belonging to mar- 
riage, or the marriage state. 

Conjugal rights. Restitution of. 
A species of matrimonial suit, which may be 
brought either by the husband or the wife, 
against the party who is guilty of the 
injury of subtraction, or living in a state of 
separation. 

Conjugate, konju-gate (Latin, con, 
with; jicgo, to join). In grammar to 
arrange a verb according to its several 
moods> tenses, numbers, and persons. 

Conjunction, kon-junkshum (Latin, 
con, with ; junyo, to join). Union ; asso- 
ciation ; league. In grammar, a part of 
speech which unites words or sentences, or 
expresses the -relation of propositions or 
judgments to each other. 

Conjure, kon-jure (Latin, con, with; 
'iuro, to swear). To call on or summon 
'solemnly ; to bind two or more by oath. 

Conjure, kun-jur. To practice decep- 
tion by pretended magical art, or by super- 
natural ag-ency, which the performer pro- 
fesses to summon to his aid. 



CON 

Conning. In nautical language, the 
operation of directing the steering of a 
vessel. 

Connivance, kon-nivans (Latin, con, 
with; niveo, to wink). Voluntary blicd- 
ness to an act ; consent given by pretend- 
ing ignorance. 

Connoisseur, kon-nis-su (French, 
connoisseur, one who knows). A critical 
judge of the fine arts; one who has a 
thorough knowledge of the merits and de- 
merits of a performance. 

Connubial, kon-newbe-al (Latin, con, 
with; mibo, to marry). Pertaining to 
marriage; matrimonial. 

Conquest. In English history, applies 
to the invasion of WiUiam, Duke of Nor- 
mandy, when Harold, the Saxon king, was 
defeated and killed, and William became 
king of England ; this occurred in the year 
1066. 

Consanguinity, konsang-gwirmy-te 
(Latin, cou, together ; sanguis, hlood). Ee- 
lationship by blood; relation by descent 
from one common progenitor. 

Conscientious, konshy-enshus (Latin, 
con, with; scio, to know.) Regulated or 
governed by conscience. 

Conscript, kon-ski-ipt (Latin, conscribo, 
to enrol). Registered ; enrolled. Conscript 
Fatliers was a title given to the Roman 
senators subsequent to the expulsion of the 
kings. 

Conscription, kon-skripshun (Latin, 
conscribo, to enrol). The compulsory en- 
rolment of individuals for the military 
or naval service, taken by baUot or other- 
wise from the people at lai'ge. 

Consecration, konsy-ki-ayshun (Latin, 
con, with ; sacro, to make sacred). The 
act of setting apart any profane or com- 
mon thing for a sacred purpose ; a devo- 
tion of means, talent, time, &c., to the 
accompUshment of sortie exalted object. 

Consecutive, kon - seku - tiv (Latin, 
con, with ; secutum, following). Following 
in a train, or in order; uninterrupted 
in succession. 

Consequential, konsy-kwenshal (Lat., 
con, with ; sequor, to follow). Following 
as the effect or consequence ; important ; 
hence applied to a person giving himself 
consequential airs. 

Conservancy, kon-servan-se (Latin, 
con, together ; servo, to keep). Presei^dng 
without loss ; especially applied to a court 



CON 

held in London for tho preservation of the 
fishery in the river Thames. 

Conservative, kon-servah-tiv (Latin, 
con, together ; sei'vo, to keep). In politics, 
a person attached to old institutions and 
bygone observances, and systematically 
averse to change or innovation j opposed 
to Liberal and Radical. 

Conservatory, kon-servah-turry. A 
place where anything is kept for preserva- 
tion; especially a glazed structure, in 
which exotic plants grow in a bed of soil. 

Consign, kon-sine (Latin, con, with ; 
signum, a seal). To transfer from one's 
self to another by a formal agreement ; to 
commit ; to entrust. A consignee is the 
person to whom goods are addressed or de- 
livered on stipulated conditions ; a con- 
signor is he who transmits such goods. 

Consistency, kon-sisten-se (Latin, 
con, together; sisto, to stand). Natural 
state of bodies ; degree of diversit}'- ; sub- 
stance ; agreement with itself. 

Consistory, kon-sistor-e (Latin, con- 
sistoritim, a council-house, or council of 
Eoman emperors). The place of justice 
in a spiritual court ; also the court itself. 
The court of every diocesan bishop, held in 
theu' cathedral churches, for the trial of 
ecclesiastical causes arising within the 
diocese. 

Console, kon-sole. In architecture, a 
bracket, or shoulder-piece ; or an orna- 
ment cut upon the key of an arch, which 
has a projection, and on occasion serves to 
support Utile figures, vases, buets, &c. 

Consolidate, kon-solly-dait (Latin, 
C071, with ; solidus, solid). To form into a 
solid and compact body ; to make hard or 
firm ; to combine or unite two parlia- 
mentary bills into one. 

Consolidated Fund. A name ap- 
plied to a fund formed from certain portions 
of the joint revenues of Great Bxitain and 
Ireland, appi-opriated to the payment of 
the national debt, civil list, and other 
specified expenses of both kingdoms. 

Consols. In commerce, funds es- 
tablished by the consGlidation of different 
annuities, which have been severally 
formed into a capital. 

Consonance, konso-nans (Latin, con, 
together; sono, to sound). Concord of 
sound ; agreement of one thing with 
another. 

Consonant, konso-nant (Latin, con, 
with ; sono, to s^und). Agreeable to ; 



CON 



67 



consistent with ; also, a letter which can- 
not be sounded but by the aid of a vowel. 

Con Sordini, kon-sawr-de-ne (Italian, 
con sordini). In music, a direction to per- 
form the passage to be played, on the 
piano, with the dampers down ; and on the 
violin with the mute on. Commonly 
shortened into C. S. 

Consort, kon-soi-t (Latin, consors, a 
partner). A companion ; a partner in 
matrimony, as Albert, Prince Consort of 
England. In nautical language, a vessel 
sailing in company with another. 

Conspire, kon- spire (Latin, con, 
together; spiro, to breathe). To plot to- 
gether ; to concert a crime ; to agree 
together. 

Con spirito, konspe-reto (Italian, con 
spirito). In music, a phrase denoting that 
the part is to be played with spirit. 

Constellation, konsteh-layshun (Latin, 
con, together ; stella, a star). A cluster of 
fixed stars ; applied in a general sense to 
an assemblage of splendours or excel- 
lences. 

Consternation, konstur - nayshun 
(Latin, con, with ; sterno, to throw down). 
A species of terror which overpowers one's 
faculties. 

Constipation, konste-payshun (Latin, 
consHpo, to cram close). The act of stop- 
ping up ; state of fulness ; costiveness, or 
an obstructed state of the bowels. 

Constituent, konstittu-ent (Latin, con, 
with; stiiuo, to fix). Forming; compos- 
ing ; a person who appoints ; in which 
latter sense the term constituent is appUed 
to a voter for a member of Parliament or 
municipal body, in which his interests are 
represented by deputy. 

Constitution, konste-tewshun (Latin, 
con, with ; stituo, to fix). The franle of 
body or mind ; the act of constituting. In 
politics, any form or principle of govern- 
ment, properly constituted ; also, a parti- 
cular law made by a sovereign, or other 
superior power. 

Constrain, kon-strain (Latin, con, 
with ; stri7igo, to bind). To compel ; to 
force to some action ; to withhold ; to pro- 
duce in opposition to nature. 

Constrict, kon-strikt (Latin, con, 
with ; stringo, to bind). To contract ; to 
bind ; to confine in a small compass. 

Construct, kon-strukt (Latin, con, 
with ; struo, to form a pile). To form and 

1- 2 



CON 



CON 



put together the parts of a thing ; to de- 
vise or form by the mind ; to build. 

Construe, kon-stru (Latin, con, to- 
gether; struo, to dispose in order). To 
arrange words in their natural order, and 
point out, according to the rules of syntax, 
the dependence which each word in a sen- 
tence has with those which precede or 
follow : in a general sense, to explain; to 
show the meaning. 

Consul, kon-sul (Latin, consul). A 
chief officer in ancient Rome, who was 
invested with supreme power ; also, an 
officer appointed by Government to protect 
the interests of its citizens in some foreign 
country. 

Consultation, konsul-tayshun (Latin, 
consulo, to take counsel together). The 
act of private deliberation ; asking the 
advice and opinion of others. In law, a 
meeting of counsel engaged by a party to 
a suit, for the purpose of deliberating on 
the best mode of procedure in a case. In 
medicine, a private deliberation held by 
the medical attendants of a patient, for the 
purpose of reviewing what has been done, 
and to determine on the future mode of 
action. 

Consummation, konsum - mayshun 
(Latin, con, with ; sumo, to take). Com- 
pletion ; perfection ; the end of the present 
state of things ; the fulfilment of a thing 
long desired. 

Consumption, kon-sumpshun (Latin, 
consumo, to waste away). The act of con- 
suming or wasting away ; a state of dimi- 
nution. Pulmonary Consumption is a 
diseased state of the lungs, causing gra- 
dual decay and wasting away. 

Contact, kon-takt (Latin, co», together ; 
tango, to touch). Touch ; close union ; the 
juncture of two or more bodies by touch, 
not admixture. 

Contagion, kon-taje-yan (Latin, con., 
together; tango, to touch). Communica- 
tion of disease by contact, either by per- 
son or through the medium of the air. 

Contaminate, kon-tammy-nate (Lat., 
contamino). To defile ; to pollute by base 
mixture ; to taint. 

Contemn, kon-tem (Latin, contemno, 
to scorn). To despise ; to scorn ; to regard 
with contempt ; to disregard utterly. 

Contemplate, kontem- plate (Latin, 
con, with; templum, a temple). The 
primitive signification of this word is to 
''behold the heavens from the temple;" 
the original temples being open to the sky. 



To dwell upon in thought ; to consider ia 
reference to a future act. 

Contemporary, kon- tempo -ra-ra 
(Latin, con, with; tempus, time). A per- 
son or thing bom or existing at the same 
time with another ; a public journal, 
speaking of another public journal, alludes 
to it as " our contemporary." 

Contempt of Court. In law, a term 
applied to express the offence of disobe- 
dience of the rules and orders of a court of 
law. 

Contention, kon-tenshun (Latin, con^ 
with ; tendo, to stretch). Strife ; debate ; 
contest; violent struggle. 

Context, kon-text (Latin, con, to- 
gether ; texo, to weave). The series of a 
discourse ; the parts which precede and 
follow a sentence. 

Contiguous, kon-tig-u-us (Latin, con, 
together ; tango, to touch). Meeting so as 
to touch ; joining at the sm-face ; border- 
ing upon. 

Continence, konty-nens (Latin, con^ 
with ; teneo, to hold). Self-command ; 
restraint ; forbearance from sensual indul- 
gence. 

Continent, konty-nent. In geography, 
a wide extent of land, nowhere entirely 
separated by water, as the Continent of 
Europe. 

Contingent, kon-tinjent (Latin, con- 
tingens, happening by chance). Happen- 
ing by chance ; depending upon something 
else ; in politics, the proportion or quota, 
generally, of troops furnished by each of 
several contracting powers, according to 
some agreement entered into by them. 

Contorniati, kontawr-ne-ati (Italian, 
contorni). In numismatics, a name given 
to certain bronze metals, with a flat im- 
pression, and marked with peculiar fur- 
rows, supposed to have been struck in 
favour of Constantino the Great and his 
immediate successors. 

Contortion, kon-tawr-shu.n (Latin, 
con, with ; tortum, crookedness). Wry 
motion ; twisting of the body ; violent 
twisting of any parts of the body affected, 
as in convulsive diseases. 

Contour, kon-toor (French, contour). 
Outline of a figure ; that line by which any 
figure is defined or terminated. 

Contra, kon-trah. A Latin preposi- 
tion, used in the composition of English 
words, signifying against or in opposition to. 
In statements of accounts, the term 



CON 



CON 



" per contra " is used to express the other 
side. 

Contraband, kontrah-band (French, 
contrabande). Prohibited ; illegal ; espe- 
cially appliea to smuggled goods. 

Contrabasso, kontrah-basso. The 
name given to the largest kind of bass 
violin, for the playing of the lowest, or what 
is termed the double bass ; also, a term for 
thorough bass. 

Contraetilej, kon-traktile (Latin, con, 
together ; tracium, drawn). Tending to 
contract; having the power to draw into 
small dimensions. 

Contractor, kon-traktur. One of the 
parties in a contract or bargain ; one who 
engages in operations according to specifi- 
cation, or in terms of a deed of contract. 

_ Contradistinguish, kontrah-dis- 
tiagwish. To distinguish by opposite 
quaUties. 

Contralto, kon-tralto (Italian, con- 
tralto). In music, the counter-tenor ; the 
part immediately below the treble. 

Contrariety, kontrah-riet-e (Latin, 
contrarietas). Opposition ; inconsistency ; 
repugnance. 

Contravene, kontrah-veen (Latin, 
contra, against; venio, to come). To 
oppose ; to obstruct ; to baflfle. 

Contre-temps, kontrah-tong (French, 
contre, against ; temps, time). A mis- 
chance ; a mishap ; happening inoppor- 
tunely. 

Controller. In law, an overseer or 
officer, appointed to control or oversee the 
accounts of other officers. 
. Controversy, kontro-ver-se (Latin, 
contra, against ; verto, to turn). Debate ; 
dispute ; quarrel ; opposition by written 
argument. 

Contumacy, kon-tumah-se (Latin, 
'Con, with; tumeo, to swell). Obstinacy; 
stubbornness; perverseness. In law, a 
wilful contempt and disobedience to any 
lawful summons or order of court, 

Contumely, kon-tumeh-le (Latin, con, 
with; tumeo, to swell). Eudeness ; inso- 
haughty reproach; bitterness of 



Contusion, kon-tewzhun (Latin, con, 
with ; tusum, bruised). The act of bruising 
or beating ; a hurt resulting from a shock 
or blow from a blunt body, without break- 
ing the skin. A contused wound is the term 
for such a hurt when the skin is broken. 



Conundrum. A riddle ; a low jest. 

Convalescence, konval-essens (Latin, 
C071, with ; valeo, to be strong). Kecovery 
of health ; especially that interval between 
the cessation of actual disease and the 
restoration to robust health. This term is 
sometimes erroneously used to denote a 
person being in health, without any rela- 
tion to previous illness ; but the structure 
of the word indicates the recovery of 
health, rather than the mere possession 
of it. 

Convene, kon-veen (Latin, con, to- 
gether; venio, to come). To cause to 
assemble ; to bring together ; to promote 
a meeting. 

Convent, kon-vent (Old French, co7i- 
ventus, an assembly). A monastery, oi- 
nunnery ; a community of persons devoted 
to religious seclusion. 

Conventicle, kon-venty-kul (Latin, 
con, with ; venio, to come). A term applied 
first to the little private meetings of 
the followers of John Wickliffe, and after- 
wards to the religious meetings of Non- 
conformists. 

Convention, kon-venshun (Latin, 
conventio, a meeting of people). The act 
of assembling together ; a formal meeting 
or gathering of persons for some deliberate 
purpose; an agreement previous to a 
definite treaty. 

Conventional, kon-venshun-al (Fr., 
conventionnel). Stipulated; agreed on by 
contract ; arising out of custom or tacit 



Converge, kon-vurj (Latin, con, to- 
gether; vergo, to incline). To tend to- 
wards one point ; opposed to diverge. 

Conversant, kon-versant (Latin, co7i, 
together ; versum, turned). Familiar with ; 
having a perfect knowledge of. 

Conversazione, konver-sahtze-ona 
(Italian). A meeting of persons for the 
purpose of conversation and interchange 
of ideas ; usually devoted to scientific and 
literary subjects. 

Converse, kon-vurs (Latin, con, with ; 
versum, turned). In geometry, a proposi- 
tion is said to be the converse of another 
when, after drawing a conclusion from 
something first proposed, we proceed ta 
suppose what had been first included, and 
to draw from it what had been supposed. 

Conversion, kon-vershun (Latin, con, 
with ; versum, turned). The art of chang- 
ing from one form or state into another ; 



70 



CON 



COE 



change from one religion to another, or 
from reprobation to grace. 

Convertible, kon-verty-bl (Latin, con, 

>-ith; verto, to turn). Changeable from 

• one state or condition into another ; having 

so strong a resemblance that one may be 

converted for the other. 

Convex, kon-veks (Latin, con, with; 
rectum, conveyed). Rising in a cu'cular 
form on the exterior surface, as the outside 
of a cup ; opposed to concave. 

Convex Lens. An optical arrange- 
ment, by means of which light proceed- 
ing fi'om its focus is re-converged on the 
other side, upon which a picture of the 
object is made. 

Conveyance, kon-vayans (Latin, con, 
with ; veho, to carry). In law, the trans- 
mission of property, titles, or claims from 
one person to another; the writing by 
which a conveyance of property is made. 

Convocation, konvo-kayshun (Latin, 
co:i, together; voco, to call). The act of 
calling an assembly together ; an assembly 
of the clergy for consultation upon eccle- 
fciastical matters. 

Convoluted, konvo-lewted (Latin, con, 
together; volvo, to roll). Rolled together; 
QTiG part twisted on another. 

Convoy, kon-voi (Latin, con, together; 
vehu, to carry ) . To accompany for defence ; 
to escort. In nautical affairs, one or more 
ships of war employed to attend and pro- 
tect merchant ships from pirates, or from 
a common enemy in time of war. 

Convulsion, kon-vulshun (Latin, con, 
together; vulsum, pulled). Violent mo- 
tion ; tumult ; an involuntary contraction 
of the fibres and muscles, causing a pre- 
ternatural distortion of the body and 
limbs. 

Cooing, kooing. The note of the dove 
or the pigeon. 

Coolie. A labourer in the East Indies 
and other places, who hires himself out 
by the day or hour, much in the same way 
as our dock-labourers do. 

Co-operate, ko-opper-ate (Latin, con, 
together ; opics, work). To labour jointly 
with another to the same end ; to work 
together to produce the same result. 

Co-ordinate, ko-ordin-ait (Latin, co7i, 
with ; ordo, order). Holding the same 
rank. 

Copal, ko-pal. An American name 
given to clear gums. A colourless and 



nearly transparent resin, obtained from the 
Mexican plant, rhiis copallinum. 

Co-partner, ko-partnur {co a,nd part- 
ner) . One who has a share in some common 
stock or business. 

Cope, kope (Saxon, cveppe). A cover 
for the head ; a priest's cloak ; a portion of 
the vestments worn in sacred ministra- 
tions ; anything which is spread overhead, 
as the arch of the sky ; or the archwork 
over an entrance. 

Copemican, ko-pemy-kan. Relating 
to the astronomical system of Copernicus. 
This system supposes the sun to be placed 
in the centre, and all the other bodies to 
revolve round it in a particular manner. 

Copious, kopy-us (Latin, copia, plenty). 
Plentiful ; ample ; in large quantities ; 
abounding in words or images ; opposed to 
concise. 

Copperas, kopper-as. A name formerly 
synonymous with vitriol, and hence appUed 
to blue, white, and green vitriol, but 
especially the green ; a factitious sulphate 
of iron. 

Copper Nickel, kop-pur nik-el. A 
native arseniuret of nickel ; a mineral of 
copper-colour, foimd in Westphalia. 

Copper-plate Printing. The pro- 
cess of taking impressions from copper- 
plates, which is done by means of a rolling 
press. 

Copy. Among printers and authors, 
the manuscript, or original, of the matter 
to be printed. 

Copyhold. In law, a species of cus- 
tomary estate, said to be held by copy of 
court roll ; that is, by copy of the rolls of 
a manor, made by the steward of a lord's 
court. 

Copyright. The exclusive right of 
printing and pubUshing copies of any liter- 
ary performance or musical composition, 
either by an author in his own right, or 
vested in the hands of those to whom h 
may have a.ssigned that right. 

Coquette, ko-ket (French, coquette). 
vain, deceitfiil girl or woman, who endea- 
vours to gain admirers by artful lures and 
affected manners. 

Coracle, kora-kul (Welsh, cwrwgle). A 
boat u«ed in Wales by fishermen, made by 
drawing leather or oil-cloth upon a frame of 
wicker-work. 

Coral, kor-al (Greek, Tcorallion). A 
hard, calcareous substance foimd in the 



COR 



COR 



71 



ocean, having ashrub-liJce appearance, and 
of various colours. 

Coral-reef or Coral Island. A reef 
or island formed chiefly of coral, but 
usually mingled with a large number of 
shells and other marine matters. 

Corbels, kawr-bels. In architecture, 
a row of stones projecting from the wall to 
support the parapet in castellated and 
Grothic edifices, instead of brackets or 
modiUions. The term is also applied to a 
horizontal row of stones and timber in a 
wall or vault, to support the roof or floor. 

' Cordeliers, kawr-de-leers (French, 
cordeliei-). An order of friars, so named 
from a knotted cord worn aroimd the waist, 
in place of a belt. 

Cordon,^ kawr-don (French, cordon). 
In fortification, a row of stones, rounded 
on the outer side, and set between the 
wall of the fortress which lies aslope, and 
the parapet, which stands perpendicular ; 
also a ribbon worn as an honourable dis- 
tinction. 

Cordovan, kawr-do-van. A leather 
made from the skin of a seal, horse, or 
goat ; Spanish leather, so called, made at 
Cordova, in Spain. 

Corduroy, kawr-du-roy (French, cord, 
cord ; du, of the ; rot, king). A stout, 
corded cotton cloth fabric, originally made 
of silk, and worn by royalty. 

Cordwainer, kawr-de-nur {cordovan, 
Spanish leather). A shoemaker. Under 
this title shoemakers are incorporated ; as 
the Cordwainers' Company, in London. 

Corinthian Order, ko-rinth-yan. In 
architecture, the noblest, richest, and most 
elegant of the five orders ; so called, be- 
cause first erected at Corinth. 

Cormorant, kawrmo-rant. A sea-bird 
of the pelican tribe, notoi-ious for devour- 
ing fish in enormous quantities ; this name 
is applied to a glutton. 

Cornea, kawr-neah (Latin, cornu, a 
horn). The homy, ti-ansparent portion of 
the ball of the eye. 

Corneoiis, kawmee-us (Latin, co?-/i«, 
a horn). Horny, resembling horn. 

Corner Stone. The stone which 
umtes two walls at the corner. The chief 
stone. 

Comet, kawr-net. A cavalry officer who 
bears the colours of the troop, and holding 
rank nest below a lieutenant ; al so, a musical 
instiTimesat, closely resembling a trumpet. 



Cornet-a- Piston. A brass winat 
musical instrument. 

Cornice, kawr-nis. In architecture, 
any moulded projection which serves to 
crown or finish the part to which it is 
affixed, as the cornice of a room. 

Corn-Rent. A money rental, varying 
in amoxmt according to the fluctuations in 
the price of grain. For the purpose of 
assessing a corn-rent, the average price of 
wheat alone, or of wheat and any other 
grain, is taken, sometimes for one year, 
and sometimes for a number of years. 

Cornucopia, kawr-nu-kopy-yab, (Lat., 
cornu, a horn; copia, plenty). A fabu- 
lous horn, which Hercules is said to 
have broken from the head of Achelous, 
and which was filled by the nymphs with 
all manner of fruits of flowers, and thus 
made the emblem of abundance. 

Corollary, ko-roUah-re (Latin, corolla, 
a little crown). A conclusion ; an infer- 
ence ; a consequence drawn from premises, 
or from what is advanced or demon- 
strated. 

Coronal, korro-nal (Latin, corona, a 
crown). A garland; a chaplet ; a crown, 
belonging to the top of the head. 

Coroner, korro-uur. An officer whose 
duty it is to inquire into the cause of any 
sudden or violent death. He is so called, 
because anciently he was principally con- 
cerned with pleas of the Crown. 

Coronet, korro-net (Latin, corona, a 
crown). In heraldry, a smaU crown worn 
by the nobUity ; a duke's coronet is adorned 
with strawberry leaves ; a marquis's coro- 
net has leaves with pearls introduced ; an 
earl's coronet has the pearls raised on the 
top of the leaves ; the viscount's coronet is 
surrounded with pearls only; a iaron's 
coronet has but four pearls. 

Corporal, kawrpo-ral. The lowest 
officer of a company of infantry, next be- 
low a sergeant ; his chief duty is to placa 
and relieve sentinels. 

Corporation, kawrpo-rayshun (Latin, 
corpus, body). A body politic, authorised 
by prescription, patent, charter, or act of 
parliament, to have a common seal ; one 
head officer or more, able, by their common 
consent, to grant or receive in law any- 
thing within the compass of their charter, 
and to sue and be sued as one man. Cor- 
porations are either spiritual or temporal : 
spiritual, as bishops, deans, and deacons, 
&c. ; temporal, as mayor, common council. 



72 



COE 



&c. ; and some are of a mixed nature^ as 
the heads of colleges and hospitals. 

Corporeal, kawrpo-real (Latin, cor- 
pus, body). Pertaining to the body only ; 
not spiritual. 

Corps, kore (French, cor^:)5). A French 
term used to denote a body of troops or 
any division of the army ; also applied to 
the Eifle Volunteers, as a body. 

Corps d'armee, kore-dar-mai (Fr. 
coj^s, body ; d'armee, of the army). A 
portion of an array; a military force. 

Corpse, kawrps (Latin, corpus, body). 
The dead body of a human being. 

Corpulence, kawrpu-lens (Latin, cor- 
pxUentia). Excessive fatness; bulkiness 
of body. 

Corpuscle, kawr-puskul (Latin, cor- 
pusculum, diminutive of corpus, body). A 
minute particle ; an atom of which a body 
is composed or made up. 

Corpus Christi, kawr-pus kris-te 
(Latin, corpus, body; Christi, of Chi'ist). 
A festival of the Church of England, kept 
on the first Thursday after Trinity Sunday, 
instituted in honour of the Eucharist ; to 
which also one of the colleges at Oxford is 
dedicated. 

Corrective, kor-rektiv (Latin, con, 
with ; recUis, straight). Having the power 
to alter or obviate any bad qualities ; limi- 
tation; restriction. 

Corregidor, kor-rejjy-dur. A Spanish 
magistrate. 

Correlative, kor-rellah-tiv (Latin, con, 
with ; re, back ; latum, carried). Having 
a reciprocal relation, so that the existence 
of one in a particular state depends upon 
the existence of another. 

Corridor (Italian, corridore). A long 
gallery or passage in a building connected 
with various departments, and sometimes 
running round a quadrangle. 

Corroborate, kor-robbo-rate (Latin, 
con, with ; robur, strength). To confirm ; 
to establish ; to give additional strength 
to. Corrolorative evidence is that which 
confirms and bears out testimony already 
.-^ven. 

Corrosive, kor-roziv (Latin, con, 
with ; rodo, to gnaw). That which has the 
quality of eating or wearing away gradually. 
Corrosive sublimate is the perchloride of 
mercury, and is highly poisonous. 

Corrugate, korru-gate (Latin, con, 
with ; ruga, a wrinkle). To wrinkle or 
purse up ; to contract. 



COS 

Corsage, kor-saj (French, corsage). 
The front part of a lady's dress, covering 
the bust. 

Corsair, kor-sair (Latin, cursumy 
speed). A pirate ; one who scoiu-s the 
ocean with a view of plunder ; the name 
is applied alike to the vessel and the per- 
son. 

Corselet, kawrs-let (French, corselet). 
A light cuirass ; a coat of armour for the 
fore part of the body, anciently worn by 
pikemen. 

Corset, kawr-set (French, corset). A 
kind of bodice or stays worn by females. 

Cortege, kor-taje (French, cortige). 
A train of attendants. 

Cortes, kawr-tez (Spanish, cortes). The 
Spanish and Portuguese parliament, or 
assembly of the states, composed of the 
nobility, clergy, and representatives of 
cities. 

Cortical, kawrty-kal (Latin, cortex, 
bark). Partaking of the nature of bark, 
or the external covering of trees and shrubs. 

Coruscation, korrus-kayshun (Latin, 
corusco, to glitter). A quick, sudden, and 
short, flashing light, as that produced by 
the explosion of fireworks. 

Corvette, kawr-vet (Spanish, corveta). 
A sloop of war, ranking next below a 
frigate ; it is rigged like a ship, and carries 
one tier of guns on a flush. 

Cosmetic, koz-mettik (Greek, Cosmos, 
beauty). A term usually applied to any i 
article employed for beautifying the com- 
plexion, hair, or teeth ; or that in any 
way contributes to enhance personal 
beauty. 

Cosmogony, koz-mogah-ne (Latin, 
cosmiciis, according to the course of the 
world). That science which treats of the 
formation of the world. 

Cosmopolite, koz-moppo-lite (Greek, 
Cosmos, the world; polites, a citizen).. A 
citizen of the world ; one who has no fixed 
residence, but makes himseK at home 
wherever he goes ; also, of enlarged feel- 
ings, embracing the whole human race. 

Cosmorama, kozmo-rahmah. A pic- 
turesque exhibition of drawings viewed- 
through a convex lens. 

Cosset. Among farmers, a colt, calf, 
or lamb, brought up by the hand without 
the dam. In general t^ms, a pet, one 
who is tended with extreme care and indul- 
gence. 



COS 

Costermonger. One who hawks 
fruit and veget^les about for sale. The 
term originates in costard^ a large kind of 
apple, which originally formed the staple 
portion of the costermonger's stock. 

Costive, kos-tiv (Latin, con, together ; 
stipo, to bind). Bound in body ; having 
the bowels obstructed. 

Costs of Suit. The expenses attend- 
ing a law-suit, for the chief part of which 
the party losing the cause is liable, unless 
specially ruled to the contrar}'. 

Costume, kos-tewm (French, couiume). 
The established or customary style of dress. 
In painting and sculpture, the adaptation 
of all the details of a subject to cha- 
racter, time, place, &c. 

Coterie, ko-te-ree (French, coierie). A 
friendly or fashionable association ; a select 
party of friends ; a society which is very 
choice in the selection of its members. 
The origin of the term was purely com- 
mercial, signifying an association in which 
each member furnished his part, and bore 
his share in the profit and loss. 

Cotillion, ko-tilyong (French, cotillon). 
A brisk lively dance, usually performed by 
eight persons. 

Cottage Orn^, kot-tazh or-nay 
(French, cottage, cottage; orne, adorned). 
A cottage villa ; an ornamental cottage ; 
a cottage residence belonging to persons in 
good circumstances, as contradistinguished 
from the cottages of the poor. 

Cotyledon, ko-te-le-don (Greek, hotyle, 
a cavity). In botany, the perishable seed- 
lobe of plants. 

Couehant, koosh-awng (French, cou- 
chant, lying down). In heraldry, the 
posture of lying down, but with the head 
erect; applied to a lion or other beastr 

Couch-grass. A noxious weed which 
spreads very fast in arable land, and chokes 
everything else that is sown. 

Couleur de Rose, koo-lurd-roze 
(French, couleur, colour; de o^ose, of the 
rose). Highly coloured; too favourably 
depicted ; used to denote the romantic and 
highly-coloured pictures which are some- 
times drawn of life, in opposition to sombre 
reality. 

Counteract, kownter-akt (Latin, con- 
tra, against ; actum, done). To act contrary 
to ; to hinder or frustrate by an opposite 
agency. 

Counterfeit, kownter-feet (Latin, 
contra, against ; factum, made). To forge, 



COU 



73 



copy, or feign ; to imitate with the inten- 
tion of making a thing pass off as genuine 
or original. Figuratively, to put on tha 
appearance of something really excellent. 

Countermand, kownter-mand (Latin, 
contra, opposite ; mando, to bid). To re- 
voke a command ; to cancel an order pre- 
viously given. 

Countermarch, kownter - march 
(Latin, contra, opposite ; French, marcher^ 
march). To march back again ; to change 
the wings and front of a battalion, whereby 
the men in front are taken to the rear. 
Figuratively, a change or alteration of 
measures or conduct, opposite to those 
which preceded. 

Counterpart, kownter-part (Latin, 
contra, against ; ^mrs, a part). A part 
which answers to or corresponds with 
another. 

Counterpoint, kown-tur-point (Latin, 
contra, against; ;punctuvi, a point). In 
music, a term synonymous with harmony, 
and derived from the old method of placing 
the stemless 'points, or notes, aij(u,ixt or 
over one another, in compositions of two or 
more parts. 

Counterscarp, kownter-skarp (Latin, 
contra, against. Italian, scarva, slope). 
In fortifications, the outer boundary of a 
ditch, rivetted with masonry, in order 
that the slope may be as steep as possible. 

Countersign, kownter-sine (Latin, 
contra, opposite; signum, sign). Ta sign 
what has been already sig-ned by a supe- 
rior. In military affairs, a particular word 
or number which is exchanged between 
guards, and entnasted to those employed 
on duty in camp or garrison. 

Counter tenor, kowntur tenur (Latin, 
contra, opposite ; teneo, to hold). In music, 
that part between the tenor and the treble. 

Country Dance. A lively, pointed 
air, calculated for dancing. The correct 
term is contra dance, from the dancers 
being placed opposite each other. 

Coup, koo (a French word, signify- 
ing, literally, a blow or stroke). Coup-de- 
grace, the finishing stroke. Coup-de-main, 
in military phraseology, denotes a sudden, 
instantaneous, and desperate attack ; 
apphed generally to anything executed 
with promptness and vigour. Co^tp d'itat, 
an extraordinary ana violent measure, 
taken by a Government when the safety of 
the state is apprehended to be in danger. 
Coup d'ceil, the first glance, or a slight view 



n 



cou 



of anything, Coup-de-soleil, a sun-stroke, 
or inflammation of the brain, owing to the 
heat of the sun. 

Coupe, koo-pay (French, cotipS). That 
part of the diligence, or French stage- 
coach, which is in the front and covered 
over. Also a step in dancing, when one 
leg is slightly bent and suspended from the 
ground, while with the other a motion is 
made forward. 

Couple. In architecture, rafters 
framed together in pairs, with a tie fixed 
above their feet. 

Couplet, kup-let (Latin, copulo, to join). 
Two verses ; a pair of rhymes. 

Coupon, koo-pon. In commerce, an 
interest certificate attached to a trans- 
ferable bond. 

Courant, koo-rawng (French, coxcrant, 
from Latin, curro, to run). Anything 
which is spread abroad or published quickly, 
as a newspaper. In heraldiy, a term for 
any beast in a running attitude. A^i, 
cGurant is a French phrase, signifying to 
be aware of, acquainted with, or fanuLiar 
■vvitli a circumstance. 

Courier, koo-re-er (French, couiiei^) 
A messenger sent specially or in haste. 

Course of Exchange. In commerce, 
the price or rate at which the ciu-rency of 
one country is exchanged for that of 
another, supposing the currencies of both 
to be of the precise weight and pm'ity 
fixed by their respective merits. 

Courser, kors-ser (Latin, ciirsum, run- 
ning). A swift horse ; a war horse ; a man 
who pui-sues the sport of hunting hares. 

Coursing, kors-ing (Latin, cursum, 
running). The sport of hunting hares 
with greyhounds. 

Court Baron. A court held by every 
lord of a manor, within the same ; punish- 
ment is by amercement. 

Courtesy, kurte-se (French, cour, a 
court). Civility; complaisance; deference 
of manner. 

Courtier, korte-yur (French, cour, a 
court). One who attends or frequents the 
courts of princes ; one who courts the 
favour of another ; one who makes it his 

study to flatter and please. 

Court Leet. A coui't of record, held 
once a year in a particular hundred, lord- 
ship, or manor, before the steward of the 
leet. 



cov 

Court Martial, kort-marshul. A 
court consisting of military or naval 
officers, for the trial of military or naval 
offenders. 

Court of Conscience. A court for 
the determination of cases where the debt 
or damage is under forty shillings. 

Court Plaister. A plaister made by 
covering black silk with a mixture of bal- 
sam of benzoin and isinglass. 

Cousin, kuz-in (French, cmisin). A 
title of relationship applied to those who 
are bom of two sisters or two brothers. 
Cousin German, signifies first cousin ; 
second covins, are those of the second 
generation. Figuratively, this title is 
given by a sovereign to a nobleman, 
especially to such as form the privy 
council. The root of this word is, Latin, 
con, with, or of the same ; sanguis, blood. 

Coute qui Coute, koot-keh-koot 
(French, coute, cost ; ce qui, what ; coute, 
cost). Cost what it may ; come what will ; 
at any price. 

Cove, kove (Saxon, Icof). A small 
creek, or bay ; an inlet or recess in the sea- 
shore, where vessels may enter for shelter. 

Covenant, kuwy-nant (Latin, con, 
with; venio, to come). A stipulation; a 
compact ; an agreement on certain terms. 
In law, an engagement under seal tc» do or 
omit a direct act ; it is also a form of action 
which lies, when a party claims damages 
for breach of a covenant vmder seal. 

Covenanters, kuwy-nanturs. A 
term applied to the Scottish Presbyterians 
during the civU wars, on account of their 
having taken ''the solemn league and 
covenant;" the object of which was to 
resist the encroachments of Charles I. 
on the religious liberty of his Scottish 
subjects. 

Coverlet, kuvur-let {cover, and lit, a 
bed, French). The outermost covering of 
the bed-clothes, under which all the rest 
are concealed. 

Covert, kuv-ert (Latin, con operio, to 
cover with). A shelter ; a thicket ; a 
defence ; a hiding-place. 

Coverture, kuvur-tshure. In law, the 
state of a married woman, who is con 
sidered as under the cover, or the power of 
her husband, and is on that account ab- 
solved from certain responsibilities. 

Covey, kuv-e (Latin, culo, to lie down). 
A brood of birds ; an old bird with 



GOV 

her young ones ; a number of birds to- 
getber. 

Covin, kuv-in (Norman, covyne, a 
secret meeting-place). In law, a collusive 
agreement between two or more parties to 
prejudice a tbird person. 

I Cowl, kowl (Saxon, cujle). A monk's 
..__'< bood; a covering placed on cbimney-tops 
to prevent smoking. 

Coxcomb, koks-kom [cocM-s conib, a 
comb formerly worn by licensed jesters). 
A fop : a vain, empty, conceited fellow. 

Coy, koy (French, coi). Modest; 
retiring ; shrinking from familiar advances, 
or condescending to notice them with 
reluctance. 

Coz, kuz. A familiar conti-action for 
coushi. 

Cozen, kuz-zn (Armonc, conzzyein, to 
cheat). To impose on by feigned appear- 
ances ; to cheat, trick, or defraud. 

Crabbed, krab-bed (Saxon, crahha). 
Applied to the temper and behaviour of a 
person, sour, morose, and void of affability ; 
with respect to writings, difficult, perplex- 
ing, not easy to be understood. 

Craft, krahft (Saxon, crceft). Art; 
ability ; dexterity ; skill ; a trade or 
mechanical employment ; in an evil sense, 
cunning, a dexterity in deceiving. 

Craft. In nautical language, a general 
name for river traders, lighters, or any 
boats or vessels employed in shipping and 
discharging goods. Also, a cant term 
applied by seamen to any vessel what- 
ever. 

Crag, krag (Gaelic, creag). A rugged, 
steep rock ; or the parts of a rock which 
are rugged and steep. In geology, a de- 
posit of gravel with shells. 

Crambo, kram-bo. A game of rhyme, 
in which one person supplies a word or 
line, for which another person is to iind a 
rhyme. 

Cranium, krajTie-um (Latin, cranium, 
the skull). The skull, or superior part of 
the head, which forms the great cavity 
eontaining the brain. 

Crank, krank. Literally, a hand. In 
mechanics, a square piece projecting from 
a spindle, serving by its motion to raise 
and lower the pistons of a steam-engine ; 
to turn a wheel, kc. 

Crapula, krapu-lah (Latin, crapula). 
A surfeit; the oppressed state of the 



CEE 



75 



stomach, arising from excess in eating and 
drinking. 

Crass, krass (Latin, crassus). Thick; 
gross ; coarse ; as applied to fluids, not 
easily running. 

Crate, krate (Latin, crates). A hamper 
or basket, made of wicker-work or wood, 
used in the packing of crockery-ware, 
glass, &c. 

Crater, kray-tur (Latin, crater). The 
mouth of a volcano ; also a brass vessel 
witb a broad base and a narrow mouth. 

Craven, kray-ven (Saxon, cvafiaoi). 
A word of obloquy, applied formerly to 
one who, having been overcome in combat, 
craved for mercy ; hence a coward, or one 
afraid of encountering any danger. 

Crawrfish, kraw-fish (French, ecrevisse). 
A small fresh-water fish, resembling the- 
lobster and crab ; it is sometimes called 
crayfish. 

Crayon, kra-yon (French, crayon, from 
craie, chalk). Materials for drawing, rolled 
into the form of a pencil. Artificial cray- 
ons are composed of different coloured 
earths and other pigments, rolled into 
solid sticks, with some tenacious substance, 
as milk. The term is also applied to any 
drawing or design done with crayons. 

Credence, kree-dens (Latin, credo, to 
believe). Credit ; belief ; assent to the- 
truth of a person's pretensions, and con- 
fidence placed in his claim. 

Credentials, kree-denshals (Latin, 
credo, to believe). That which entitles to- 
credit ; the warrant or authority which a 
person has to show in support of his pre- 
tensions. 

Creditor, kred-ittur (Latin, credo, to 
believe). One who gives credit, or to 
whom a debt is owing. In book-keeping 
the credit side of an account is that where- 
in all things which are delivered are 
entered ; in the cash-book, it represents 
all monies paid away. This word is com- 
mercially contracted into Cr. 

Creek, kreek (Saxon, crecca). That 
part of a haven or small channel running 
from the se;\ ; a prominence, or jutting, in 
a winding coast. 

Creese, krees. A dagger used by the 
Malays. 

Cremona, kre-monah. A name givea 
formedy to violins of a vary superior kind, 
made in the seventeenth century, by tha 
Amati family at Cremona, in Italy. 



76 



CEE 



CEO 



Creole, kree-ole. A native of the 
"West Indies and Spanish America, descen- 
ded from European parents. 

Creosote, kreoh-sote (Greek, hreas, 
flesh; S020, to preserve). An oily, colourless, 
transparent liquid, of a penetrating odour, 
resembling that of smoked meat, and of a 
burning and exceedingly caustic taste. It 
takes its name from its antiseptic property. 

Crepitation, kreppy-tayshun (Latin, 
•creiyo, to crack). The crackling noise made 
by some salts, during the process of calci- 
nation. 

Crescendo, kreh-shendo (Italian, cres- 
cendo, to increase). In music, a term for 
the gradual swelling of the notes so indi- 
cated ; and generally marked thus (<). 

Crescent, kres-sent (Latin, crescens, 
growing). Increasing; growing; the in- 
creasing or new moon, which, when 
receding from the sun, shows a curved rim 
of light, terminating in horns or points. 
In heraldry, a bearing in form of a new 
moon ; used either as an honourable badge, 
or as a distinction between elder and 
younger families, being generally assigned 
to the second son, and his descendants. 
The Turkish flag contains a representation 
of the new moon, and is symbolical of 
Turkish power or empire of the crescent. 
This name is also given to buildings having 
a crescent shape. 

Crest, krest (Norman, crest, it rises). A 
term used in armoury to signify the top 
part of the helmet, generally ornamented. 
In heraldry, the uppermost part of an 
armoury, or that portion of the helmet 
next the mantle. The crest is deemed a 
greater mark of nobility than the armoury ; 
being borne at tournaments, to which none 
were admitted till they had given proof of 
their nobility. 

Crestfallen, krest-fawln. Dejected; 
spiritless ; cowed. 

Cretaceous, kree-tayshus (Latin, creta, 
chalk). Chalky ; of the nature of chalk ; 
abounding with chalk. 

Cretinism, kree-tinizm. A peculiar 
■endemic disease common in Switzerland 
and some other mountainous districts. It 
nearly resembles rickets in its general 
symptoms; but its most remarkable cha- 
racteristic is the mental imbecility which 
accompanies it fi'om the first. The indi- 
viduals affected with this disease become 
a species of deformed idiot, and are 
termed Creiiois ; the word is derived from 
Chretien, a Christian, on the supposition 



that persons thus affected are incapable oi 

sin. 

Crew, kru (Saxon, crutfi). The whole 
of the persons employed on board a ship 
or boat ; it is more particularly applied to 
all who are imder the master of the vessel. 

Crimp, krimp. A person formerly em- 
ployed to decoy others into the naval or 
military service ; one who decoys for any 
purpose of deceit. 

Cringe, krinj (German, hrieclien). To 
contract ; to shrink ; to bend the body in a 
fawning and servile manner. 

Cringle. In nautical affairs, a short 
piece of rope with each end spliced into the 
bolt-rope of a sail ; usually confining an 
iron ring or thimble. 

Crinkle, krin-kul (Danish, Ici^nlelen). 
To wind ; to bend ; to wrinkle. 

Crisis, kri-sis (Greek, h^isis, from Jcrino, 
to sift, or separate). That point in the 
progress of a disease which indicates death 
or recovery ; the decisive moment when 
any circumstance or affair is ripe for a 
change. 

Criterion, kri-teer-yun (Greek, krino, 
to sift.) A standard by which the good- 
ness or badness of a thing may be measured 
or judged. 

Critic, krit-ik (Greek, Jcrino, to judge). 
A judge of merit in literature or art; a 
person who undertakes to point out the 
merits and defects of a performance. The 
judgment thus given is called a critique, 
or a criticism. 

Crocodile's Tears. The tears of a 
hj^ocrite ; pretended weeping. This 
phrase arises from the accounts which 
certain travellers have given of the habits 
of the crocodile, asserting that while the 
animal is devouring its victim it is also 
shedding tears. 

Croft, krawft (Saxon, croft). A little 
field, adjoining to or near a dwelling-house, 
used either for tillage or pasture. 

Cromlech, krom-lek (Welsh, crom, 
bent; llec, a flat stone). A large stone 
resting on other stones, in the manner of a 
table. Such stones were usually placed in 
the centre of a circle of stones, which 
formed the Druidical temple, and had a 
single stone placed near them, supposed to 
have served as a pedestal for some deity ; 
they are considered to have been the altars 
of Druidical sacrifice. 

Crone, krone (Irish, criona). Literally, 
an old ewe; figuratively, an aged woman. 



CRO 



CUE 



77 



Crop out. A technical term to denote 
the rising up, or exposure at the surface, of 
a stratum or series of strata. 

Crosier, kro-zhur (Latin, crux, a cross). 
The pastoral staff of a bishop, so called 
from having a cross on the top. 

Cross-examination. In legal prac- 
tice, the examination of a •witness who is 
called by one party, by the opposite party 
or his counsel. 

Cross-grained, kraws-graind. In 
joinery, applied to wood, whence a bough 
or branch has shot out, the grain of the 
branch pressing forward and crossing that 
of the trunk. Figuratively, hard to 
please; peevish; troublesome; vexatious. 

Crotchet, krotsh-et (French, crochet, a 
hook). In music, one of the notes or 
characters of time equal to half a minim, 
and double that of a quaver ; also a mark, or 
character, serving to inclose a word or 
sentence which is distinguished from the 
rest, thus [ ]; a support ; a piece of wood 
fitted into another to support, a building. 
Figuratively, a whim ; a fancy ; perversity 
of mind, or inconstancy of ideas. 

Croupier, kroo-peer (French, croujpier). 
One who sits at the foot of the table as an 
assistant to the chairman ; also called vice- 
chairman. . 

Croxvn-glass. A superior kind of 
glass, differing in composition and fusi- 
bility from flint-glass. 

Crucible, kroosy-bul (Latin, cr^cx, a 
cross). A chemical vessel indispensable in 
the various operations of fusion by heat. 
Crucibles are commonly made of fire-clay, 
and so tempered and baked, as to endure 
extreme heat without melting. 

Cruciform, kroosy-form (Latin, cru- 
ciformis). Having the form of a cross. 

Crude, krood (Latin, crudus, raw). 
Eaw ; not prepared or dressed ; not changed 
by any process or preparation. Figura- 
tively, immature, unfinished ; not brought 
to perfection ; not reduced to order in the 
mind. 

Cruise, krooz (Dutch, kroes). A voyage 
made by a ship along the coast (or in the 
open sea), in order to intercept such of the 
enemy's ships as are near. 

Crusade, kroo-sade (French, croisade). 
An expedition against infidels. The term 
crusades was originally applied to those 
military expeditions in the eleventh, twelfth, 
and thu-teenth centuries, by the Christian 
princes of the West for the purpose of 



i wresting the Holy Land from its Moltam- 
I medan possessors. They were called crxo- 
\ sades in consequence of the cross having 

been adopted as their distinguishing ban- 
1 ner. 

I Crustacea, krus - taysheah (Latin,, 
I crusia, a shell). A class of animals with aa 
I exterior shell, which is generally hard and 
{ calcareous, and is cast off periodically, as 

in the crab, the lobster, the shrimp, &c. 

Crypt, kript (Greek, krypto, a cave). 
The under or hidden part of a building |, 
also, that part beneath churches and 
abbeys appropriated to the monuments of 
deceased persons and the interment of tha- 
dead. 

Cryptography, krip-tograh-f e (Greek, 
hryptos, secret ; grapho, to wi'ite). The 
art of writing in a secret manner, as in 
cypher. 

Crystal, ki-is-tal (Greek, hryos, ice; 
sello, to set). A body formed in the pro- 
cesses of consolidation in a symmetrical 
figure, through the agency of chemical 
affinity, and the peculiar form of the 
particles of which it is composed; glass 
used in the manufacture of drinking- vessels,, 
chandeliers, &c. 

Cube, kube (Greek, hihos). A regular 
solid body, consisting of six square and 
equal faces, with right, and therefore, 
equal angles, as a die, for example. Cube 
root is the number or quantity, which 
multiplied by itself and then into the pro- 
duct, produces the cube ; thus 4 is the cube 
root of 64. 

Cud, kud. The food which ruminating 
animals return to the mouth from the; 
first stomach, to be re-chewed. 

Cudbear, kud-bare. A neutral colour- 
ing matter, prepared from certain lichens, 
and named from Dr. Cuthhert Gordon. 

Cuddy, kud-de. In East India ships,, 
a name for the cabin under the poop, in 
which the captain, chief officers, and 
passengers mess and sleep. 

Cue, kew. In theatrical parlance, the 
word spoken by an actor or the prompter, 
which indicates to another actor that it is 
his turn to speak. In a general sense, the 
hint or idea which one person gleans from 
another; also used to imply the existing 
state of the temper, or the present humour 
of any one. 

Cuerpo, kwer-po (Spanish, cuerpo, 
bodily shape). Slightly clad ; -WTithout 
over-garments ; in an unprotected state. 



■8 



GUI 



CUR 



Cui Bono, kwi bono (Latin, cut lono). 
An expression often used to ask — For 
what purpose? or, To what end? 

Cuirass, kwe-rass (French, cuirasse). 
A piece of defensive armour made of iron 
plate, and covering the body, from the 
neck to the girdle; a breast-plate. Cui- 
rassier is a cavalry soldier, protected by a 
cuirass. 

Cuisine, kwe-zeen (French, cuisine). 
The kitchen, or cooking department; the 
living or fare of an establishment. 

Cul-de-Sac, koold-saak (French, cul- 
de-sac). An alley blocked up at one end ; 
figuratively, used to imply a position lead- 
ing to nothixig else. 

Culinary, kewle-na-re (Latin, culina, 
a kitchen). Pertaining to the art of cook- 
ery ; belonging to the kitchen. 

Culminate, kulmy-nait (Latin, cidmen, 
the top or height). In astronomy, to be 
in the highest point of altitude as a planet ; 
to grow upward, instead of laterally. 

Culpable, kulpah-bul (Latin, culjta, 
blameable). Deserving blame; censurable; 
criminal; guilty. 

Cultrirostres, kultre-rostris (Latin, 
cidter, a knife ; rostrum, a beak). A family 
of wading birds, distinguished by their 
long, thick, and strong bills, which are 
generally trenchant and pointed, as in the 
herons and cranes. 

Culver House, kul-vur hows (Saxon, 
culfra). A dove-cote. 

Culverin, kulvur-in (French, cou- 
levrine). A long slender piece of ordnance, 
intended to carry a ball of about sixteen 
pounds to a long distance. 

Cumulus, kewmew-lus (Latin, cumulus, 
a heap). The stackeii- cloud ; a primary 
form of clouds, known by its irregular 
hemispherical or heaped superstructure, 
and usually flattened base. It is formed 
by the gathering together of detached 
clouds, which then appear stacked into 
one large and elevated mass. 

Cuneal, kew-neal (Latin, cuneus, a 
wedge). Pertaining to a wedge ; having 
the form of a wedge. 

Cuniform., kew-neyf orm (Latin, cuneus, 
a wedge). Having the form or shape of a 
w'orlge. Cuniform letters are those in 
which the inscriptions on the old Persian 
and Babylonian monuments are traced, 
and are so termed from their wedge-like 
appearance. 



Cupel, kew-pel (Latin, cupella, a ]ittl« 
cup). A shallow vessel, shaped Uke a cup, 
used for refining metals. It is made of 
phosphate of lime, which suffers the baser 
metals to pass through it, when exposed to 
a melting heat, and retains the purer 
metal. The process of fining gold or silver 
by this means is termed cupellation. 

Cupidity, kew-pidit-e (Latin, cupdio, 
eager desire). An eager desire to .possess 
something; an inordinate or unlawful 
craving for wealth or power. 

Cupola, kew-polah (Italian, ciqmla). 
A dome ; an arched roof ; having the form 
of a cup inverted. 

Curate, kew-rate (Latin, cura, care). 
An ofiiciating minister of the Church of 
England, who performs the duty of the in- 
cumbent, rector, or vicar, and receives a 
salary for his services. 

Cure, kew-ray (French, cure). In 
France, the incumbent; the parson; the 
parish priest. 

Curioso, kewry-oso (Italian, cuyioso). 
A person who delights in seeing new >oid 
rare objects. 

Curfew, kur-few (French, couvre-, 
cover ; feu, fire). The ringing of a bell, as 
a sig-nal to the inhabitants that all the 
lights are to be extinguished and the fires 
put out. The most celebi'ated curfew in 
England was that established by William 
the Conqueror, who appointed that under 
severe penalties, at the ringing of a bell at 
eight o'clock in the evening, eveiy one 
should put out his light and go to bed. A 
bell rung at the present time, about that 
hour in the evening, is still called the 
curfeio-hell. 

Curm.udgeon, kiu"-mudj-un. A corrupt 
pronunciation and spelling of the French 
jphrase, cceiLr mediant, bad heart; applied 
to a niggardly, mean, churhsh, avaricious 
person. 

Currency, kurren-se (Latin, curro, to 
run). In monetary affairs, circulation, 
passing from hand to hand, and acknow- 
ledged as local, whether applied to paper 
money or metal coin. 

Current, kur-rent (Latin, curro, to 
run). A flowing; applied to fluids, as a. 
stream or flux of water moving, some- 
times rapidly in any direction, and com- 
mon in various parts of the ocean. The 
setting of the current is that part of the 
compass to which the water runs, and the 



CUE 

dnft of the current is the rate it runs per 
hour. 

Currently, kurrent-le (Latin, ctirro, 
to ruB). In a constant motion; without 
opposition; a report circulating from 
mouth to mouth. 

Curricle, kurry-kul (Latin, curriculum, 
a place to run in). An open chaise with two 
wheels, drawn by two horses abreast. 

Curriculum, kur-riku-lum. A term 
used to denote the complete course of 
studies of a university, school, &c. 

Cursitor Baron. An oflacer of the 
Court of Exchequer, who attends at 
Westminster to open the court, prior to 
the commencement of each of the four 
terms, and on the seal- day, after each 
term, to close the court. 

Cursory, kur-sorre (Latin, cursiim, 
hasty). Quick; hasty; a partial view; a 
careless remark. 

Curtail, kur-tail (Latin, curtus, short). 
To cut short ; to deprive ; to abridge. 

Curtesey, kiu'-te-se (Latin, cui-ia, a 
court). By the law of England, the right 
of a husband who has married a woman 
seised of an estate or an inheritance, in fee 
simple or fee tail, and has by her issue born 
alive, which was capable of inheriting her 
estate, to hold the lands, &c., for life, as 
tenant after her death. A title by curtesey 
is that allowed by custom, but to wliich no 
legal right can be maintained, such as 
designating the sons of peers "Lords." 
Curtesey also means an obeisance, generally 
as applied to females, 

Curule, ku-rool (Latin, curulis, belong- 
ing to a chariot). Pertaining to a chariot ; 
senatorial. The cunde chair was the seat 
of a Roman magistrate. 

Curvet, kur-vet (Italian, corvetter). 
Leap of a horse, so as to raise aU Ms legs 
at once. 

Curvilinear, _ kur-re-lin-ear (Latin, 
I curmis, a curve; linea, a hne). Consisting 
■ of curved lines ; relating to curves. 

Cusp, kusp (Latin, czispis, a pointed 
! end). In mathematics, a term used where 
t two branches of the same or different 
. curves appear to end in a point. 

Custos Rotulorum, kus-tos rotu- 
lorum. The chief civil ofl&cer of the 
county, to whose custody/ ai'e committed the 
records and rolls of the sessions. He is 
always a justice of the peace and quorum 
in the county for which he is appointed. 



CZA 79 

Cutaneous, kew-tayneous (Latin, 
cutis, the skin). Relating to the skin. 

Cuticle, kew-tik-kl (Latin, ciUis, the 
skin). The outer skin, or scarf skin ; the 
cuter bark of plants. 

Cutter. A small vessel with a single 
mast, and a straight running bowsprit, 
which can be run on the deck occasionally. 
A revenue cutter' is an armed vessel of this- 
description, employed for the prevention 
of smuggling. 

Cutwater. The sharp part of the 
head of a vessel, under the beak or figui'e. 

Cycle, si-kul (Greek, h/Hos, a circle). 
In chronology, a certain period or series oi: 
years, in which the calculation proceeds 
from the first to the last, and then returns 
again to the first, and so circulates per- 
petually. The cycle of the moon is a period 
of 19 years, which being completed, the 
new and fidl moons return to the same 
days of the month. The cj/cle of tlie sun is 
a period of 28 years, which being elapsed, 
the dominical or Svmday letters return to 
their former place, and proceed in the 
same order as before. 

Cyclopedia, syklo-peedeah (Greek, 
Tcyhlos, a circle; paideia, instruction). A 
circle of knowledge ; a work containing an 
account of the principal subjects in one or 
aU departments of learning, art, or science ; 
called also, Encyclopedia. 

Cylinder, sillin-dur (Greek, hjlindros, 
a roller), A solid, having two equal ends 
parallel to each other, and every piano 
section parallel to the ends, also a circle, 
and equal to them. 

Cjniic, sin-nik (Greek, Jcyon, dog). 
Having the qualities of a surly doci ; brutal; 
snarling; satirical; captious. The cynics 
of old prided themselves upon their con- 
tempt for everything which others valued, 
except virtue. 

Cynosure, sin-ozhure (Greek, hy- 
nosoura, dog's tail). In astronomy, a con- 
stellation near the north pole, consisting of 
seven stars, four of wliich are disposed 
like the wheels of a chariot, and three 
lengthwise, representing the beiim. The 
ancient Phoenicians used to be gniided in 
theu' voyages by this constellation, from 
which circumstance it has been use<5 
figuratively, as a looint of attraction ; thus a 
person who is singled out in an assembly 
as the general object of obsei-vation, is said 
to be the "cynosure of aU eyes." 

Czar, zar. The title of the Emperor of 
Russia. Czarina is the titlo of the 



80 



DAB 



Empress ; Czaromtz is the title of the 
eldest son of the Czar, 

D 

Dabble, dab-bul (Dutch, daUelen). To 
smear ; to dip slightly ; to spatter ; also to 
do anything in a slight, superficial manner ; 
to tamper with, as to dabble in the funds. 

Da Capo, dah kah-po (Italian, da capo, 
from the head). In music, a phrase signi- 
fying that the first part of the tune is to be 
played over again. 

Dactyl, dak-til (Greek, daUylos, a 
finger). In poetical composition, a foot 
consisting of three syllables, the first long, 
and the other two short, as in the bones 
of a finger. 

Dactylology (Greek, daUylos, a finger ; 
logos, a discourse). Finger-language, or 
the art of expressing ideas or thought by 
the fingers ; also, the science of the history 
and qualities of finger rings. 

Dactylopterus, dak - telop - j^rus 
(Greek, daUylos, a finger ; ptet-wi, a wing, 
or fin). A term applied to a genus of 
fishes, commonly known as flying fishes ; 
the peculiar construction of the sub-pectoral 
rays enabling the fish to rise above the 
water and fly for a short distance. 

Daddy {da-da). A child's way of ex- 
pressing father ; and which arises from the 
first articulations being dental and labial ; 
dental, in tad, dad, and labial in 'papa, 
mamma. 

Daguerreotype, dah - ger - ro - type. 
An ingenious invention, named after the 
originator, M. Daguerre, a celebrated dio- 
ramic painter, by which drawings are 
made through the medium of a camera- 
obscura on plates of silvered copper. 

Dais, day-is (French, dais). A name 
formerly given to the chief seat at the prin- 
cipal table in a baronial hall, usually covered 
with hangings of tapestry or carpet ; the 
word is now used to denote a raised floor 
in a dining room, a canopied seat, usually 
reserved for the most distinguished guests. 

Dale (Gothic, dalei). A low-lying or 
hollow place between hills. 

Dally, dal-le (Saxon, ^o;e,_dull). To 
waste or idle away time ; to sit like one 
dull or foolish ; to spend or loiter time away, 
in wanton or idle amusements ; to trifle ; 
to fondle. 

Dam (Dutch, dei,m, a pond), A water- 
tight mole, bank, or weir, erected across a 
river or stream, for the purpose of raising 



DAS 

the level of the water by confining it, and 
which is employed for various purposes, as 
for irrigation, impelling water-wheel s, &c. 

Damages, dammy-jez (Latin, damnum,. 
loss). In law, the amount assessed upon 
a defendant as a remuneration to the plain- 
tiflf for the injury he has sustained, 

Dam.ascus Blades. Swords or scy- 
mitars, presenting upon their surface a 
variegated appearance of watering, as 
white, silvery, or black veins, in fine lines 
or fillets, fibrous, crossed, interlaced, or 
parallel. They are brought from the East, 
and are fabricated chiefly at Damascus, 
whence their name. 

Dam.per. A valve, or sliding-plate, in 
a furnace, which serves to regulate the 
draught of air in the flue, according as it 
is raised, depressed, or drawn out ; also a 
portion of a piano-forte, covered with soft 
leather, by which the vibration of a string- 
is modified, and the sound deadened. 

Dandrif (Saxon, tan, a spreading 
eruption ; drof, filthy). A disease which 
betrays itself in thin bran-like scales on the 
skin, 

Danegelt, dane-gelt (Saxon, dane, 
Dane ; gelt, a debt). A tax or tribute on 
every hide of land, imposed by the Danes 
on the Saxons, It subsequently consti- 
tuted a yearly tax, until the reign of Henry 
the Second. 

Dangle, dang-gl (Danish, dingier). 
To hang loosely, so as to be put in motion 
by a breath. Figuratively, to hang as a 
dependent upon a person. 

Danish, day-nish, Eelating to the 
Danes, or to Denmark. 

Dank (Teutonic, tunJcen). Moist ; 
humid ; damp. 

Dapper, dap-pur (Dutch, dapper). 
Small of stature ; neat, spruce, dnd active. 

Dapple, dap-pul (Teutonic, dapffe^; ap- 
ple covered with spots). Marked with 
various colours ; streaked. A dapple grey 
horse is a light grey shaded by a deeper 
tint ; a dapple bay, a light bay spotted 
with darker hues, 

Darsis, dar-sis (Greek, daro, to exco- 
riate). In anatomy, the process of re- 
moving the skin from the subjacent texture; 
also the morbid abrasion of the skin, in 
the living body. 

Dash.. In music, a mark, thus (' ), im- 
plying that the notes over which it is placed 
are to be played in a short, distinct manner^ 



DAS 

in literary composition, a straight mark, 
thus ( — ), used to express a sudden stop, or 
change of the subject. 

Dash. Board. A board placed on the 
fore part of a vehicle, to prevent the mud 
thrown from the horse's heels reaching the 
carriage. 

Dastard, das-tard (Saxon, adastrigan). 
A coward ; a faint-hearted person ; one 
who meanly shrinks from danger. 

Data, day-ta (Latin, plural of datum, 
given). A mathematical form for such 
things or quantities as are given or known, 
in order thereby to find other things that 
are unknown ; used, in a general sense, to 
express things given for finding results. 

Date (Latin, datum, given). The day 
or time of an event or transaction ; the 
period at which a letter is written. 

Dative Case (Latin, dativus, from 
do, to give). In Latin grammar, the 
giving case of nouns, known by the signs 
to and for, and serving to denote the re- 
moter object to which the action of the 
subject is directed ; for which, either ad- 
vantageously or disadvantageously, some- 
thing is done. 

Dauk, dawk. The term used in the 
East Indies for the system of forwarding 
letters and passengers by bearers stationed 
at certain distances. 

Dauphin, daw-fin. A title formerly 
given to the eldest son of the King of 
Prance. The name is derived from the cir- 
cumstance that, in 1349, Humbert the Se- 
cond, the last of the princes of Dauphiny, 
having no issue, transferred his dominions 
to the crown of France, upon condition that 
the king's eldest son should be styled 
Dawphin. 

Davit, day-vit. A piece of iron or 
timber, with sheaves or blocks at the 
outer ends, projecting over a vessel's sides 
or stern to hoist boats up to ; a fish-davit 
is a spar with a roller or sheave at the end, 
used for fishing the anchor. 

Dawn (Saxon, dagian). The com- 
mencement of the day, when twilight 
appears; figuratively, a clearing up; en- 
lightenment from obscurity, as when 
reason dawns, or a glimmer of light is 
afforded to the understanding. 

Day (Latin, dies). In common lan- 
guage, that portion of time in any place 
during which the sun remains above the 
horizon. The astronomical day is reckoned 
from noon to noon, continuously through 



DEA 



81 



the twenty-four hours. The civil day com- 
mences at midnight. The solar day is 
that interval between the departure and 
return of a meridian to the sun. As applied 
to the moon, the interval is termed a lunar 
day; and in relation to a star, o, sidereal 
day. The nautical day commences at noon, 
and ends at noon the day following. 

Day Dream. A dream or phantasm 
to the waking senses. 

Day-rule. In law, an order of court 
permitting a prisoner for debt to go for 
one day beyond the bounds of the prison. 

Day-spring. The first appearance of 
light in the morning; the commencement 
of the day. 

Day-star. The morning star; figura- 
tively, the light of the Gospel, which is 
spread by Christ, the day-star of righteous- 
ness. 

Days of Grace. In law, three days 
granted by the court beyond the time 
named in the writ, during which the per- 
son summoned may appear and answer. 
In commercial affairs, a customary number 
of days for the payment of a bill of ex- 
change after the same becomes due, as also 
for the payment of insurance premiums. 

De. A prefix denoting from, or separa- 
tion; hence employed to impart a negative 
sense to words, as de-caj, a falling away 
from; c?e-capitation, the severing of the 
head from the body. 

Deacon, de-kun (Greek, dia, through ; 
Jconeo, to serve). One of the orders of the 
Christian Church, to which originally the 
administration of charity was committed. 
In the Church of England, the lowest of 
the three orders of clergy (bishops, priests, 
deacons). A deacon is empowered to read 
the Scriptures and homilies publicly, also 
to catechise, and to preach when licensed to 
do so by the bishop ; but he may not con- 
secrate the elements at the administration 
of the Lord's Supper, nor pronounce the 
blessing. The deacon and deaconess of 
Congregational Churches perform some- 
what the same duties as churchwardens of 
the Established Church. 

Dead - beat. An escapement in a 
watch, which lessens the effect of the wheel 
on the pendulum. The word is commonly 
used to express a state of extreme ex- 
haustion or fatigue, or the being utterly 
defeated. 

Dead Colouring. The first layex o| 
colours in a picture ; a shade of grey. 

Q 



82 



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Dead Languages. Languages which, 
are no longer spoken or in common use by 
a people, but are known through writings, 
as the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin. 

Dead Letter. A letter which has 
been sent through the Post-office, but, 
failing to reach the person to whom it is 
addressed, has been returned. Thus, figu- 
ratively, a law or document which fails in 
its purpose is called a dead letter. 

Dead Lift. Lifting at disadvantage; 
a hopeless exigency. 

Dead Lights. In a ship, strong 
wooden shutters, adapted to the cabia- 
windows in which they are fixed, to pre- 
vent the water entering a ship in a storm. 

Dead Reckoning. In navigation, 
the difference between the place of a ship 
as given by the log, and by astronomical 
observations, owing to the currents, &c. 

Dead "Water. The eddy or little 
whirlpool that closes behind a ship as she 
passes onward. 

Dead Weight. A heavy burden ; 
weight of a slaughtered animal, or any 
other object which has no vitality. 

Dean (Latin, decamis, the leader of a 
file, anciently ten deep). A dignitary of 
the Church of England, next to a bishop, 
and head of the chapter in a cathedral or 
council. Dean and Chapter are the bishop's 
council, to assist him with their advice in 
ecclesiastical affairs, and in the temporal 
concerns of his see. 

Dearth, durth (Saxon, dyre, dear). 
Great scarcity ; want ; famine ; barrenness ; 
the term is also used figuratively, as a 
dearth of neivs, a dearth of intelligence. 

Death "Warrant. The order for exe- 
cution of one sentenced to death; in the 
present day, it ordinarily consists in the 
judge writing against the name of the 
culprit, on the calendar, sus. per coll., an 
abbreviated Latin form for "To be hanged 
by the neck." 

Debar, de-bar (Latin, de, from. French, 
larj'e, to bar). To exclude; to preclude; 
to shut out ; to hinder or restrain a person 
from the enjoyment of a thing. 

Debark, see Disembark. 

Debase, de-bace (Latin, de, down; 
hasis, the lowest part). To reduce from a 
higher to a lower value; to adulterate 
anything by the addition of something less 
valuable ; to spoil and render less perfect 
bymeftn and unworthy additions. 



5 



*! 



Debate, de-bait (Latin, de, down 
French, hattre, to strike). A personal dis- 
pute; a public discussion; a contest con- 
cerning the truth and intention of any 
proposition. 

Debauchee, deb-aw-shee (French, de~ 
laucher). A person whoUy given to sen- 
sual enjoyments and riotous living. 

Debenture, de-benchur (Latin, deheo, 
to owe). A writing which is evidence of a 
debt; certificate of drawback. In law, a 
■RTit or note drawn upon Government. 

Debility, de-bilHt-e (Latin, dehilis, 
weak). Weakness; feebleness; infirmity ■ 
of mind or body. 

Debit, deb-it (Latin, deheo, to owe). A 
term used to express the debtor side of the 
account, in account books, usually placed 
at the left hand. 

Debonair, debon-air (French, debon- 
naire). Of good or polite appearance ; easy ; 
compliant; airy; well-bred. 

Debouch, de-boosh (French, debou- 
cher). To issue or march out of a wood or 
narrow pass, in order to meet with or retire 
from an enemy. In a general sense, the 
junction of by-ways with main thorough- 
fares or outlets. 

Debris, day-bree (French, debris). 
Euins or rubbish ; the heap of fragments 
and broken articles occasioned by the fall 
of a house, a railway concussion, or similar 
accident. Especially applied to the frag- 
ments of rocks ; and by the French, to the 
wreck or remnants of a routed army. 

Debut, day-boo (French, debut). The 
first appearance of any person before the 
public, as an actor, orator, &c. A male 
person so appearing is called a debutant, 
a female debutante. 

Decade, dek-ad (Greek, del:a, ten). A 
number amounting to or consisting of ten. 

Decadence, de-kaydens (Latin, de, 
down; cado, to fall). A fall from the 
standard of excellence. In ancient art this 
tei-m is applied to the works of the ages 
which succeeded the fall of Eome. In modem 
art it expresses that which succeeded the 
Renaissance, and began to assume the rococo 
of Louis the Fifteenth. 

Decagon, dek-a-gon (Greek, deJca, ten ; 
gonia, an angle). In geometry, a plane 
figure,- having ten sides and ten angles. 

Decalogue, dekah-log (Greek, deha, 
ten; logos, a discoiirse). The ten com- 
mandments given by God to Moses on 



DEC 



DEC 



83 



Mount Sinai, originally engraved on two 
tables of stone. 

Decameron, de-kammy-ron (Greek, 
deka, ten ; meros, part). A book contain- 
ing the actions or conversations of ten 
days, as the Decameron of Boccaccio, which 
consists of a hundred tales related in ten 
days. 

Decamp, de-kamp (Latin, de, from ; 
campus, a held). To shift a camp ; to re- 
move from a place ; in a general sense, used 
to denote absconding in debt or disgrace. 

Decapitation, de - kappy - tayshun 
(Latin, de, from; ca-pnt, the head). The 
act of beheading. 

Decapodal, de-kappo-dal (Greek, <ZeX-a, 
ten; j;otts, a foot). Having ten feet; be- 
longing to an order of the Crustacea called 
decajpoda, as having ten limbs. 

Deeasyllabie, dekah-sil-labik (Greek, 
deha, ten, and si/llable). Consisting of ten 
syllables, as in English heroic verse. 

Decease, de-sees (Latin, de, from ; 
cessum, departing). Departure from life; 
death. 

December, de-sembur (Latin). The 
last month of the year; so called from 
decern, ten, being the tenth month of the 
year, which formerly began with March. 

Decemvir, de-semver (Latin, decern, 
ten ; vir, a man). In Eoman history, one 
of the ten magistrates or functionaries 
appointed for various ofl&ces in ancient 
Eome ; collectively called the Decemviri, 

Decennary, de-sennary (Latin, decern, 
ten; annus, a year). A period of ten 
years. In law, a tithing, consisting of ten 
freeholders and their families. 

Deciduous, de-siddu-us (Latin, de, 
from; cado, to fall). Falling off. In 
botany, leaves which are shed annually are 
said to be deciduous, as also plants which 
shed their leaves ; it is the opposite of ever- 
green. In zoology, the term is applied to 
parts which have but a temporary existence, 
and are shed during the life-time of the 
animal, as certain kinds of hair, horns, and 
; teeth. 

^Decimal, dessy-mal (Latin, decern, ten). 
Numbered by ten; multiplied by ten. 
' Decimal arithmetic, that part of the science 
of numerical calculation which treats of 
decimal fractions. Decimal fractions, such 
fractions as have ten, or some power of 
ten, for a denominator. 

Decipher, de-syfur (French, dechiffrer). 
To eyplain anything written in ciphers. 



In a general sense, to unravel, to ex- 
plain. 

Deck, dek (Saxon, decan, to cover). The 
floor of a ship, by which the sides 
are held together. Small vessels have 
only one deck; large vessels, two or more. 
In merchant ships, the quarter-deck is the 
aftermost deck, which is raised higher 
than the upper decJc, to give room to the 
cabins; if the vessel be flush- decked, it is 
the aftermost part of the upper-deck ; if 
she have a poop, the upper-deck is con- 
tinued, as in the latter case, aft to the 
stem, and the deck which covers in the 
poop is called either the poop-dech or 
quarter-dech. The forecastle-deck is the 
foremost part of the upper-deck ; if there 
be a deck above this, it is called the top 
gallant forecastle-deck. That part of the 
upper-deck which Ues between the fore- 
castle and the poop is termed the main- 
deck. In a first-rate ship of war, the 
decks below the main or upper-deck are 
successively called the middle-deck, gun- 
deck, and orlop-deck. The quarter-deck, 
which is distinct from the poop-deck, ex- 
tends from the poop to the mainmast ; the 
main-deck from the mainmast to the fore- 
mast ; and the forecastle-deck from the 
foremast to the bow. 

Declamation, deklah-mayshun (Latin, 
c?€, from ; clamo, to cry out). A discourse 
addressed to the passions; an harangue; 
a set speech delivered with rhetorical 
earnestness. 

Declaration, deklar-ayshun (Latin, 
de; claro, to make clear). In law, that parjb 
of the process or pleadings in which .% 
statement is made of the plaintiff's com- 
plaint. 

Declension, de-klenshun (Latin, de, 
down; clino, to bend). Act of bending or 
falling away ; tendency from a greater to 
a less degree of perfection. In grammar, 
the variation or change of the last syllable 
of a noun, whilst it continues to signify the 
same thing. 

Declination, deklee-nayshun (Latin, 
de, from; clino, to beiAl, or lean). In 
astronomy, the declination of a star, or any 
point in the heavens, is the shortest dis- 
tance from the equator, corresponding with 
latitude on a terrestrial globe. In navi- 
gation, the declination of tJie needle, or com- 
pass, is its variation from the true meridian 
of any place to the east or west. In dial- 
ing, the declination of a wall, or plane, is an 
arc of the horizon contained between th© 
plane and the prime vertical circle, if 
G 2 



84 



DEC 



DEE 



reckoned from east or west, or between the 
meridian and the plane, if reckoned from 
the north or south. 

Declinatory Plea. In law, a plea 
before trial or conviction, intended to show 
that the party is not liable to the penalty 
of the law, or is specially exempted from 
the jurisdiction of the court. 

Decoction, de-kokshun (Latin, de- 
coctns, boiled). The act of boiling any- 
thing to extract its virtues ; in a secondary 
sense, the strained liquor of a plant or 
other ingredient boiled in water. 

Decollation, dekko-layshun (Latin, de, 
from off; collum, the neck). The act of 
beheading. 

Decomposition, de - kompo - zishun 
(Latin, de, from; co7i, together; positio, 
place). A separation of parts ; the resolu- 
tion of a body into its component parts, 
either spontaneously or by chemical 
agency. 

Decorous, dekkur-us (Latin, decus, 
dignity). Becoming; suitable; decent; 
agreeable to the character, dignity, or 
perfection of a person or thing. 

Decoy, de-koy (Dutch, iooi). To lure 
into a snare; to entrap; to mislead. 
Decoy-duch, is a duck trained to allure 
others into a place where they may be 
caught. 

Decree, de-kree (Latin, decretum). An 
edict; a law; a determination; an estab- 
lished rule; an ordinance enacted by any 
council for the government of others. In 
law, the judgment of a court of equity on 
any bill preferred, and which may be inter- 
locutory or final. 

Decrement, dekre-ment (Latin, de, 
down; cresco, to grow). Decrease; the 
state of growing less or diminishing ; the 
quantity lost by decreasing. In heraldry, 
the wane of the moon from the fuU to the 
new. Decrement equal of life, is a term in 
the doctrine of annuities, denoting that 
out of a certain number of lives there 
should be an equal decrease within a given 
number of years. 

Decrepit, de-krepit (Latin, de, down; 
crepitus, broken). Wasted and worn by 
age or infirmity; broken down by reason 
of old age ; in the last stage of decay. 

Decretal, de-kreetal (Latin, decretum, 
a decree). Pertaining to a decree; con- 
taining a decree. A decretal epistle is a 
letter from the Pope, determining some 
j-^oint or question in ecclesiastical law. 



Decry, de-kry (Latin, de, down. 
French, crier, to crj'^). To censure ; to 
clamour against; to cry down; to en- 
deavour to lessen the popular esteem for 
a person or thing. 

Decus et tutamen (Latin). Honour 
and defence ; safeguard, or protection. 

Dedalian, de - day - leean (Latii^ 
Dcedalus, builder of the Cretan labyrinth) 
Various ; intricate ; variegated. In botany, 
applied to leaves of a delicate texture, 
with margins marked by various intricate 
windings. 

Dedolation, deedo-layshun (Latin, de- 
dolo, to hew, or cut smooth). Literally., 
hewing or chipping. In surgery, the action 
whereby a cutting instrument, applied ob- 
liquely to any part of the body, inflicts an 
oblique woimd with loss of substance. 

Deduce, de-dewse (Latin, de, from; 
duco, to lead). To draw as an inference ; 
to describe in a connected series, so that 
one thing shall introduce another. 

Deemsters, deem-sturs (Saxon, dema, 
a judge). A name given to certain judges 
in the Isle of Man who decide cases with- 
out any process or writings, and make no 
charge for so doing to the parties con- 
cerned. 

Deep- wais ted, deep-waste-ed. Ap- 
plied to a ship, as when the quarter-deck 
and forecastle are raised some feet above 
the level of the main-deck. 

Deface, de-fase (Latin, de, from; facio, 
to do). To disfigure ; to destroy ; to erase. 

De facto, de fakto (Latin, de facto). In 
law, something actually existing, as dis- 
tinguished from dejure; in a general sense, 
it is a phrase implying anything estab- 
lished as a fact. 

Defalcation, deffal-kayshun (Latin, 
de, down; falx, a pruning knife). A cut- 
ting off; diminution; decrease; a deficit 
in funds, or in moneys intrusted to a per- 
son's care. 

Defamation, deffa-mayshun (Latin, 
ie, from; fatna, fame). The act of de- 
faming or bringing infamy on another; 
slander; calumny; detraction. In law, 
defamation of character consists in speak- 
ing slanderous words of another, and the: 
party slandered may bring an action 
against the slanderer to recover damages ; 
but the action will not lie, unless the words 
alleged to have been spoken should ex- 
press an imputation of some crime or mis- 
demeanour, which would render him 



DEF 



DEI 



85 



amenable to punishment, or that such 
words shoiUd seriously have affecte:! him 
in his business relations or professional 
pursuits. 

Default, de-fawlt (Latin, de, from ; 
fallo, to fail). Omission; failure; defect. 
In law, a non-appearance in a court on a 
day assigned; in which case, should the 
absentee be the defendant, and judgment 
be given against him, it is called jitdgment 
ly default. 

Defeasible, de-feezah-bl (Latin, de, 
Ixova.', facio, to do). That which may be 
annulled, set aside, or made void. 

Defection, de-fekshun (Latin, deficio, 
to fail). Failure; apostasy; rebellion; re- 
volt; the act of abandoning a person or 
cause to which one has been previously 
attached or pledged. 

Defendant, de-f endant (Latin, defendo, 
to defend). In a general sense, one who 
holds out against an aggressor. In law, the 
person accused or summoned into court, 
and who defends, denies, or opposes the 
demand or charge, and asserts his own 
right. 

Defender of the Faith. A title 
conferred upon Henry the Eighth of Eng- 
land, by Pope Leo the Tenth, for writing 
against the reformer Martin Luther, in be- 
half of the Church of Kome, This title is 
stUl retained by the Sovereigns of England. 

Deference, defer-ens (Latin, differo, to 
put off). Eegard or respect paid to rank, 
age, or superior talents. 

Deficit, def-e-sit (Latin, de, from ; facio, 
to do). Want; deficiency; a balance on 
the wrong side. 

Definite, deffy-nit (Latin, de, from; 
finis, the end). Cex'tain; exact; precise; 
something having a determined signifi- 
cation. 

Deflection, de-flekshun (Latin, de, 
i from; flecto, to bend). A deviation, or 
t turning aside from a proper course, point, or 

direction. In mathematics, a bending off ; 

a term applied to the distance by which one 
: cmve departs from . another, or from a 

straight line. 

Defoliation, de-fo-le-ayshun (Latin, de, 
from; foliatio, foliage). The faU of the 
leaf, or shedding of leaves ; technically 
applied to the autumnal season, when the 
leaves of plants are shed. 

Deftly, deft-le (Saxon, dceft). In a 
skilful manner ; with neatness and dex- 
terity. 



Defunct, de-funkt (Latin, defungor, tc 
finish). Dead; deceased; the course of 
life finished. This term is applied equally 
to things as to persons, as a defunct com- 
pany or association; that is to say, ono 
that exists no more. 

Degeneracy, de-jener-a-se (Latin, de, 
from ; genus, family). A decline in ex- 
cellence; a loss of strength, virtue, or 
value of some kind , a course of conduct 
unworthy of one's ancestors ; departui-e 
from a moral course to an immoral one. 

Deglutition, deglu-tishun (Latin, de, 
down; glutio, to swaUow). The act of 
swallowing. 

Degradation, deggrah-dayshun (Latin, 
de, down; gradus, a step). The act of 
debasing or depriving of dignity ; dismis- 
sion from office ; removal into a lower rank. 

Degree, de-gree (Latin, de, from ; gra' 
dus, a step). Quality ; rank ; station ; 
step ; order ; measure. The comparative 
state and condition of things. In geome- 
try, the 360th part of the circumference 
of a circle ; 60 geographical miles. In 
genealogy, a certain distance or remove in. 
the line of descent, determining the 
nearness of blood, as a relation in the 
second or third degree. In colleges, de- 
grees are conferred on learned men and 
others, as tokens of respect, and marks of 
distinction. 

Dehiscence, de-his-sens (Latin, delds' 
cens). Opening wide; gaping. In botany, 
the opening of caps\iles. 

Deify, de-e-fi (Latin, Deus, God). To 
make a god of ; to worship as a god. Figu- 
ratively, to extol too highly ; to i)ay 
homage to a person exceeding that which 
a mortal should receive. 

Dei Gratia, de-i-gray-shea (Latin, Dei 
gratia). By the grace of God. 

Deign, dane (Latin, dignus, worthy). 
To condescend ; to vouchsafe ; to grant a 
favour ; to permit. 

Deipnosophist, dipe-nos-so-fist. A 
philosopher of the sect famed for conver- 
sation at meals. 

Deism, de-izm (Latin, Deus, God). 
Belief in the existence of a God, couplei 
with a disbelief of the sacred character Oi.\ 
the Holy Scriptvires. A deist is one wha 
professes no form of religious belief, but 
constitutes the light of nature and reasoi, 
as his only guides in doctrine and practice; 
such a person is also designated a free- 
thiiiler. 



86 



DEJ 



DEM 



I 



Dejeuner, day-zhoon-ay (French, de- 
jedner). Breakfast ; the morning repast. 
Dejeuner dinatoire, is a breakfast ser^^ng as 
a dinner ; dejeilner a la fourchette, literally a 
breakfast at which forks are used, and 
which may be either a breakfast, or a 
species of lunch or dinner, according to 
circumstances. 

Del Credere, del-kred-er-e. An 
Italian term used in commerce to express 
the guarantee given by factors, who for an 
additional premixim warrant the solvency of 
the parties to whom are sold goods upon 
credit. 

Dele, de-le (Latin, deleo). To blot out ; 
to erase. 

Delectable, de-lektabul (Latin, delecio, 
to delight). Highly pleasing ; delightful; 
capable of affording great joy and pleasure. 

Delegate, delly-gate (Latin, de, from ; 
lego, to send). To send upon an embassy; 
to commission to act for another ; a person 
deputed to represent another, or to act on 
behalf of a certaia cause. 

Deleterious, delly-tery-us (Latin, (Z«5- 
leterins). Destructive; deadly: of a 
poisonous quality. 

Delf. A common pottery, manufactured 
at Delft, in Holland. It was generally 
gaudily coloured, and rude in design, but 
very cheap and extremely durable. 

Deliberate, de-libbur-ate (Latin, de, 
from ; libra, a balance). To weigh in the 
mind; to consider the reasons for and 
against a measure ; to estimate the weight 
or force of argument, or the probable re- 
sult of an undertaking, in order to a choice 
or decision. 

Delineate, de-Im-yate (Latin, de, from ; 
liTiea, a Hne). To desigai ; to draw ; to 
sketch; to represent the true lines in a 
picture ; to give a graphic description. 

Delinquency, de-linkwensy (Latin, de, 
from ; hnqiio, to leave). Failure or omis- 
sion of duty; a fault; a misdeed; an 
offence ; a crime. 

Deliquesce, delly-kwes (Latin, deli- 
quesco). To melt gradually, or become 
Hquid in the air 'by the absorption of 
water. 

Delirious, de-lirry-us (Latin, delirium). 
Light-headed; raving; wandering in the 
mind. 

Delirium Tremens, de-lirry-um tre- 
mens (Latin, delirium tremens). A disease 
of the brain, which subjects the person 
afflicted to sudden fits of insanity ; result- 



ing generally from excessive indulgence in 
intoxicating liquors. 

Delphic, del-fik. Pertaining to Del- 
phi, in Greece, and the oracle there. 

Delphin Classics, del- fin clas-siks. 
A name given to the edition of the Latin 
classics, prepared and commented upon by 
thirty-nine eminent scholars, at the sugges- 
tion of Louis the Fourteenth, King of 
France, for the benefit of his young son, 
the Dauphin, or as the Latin phrase runs, in 
^cs^(,m Delpldm ; hence the designation. 

Delta, del-tah. The Greek letter a, the 
D of the Greek alphabet. In geology, 
applied to a tract of alluvial or other land 
at the mouths of rivers, and which usually 
assumes a triang-ular form. 

Delude, de-lude (Latin, de, from ; ludo, 
to play). To beguile ; to deceive ; to mis- 
lead the judgment ; to impose upon. 

Deluge, del-uje. An inundation; a 
flood ; an ovei"flowing with water ; more 
especially the great flood which occurred in 
the time of Noah ; according to common 
chronology, Anno Mundi, 1656. Figura- 
tively, tMs word is used to express an 
exuberance of anything ; as a deluge of 
words ; a deluge of written applications. 

De lunatico inquirendo (Latin), 
A commission appointed to inquire into 
the state of a person's mind, when such 
person is suspected or alleged to be insane. 

Delusion, de-lu-i;hun (Latin, delusio). 
The act of deceiving or misleading ; false 
representation ; fraud ; error. 

Delve, delv (Saxon, delfan). To dig ; 
to open the ground with a spade. 

Demagogue, demmah-gog (Greek, de- 
mos, the people ; ago, to lead. ) A leader 
of the people ; a popular and factious 
orator ; one who cajoles the populace by 
professions of liberality, and adapts his 
public addresses to the selfishness and 
prejudices of his listeners. 

Demarcation, demar-kayshun (Span- 
ish, deviarcadon. ) Division ; separation of 
territory ; the boundary line which divides 
the possessions of one ovmer or occupant 
from those of another. 

Demean, de-meen (Latin, de, down. 
French, mener, to carry). To conduct ; to 
behave ; to lower one's self. 

Dementia, de-menshea (Latin, de- 
mentia). A species of imbecility or mental 
weakness, most frequently met with in 
aged persons. 



DEM 

Demesne, de-meen (Latin, domimis, a 
master, or lord). A manor-house and land 
adjacent; land adjoining a mansion. 

Demi, dem-e (French, demi, half). A 
prefix frequently used in the composition of 
English and French words, signifying half. 

Demicadence, demmy-kaydens. In 
music, an imperfect cadence, or one which 
falls on any other than the key-note. 

Demi-god. A general appellation for 
an inferior divinity in the mjrthology of 
Greece and Rome, applied to such as were 
regarded as the mixed offspring of gods 
and mortals, who were afterwards deified. 

Demi-john, dem-my-jon (French, dame 
Jeanne). A glass vessel or bottle with a 
large body and a small neck, inclosed in 
wicker-work. 

pem.ise, de-mize (Latin, de, from ; 
missum, dismissed). Death ; decease ; 
also a grant by will. The demise of the 
C'roivn is a transfer of the crown, royal 
authority, or kingdom to a successor. In 
law, applied to an estate, either in fee or 
for a term of years. Demise and Re-demise 
signify a conveyance where there is a lease 
made from one to another at a merely 
nominal rent, and the latter re-demises 
to the first lessee the same land for a 
shorter term, subject to an actual rent. 

Dem.i-sem.iquaver, demmy-semmy- 
kwayvur. The shortest note in music, 
being half a semiquaver. 

Demitone, demmy-tone. In music, an 
interval of half a tone ; semitone. 

Democracy, de-mokkra-se (Greek, de- 
mos, the people ; hratio, to govern). That 
form of government in which the whole, 
or the greater portion of the adult males of 
a population, have a voice in the election of 
their political rulers and lawgivers. 

Dem.olition, demo-lishun (Latin, de, 
down ; moles, a mass). The act of throw- 
ing down, pulling up, or otherwise destroy- 
ing ; ruin ; destructiou. 

Dem.ou, de-mon (Greek, daimon). A 
name given by the ancients to a spirit in- 
termediate between a Pag-an god and a man, 
and which was supposed to possess the 
power of working good or evil to man- 
kind. 

Demoniac, de-mony-ak. Pertaining to 
demons; possessed of an evil spirit; acting 
more like a demon than a human being. 

Demonstrate, demon-strate (Latin, 
c?e, from ; vwiistro, to show). To show 



BEN 



87 



plainly; to prove with perfect clearness, 
and so as to convince the most prejudiced. 

Demoralizse, de-moral-ize (Latin, de, 
down ; mores, manners). To render corrupt 
in morals ; to destroy or lessen the effect 
of moral principle ; to weaken in respect to 
moral force as distinguished from physical. 

Demosthenic, de-mos-the-nik. Per- 
taining to or resembhng Demosthenes, the 
Grecian orator. A person speaking with 
great eloquence is said to employ Demos- 
thenic eloquence. 

Demotic (Greek, demos, the people). 
Relating to the people; popular; common. 

Demulcent, de-mulsent (Latin, de- 
mulceo, to soothe). Softening ; mollifying ; 
a medicine which protects sensible parts of 
the body from the irritative action of other 
substances. 

Demur, de-mur (Latin, de, from ; mora, 
delay). Suspense ; doubt from uncertainty 
or want of sufficient proof; hesitation; 
tardiness of judgment ; choice of opinion. 

Demurrage. In nautical affairs, the 
compensation due to a ship-owner from the 
freighter, or from the party who claims 
and receives goods under a bill of lading, 
on account of undue delay in the loading 
or unloading of them, or on account of this 
not being done within the specified time 
in the charter-party or the bill of lading. 

Demurrer, de-mur-rur (Latin, demeror, 
to delay). One who demurs. In law, an 
issue joined upon matter of law, to be 
determined by the judges : it is an abiding 
in point of law, and a referring to the 
judgment of the court, whether the 
declaration or plea of the adverse party is 
sufficient to be maintained in law. 

Demy, de-mi (French, demi). A size 
of paper next smaller than medium. 

Denarius, de-nary-us (Latin, denarius). 
A Eoman silver coin, worth about eight- 
pence, English money. 

Denary, den-a-re (Latin, denarius). 
Containing ten ; the number of ten. 

Dendriform, dendre-fawrm (Greek, 
dendron, a tree ; forma, shape). Having 
the form or appearance of a tree. 

Denizen, denny - zun (Old French, 
donaison, a gift). A freeman ; one not a 
native, but made a citizen ; an alien made 
a subject by letters patent, holding a 
middle state between an alien and a natural 
born subject. 



88 



DEN 



DEP 



Denomination, de - nommy - nayshim 
(Latin, de, from; nomen, a name). A 
name given to express some peculiar qua- 
lities; a body of individuals united by 
the same name, as a denomriiation of 
Christians. 

Denominator, de - nommy - naytur 
(Lat., de, from ; nomen, a name). In arith- 
metic and algebra, the number and letter 
below the line, showing the number of 
parts into which the integer is divided, 
and consequently indicating the denomi- 
nation of the fraction, or giving it name. 

Denote, de-note (Latin, de, from ; noto, 
to mark). To be a sign of ; to indicate; to 
imply, signify, or betoken. 

De novo, de no-vo (Latin, de novo). 
Again; anew; from the beginning; to 
perform anything over again. 

Denouement, den-oo-mawng (French, 
denouer, to untie). The unravelling or 
discovery of a plot ; the winding up of an 
event; the final development of a narra- 
tive or play. 

Denotmce, de-nowns" (Latin, de, from ; 
nuncio, to tell). To accuse publicly; to 
inform against; to threaten by some out- 
ward sign or expression. 

Densit3r, den-se-te (Latin, densus, thick, 
close). Thickness; solidity; compactness; 
the closeness, near approach, or adhesion 
of the parts of a body. 

Dental, den-tal (Latin, dens, a tooth). 
Pertaining to the teeth ; as tooth-drawing, 
a dental operation. 

Dentifrice, den-te-fris (Latin, dens, a 
tooth ; fricare, to rub). A name given to 
tooth-powders, generally, or anything that 
cleanses the teeth. 

Dentition, den-tishun (Latin, de^is, a 
tooth). The period at which the teeth are 
formed within the jaws, and protruded 
through the gums; a condition commonly 
known as teething. 

Denude, de-nude (Latin, de, from; 
ludus, naked). To strip; to deprive of 
elothes or covering ; to make bare or naked. 

Deny, de-ni (Latin, de, ne, not ; ago, to 
do). To refuse to do something asked or 
required; to affect perfect ignorance of. 

Department, de-pai-t-ment (French, 
departemeni). A separation or division. In 
France, a district usually comprehending 
four or five arrondissements, each of which 
contains several cantons, which again con- 
Bists of several communes. 



Depasture, de-pass-ture (Latin, de-\ 
pascor, to feed upon). To eat up ; to con- 
sume by feeding. In law, the act of feed- 
ing catile upon pastured land, for doing] 
which, at the request of another, the actiottj 
lies. 

Dependency, de-penden-se (Latin, de, 
from; pendeo, to hang). The state of I 
hanging upon a supporter; subordination, 
connection; reliance; the state of being 
subject to or at the disposal of another; 
also, a territory remote from the kingdom 
or state to wkich it is subject. i 

Depict, de-pikt (Latin, de, from; 
pictum, painted or drawn). To paint or 
portray ;* to represent the likeness of an 
object in colours; to describe in words. 

Depilatory, de-piUah-tory (Latin, de, 
from ; piVfts, hair). Having the power to 
remove the hair; any preparation or ap- 
plication which causes the hair to come off. 

Depletion, de-pleeshun (Latin, depleo 
to empty). The act of emptying. In 
medical practice, the diminishing th( 
quantity of blood in the vessels; blood 
letting. 

Deploy, de - ploy (Latin, de, from ; 
2}Uco, to fold). In military science, the 
expansion of a body of troops, previously 
compacted in column, so as to display an 
extended front. 

Deplume, de-plume (Latin, de, from : 
pluma, a feather). To strip or pluck off 
feathers ; to deprive of plumage. 

Deponent, de-ponent (Latin, deponens, 
laying do^vn). In law, one who gives his 
evidence in a comi; of justice; one who 
deposes to, or makes a deposition or state- 
ment of any fact; such evidence being 
taken down in writing, and then sworn to. 

Depopulate, de-poppu-late (Latin, de, 
from; 2^opulus, the -peo-ple). To unpeople; 
to lay waste ; to deprive a place or town of 
many of its inhabitants. 

Deportation, depor-tayshun (Latin. 
de, from ; 2J07'to, to cany). Transportation : 
assigning to a person some remote place of 
residence, and prohibiting his removal 
therefrom under certain penalties. 

Deportment, de-portment (Latin, de, 
from; porta, to carry). Personal de- 
meanour ; the manner in which one carries 
himseK; behaviour; conduct; self -manage- 
ment. 

Depose, de-poze (Latin, de, down ; 
positum, laid). To lay down; to deprive a 



I 



DEP 



DEE 



89 



person of post or dignity; to lay aside. 
Also, to give testimony on oath, especially 
such testimony as is committed to writing ; 
to give answers to interrogatories, intended 
as evidence in a court of law. 

Deposit, de-pozit (Latin, de, down; 
positum, laid). To lay down; to lodge in 
any place for preservation; that which is 
laid down or deposited ; a trust ; a pledge. 

Depot, depo (French, depOt). In mili- 
tary affairs, any special place in which 
mihtary stores are deposited, or where 
recruits for an army are assembled. In a 
general sense, a warehouse or magazine ; a 
place where any kinds of goods are de- 
posited. A depot covijjany is a company 
of soldiers' left at home for the purpose 
of recruiting, by regiments embarking for 
foreign service. 

Depravity, de-prawy-te (Latin, de, 
from; jpravus, wicked). Corruption; 
wickedness ; state of sinfulness ; perversion 
of the heart. 

Deprecate, deppry-kate (Latin, de, 
from; precor, to^rd^j). To pray earnestly 
for the averting of some imminent punish- 
ment ; to protest against. 

Depreciate, de-preeshy-ate (Latin, de, 
from; predum, price). To under-value; 
to lower a thing in price ; to represent as 
of no merit oi of less value than is com- 
monly supposed. 

Depredation, deppry-dayshun (Latin, 
de, from; prceda, plunder). The act of 
robbing or pillaging; laying waste; taking 
away by violence. 

Depression, de-preshun (Latin, de, 
down; pressum, pressed). The act of 
pressing down, or the state of being- 
pressed down; a sinking of spuits, or of 
strength. 

Deprivation, deppry-vayshun (Latin, 
de, from; privo, to take away). The act 
of taking away ; a state of suffering loss or 
want ; bereavement by loss of friends or of 
goods. In ecclesiastical law, the act of 
divesting a bishop or other clergyman of 
his spiritual promotion or dignity. 

Depurate, dep-urate (Latin, de, from ; 
pwrus, pure). To purify; to cleanse; to 
free from contamination or feculent 
matter. 

Deputation, deppu-tayshun (Latin, 
de, from; 2^'><-io, to think). A person or 
persons authorised and sent to transact 
business for other persons or for a collec- 
tive body; a number of individuals selected 



to represent the views and wishes of anj 
section of the community. 

Deputy, deppu-ty (French, depute). A 
person who acts for and takes the place of 
another; a lieutenant; a viceroy. Inlaw, 
a person who exercises an office in the right 
of another, and for whose behaviour and 
mistakes the principalis responsible. The 
Chamher of Deputies is the lower of the two 
legislative chambers in Fi-ance, 

Derangement, de-i-anje-ment (Latin,. 
de, from. French, ranger, to arrange). A 
displacing ; pxitting out of order ; disturb- 
ance of regularity or regular coiu-se. 
Mental disorder ,• distiu-bance of the mind. 

Dereliction, derry-likshun (Latin, de, 
from; re, again ; linquo, to leave). The 
act of forsaking or leaving ; abandonment ;. 
the state of being left or abandoned. 

Deride, de-ride (Latin, deride, to laugh 
at). To laugh at contemptuously ; to treat 
with scorn ; to turn into ridicule. 

Derivative, de-riwa-tiv (Latin, de,. 
from ; rivus, a river or spring). In gram- 
mar, any word derived, or taking its origin 
from another, called its primitive, as maii- 
Jiood, from man. 

Derivation, deny-vayshun (Latin, de,. 
from; rivus, a river or spring). The act 
of deriving, drawing, or receiving from a 
source ; a tracing a word to its root ; the 
thing derived or deduced. 

Dermatology, dermah-tollo-jy (Greek, 
derma, the skin ; lojos, a discourse), A 
treatise or history of the skin, and tha 
diseases to which it is subject. 

Dernier, dare-ne-ai (French, dernier). 
The last ; the only one left. Dernier res- 
sort, the last resource ; forlorn hope. 

Derogate, den-o-gate (Latin, de, from , 
rogo, to ask). To lessen ; to detract ; ta 
undervalue ; to take from. 

Derogatory, de-roggah-tory (Latin, de^ 
from; ro^ro, to ask). Detracting or tend- 
ing to lessen by taking something from; 
degrading, or unworthy of any person or 
thing. Derogatory clause, in a person's will, 
is a sentence or secret character inserted 
by the testator, of which he reserves the 
knowledge to himself, with the condition 
that no will that he may hereafter make 
will be vaUd, unless this clause be inserted 
word for word. This is done as a preceiu- 
tion to guard against later wiUs being 
extorted by violence, or othenvise im- 
properly obtained. 



90 



DES 



Dervish. A T;irkish priest or monk, 
•whose order profess to renounce the hixu- 
ries and comforts of life, tinder the belief 
that a condition of poverty is the only 
passport to heaven, and that privation in 
this world is certain to secure, rewards in 
the next. Many of the dervishes travel 
•over the whole of the Eastern world, enter- 
taining people with relations of the cui'iosi- 
ties and wonders they have naet Avith. In 
Egypt there are dervishes who live with 
then* families, and exercise their trades, of 
which kind are the dancing dervishes at 
Damascus. 

Desagrements, daze - ah - graymong 
(French). Discomforts; inconveniencies ; 
unpleasantnesses. 

Descant, des-kant (Spanish, discante). 
To comment on any subject ; to dispute ; 
to carry on a discussion under several 
heads ; to make a variety of remarks. 

Descendant, de-sendant (Latin, de, 
■down; scando, to climb). Any person pro- 
ceeding from an ancestor in any degree; 
issue; offspring in the line of genera- 
tion. 

Descry, de-skri (Noi'mau, desa-ier). 
To espy ; to reconnoitre ; to see from a 
distance ; to discover anything concealed. 

Desecrate, dessy-krate (Latin, de, from ; 
mcer, sacred). To convert a thing to a use 
different from that to which it was origin- 
ally consecrated; to divest of a sacred 
character or office. 

Deserts, de-zerts (Latin, de, from; 
servio, to serve). A deserving or worthi- 
ness of reward or punishment, especially 
the former. 

Desliabille, daze-ha-bil (French). An 
undress or morning dress; a dress worn 
within doors and on ordinary occasions; 
opposed to fuU dress. 

Desiccation, dessy-kayshun (Latin, de, 
from; sicco, to di-y). Act or process of 
drying. 

Desideratum, de - zidder - aytum. A 
Latin word, meaning wished for, used to 
express something greatly wanted, or much 
to be desired. 

Designation, dezzig-nayshun (Latin, 
de, from; signo, to mark). The describing 
a person or thing by some sign or object ; 
a selecting and appointing ; distinct appli- 
cation; to distinguish from others by in- 
dication. 

Desolation, desso-layshun (Latin, de, 
ii-om; solus, alone). The state of being 



DES 

laid waste, ravaged, or forsaken; sadaoss 
gloom; loneliness. 

Despatch, de-spatch (Spanish, despcu* 
char). To send away hastily; to perfornr 
quickly ; to send out of the world. Also, 
a letter sent with expedition, by a special 
messenger; or a letter on some affair of 
state, or of public importance. 

Desperado, despee-rahdo. A desperate 
f eUow ; one who is reckless of life or pro- 
perty, and acts without fear of danger or 
consequences. 

Despicable, des-pikkah-btd (Latin, 
despico, to despise). That which is only 
worthy of being despised; contemptible; 
vile; mean; sordid. 

Desjjite, de - spite (French, depii). 
Malice ; defiance ; also used in the sense of 
notwithstanding; as to perform a thing, 
despite such and such obstacles. 

Despoil, de-spoil (Latin, de, from; 
spolio, to plunder). To rob; to deprive; 
to divest ; to take away from by force. 

Despond, de-spond (Latin, de, from; 
spondeo, to promise). To be cast down ; to 
be depressed or dejected in mind; to be- 
come hopeless and desperate. 

Despot, des-pot (Greek, despotes). A 
sovereign or ruler invested Tvith absolute 
power ; in a general sense, one who abuses 
power and authority ; a tyi*ant. 

Despumation, des-pu-mayshun (Lat. , 
de, from; spuma, foam or froth). The 
separation of scum or other impurities from 
an animal or vegetable fluid by the action 
of fire or of albumen. 

Desquamation, deskwa - mayshun 
(Latin, desquamatid). Separation of the 
skin in scales ; a scaling or exfoliation of 
bone. 

Dessert, dez-zert (French, dessert). 
This word is derived from desservir, French, 
to take away the dishes from table : thus 
dessert, that which is placed upon the table 
after it has been cleared. 

Destemper or Distemper, des-tem- 
pur (French, detrempe). In painting, a 
preparation of opaque colour ground up 
with size and water ; when practised on a 
small scale, it is termed body-colour paint- 
ing. Destemper requires the walls to be 
dry on which it is laid, while fresco painting 
requires that they should be wet. 

Destiny, des-te-ne (Latin, destino, to 
bind). Ultimate fate; state pre-deter- 
mined; the immutable power by which 
events are so ordered and regulated, that 



I 



DES 



DEV 



91 



whatever happens could not possibly have 
been otherwise. 

Destitution, destee-tewshun (Latin, 
de, from; statuo, to set up). A state of 
poverty, and with no prospect of the means 
of subsistence ; a condition in which some- 
thing is wanted and not possessed. 

Desudation, dezu-dayshun (Latin, de- 
sudatio, sweating). In pathology, an 
eruption of small pimples resembling 
naillet seeds, which sometimes occurs on 
the skiQ of children. 

Desuetude, des-swe-tude (Latin, de, 
from ; suesco, to accustom). The cessation 
of use; disuse; discontinuance of a prac- 
tice, custom, or fashion. 

Desultory, dez-ultur-e (Latin, de, 
from; salio, to leap). Koving from one 
thing to another ; unsettled ; without order, 
connection, or method ; wavering ; pro- 
ceeding by fits and starts. 

Detached, de-tatsht (French, d£tacher). 
Separated ; broken off. In painting, when 
figures stand out from the background 
and from each other in a natural manner, 
so as to show that there is space and atmo- 
sphere between. A detached house is one 
standing quite apart from others. 

Detadanent, de-tatsh-ment. A part 
of a regiment or of an army sent upon any 
particular service at a distance from the 
main body. 

Detail, de-tale (French, detailler). To 
relate particularly; to display minutely 
and distinctly. 

Detainer, de-taynur (Latin, de, from ; 
teneo, to hold). One who withholds what 
belongs to another. In law, a forcible 
detainer is the keeping another out of 
possession of lands or tenements belonging 
to him. A lorit of detainer is a writ which 
lies against prisoners for debt, command- 
ing the governor of the prison to detain 
the person in question until he receives 
his discharge. 

Deter, de-tur (Latin, de, from; terreo, 
to frighten). To discourage by terror; to 
prevent acting or proceeding, by danger, 
difficulty, or other consideration which dis- 
courages and disheartens. 

Detergent, de-terjent (Latin, de, from ; 
ten'geo, to cleanse). Any preparation or ap- 
phcation which has the power of cleans- 
ing; a medicine which has the effect of 
removing viscidity and cleansing sores. 

Determine, de-turmin (Latin, de, from ; 
terminus, a boundary). To fix; to settle; 



to conclude ; to resolve ultimately ; to put 
an end to. 

Deteriorate, de-teereo-rate (Latin, de- 
tei'ior, worse). To make worse ; to grow or 
become worse ; to be impaired in quality ; 
to degenerate. 

Detinue, det-e-nu (Latin, detineo, to 
hinder). In law, a personal action of con- 
tract, which lies where a party seeks to 
recover goods and chattels, or deeds and 
writings, detained from him. 

Detonate, detto-nate (Latin, detono, to 
thunder). In chemistry, to cause to ex- 
plode; to burn or inflame with a sudden 
report. A detonating tube is a short glass 
tube used by chemists, for the detonation 
of gaseous bodies. Detonating po^cder, 
fulminating mercury, silver, or other com- 
pounds, which detonate when struck or 
heated. 

Detour, day-toor (French), A turning; 
a circuitous way. 

Detraction, de-trakshun (Latin, de, 
from; tracium, drawn). Defamation; 
slander ; the act of taking away something 
from the reputation or worth of another, 
with the view of lessening him in estima- 
tion. 

Detriment, dettry-ment (Latin, detri- 
mentiun). Loss ; damage ; injury ; mis- 
chief; harm, 

Detrop, deh-tro (French), Out of 
place; onetoonaany; not wanted. 

Deuce, duse (French, deux, two). A 
card with two spots ; a die with two spots. 

Deuteronomy, dewtur - onno - me 
(Greek, deuteros, second ; nomos, law). The 
second law, or second giving of the law by 
Moses ; the name accordingly given to the 
fifth book of the Pentateuch, 

Devastation, devas-tayshun (Latin, 
de, from; vasto, to lay waste). Demoli- 
tion; laying waste; destruction. 

Development, de-vellop-ment (French, 
developper). Eemoval of a covering so 
as to expose anything concealed; dis- 
closui'e of a secret ; \im-avelling of a plot. 
This word is also used in the sense of 
growth and expansion, as the development 
of the human frame into manhood or 
womanhood. 

Deviation, deevy-ayshun (Latin, de, 
from; via, the way). A wandering or 
turning aside from the right way; acting 
contrary to established rule. 



92 



DEV 



Device, de-vice (French, devise). A 
contrivance ; a stratagem ; a project ; a 
scheme or plan. In heraldry, an emblem 
which has some relation to a person's name ; 
the representation of some natural body 
with a motto or sentence. 



Devise, de-vize (Latin, divisum, divided). 
To invent or contrive ; to bring out to bear 
upon the execution of anything ; to scheme ; 
to project. In law, -the act of giving or 
bequeathing by will. 

Devoid, de-void (Latin, de, from; vi- 
duus, deprived). Empty; vacant; desti- 
tute of any quality, whether good or bad. 

Devoir, dev-war (French, devoir). 
Service or duty; an act of civility or 
respect ; respectful recognition due to 
another ; the customa'y phrase is, to pay 
one's devoirs. 

Devolve, de-volv (Latin, de, down- 
wards; volvo, to roll). Literally, to roU 
down : hence, to move from one person to 
another; to fall or descend to in order of 
succession. 

Devotee, dewo-tee (Latin, de, from; 
voveo, to vow). One who is wholly devoted ; 
a person superstitiously given to religious 
ceremonies and observances. 

Dewlap, dew-lap. The piece of flesh 
which hangs from the throats of oxen ; so 
called from its la'pping or brushing off the 
dew. 

Dew-point. The point of temperature 
at which dew begins to form or fall. 

Dexterity, deks-terry-te (Latin, dex- 
ter, the right). Readiness; activity; 
quickness of contrivance; quickness and 
skill in managing or conducting an opera- 
tion or process. 

Di. A prefix to words, contracted from 
dis, and denoting from, separation, nega- 
tion, two. 

Dia. A Greek prefix to many English 
words, denoting through, across, around, hy. 

Diablerie, de-ahb-le-rio (French). A 
diabolical deed; conjuration. 

Diabolical, diah-boUy-kul (Greek, Bia- 
hohts, the evil one). Impious; extremely 
mslicious ; outrageously wicked. 

Diachylum, di-akky-lum (Greek, dia, 
through; hjlos, chyle or ]nicG). A plaster 
acting by or through its juices. 

Diadem, diah-dem (Greek, diadeo, to 
bind round) . A crown or fillet worn around 
the head as a symbol of royalty. 



DIA 

Diagnosis, di-ag-no-sis (Greek, diagin- 
osho, to distingiush). In pathology, the art 
of distinguishing one disease from another. 

Diagonal, di-aggo-nal (Greek, dia, 
across; gonia, an angle). Applied to a 
straight line drawn across a figure from 
one angle or corner to another, so as to 
divide it into equal parts. 

Diagram, diah-gram (Greek, dia, 
across; gramma, a letter or drawing). A 
mathematical figure or scheme drawn for 
demonstration. 

Dial, di-al (Latin, dies, a day). An 
instrument for marking the hour of tho 
day by the sun. 

Dialect, diah-lekt (Greek, dia, through ; 
lego, to read). A peculiar form or idiom of 
language. In a general sense, an appella- 
tion given to a language when spoken of in 
contradistinction to some other language 
which it resembles in its general features, 
though differing from it more or less 
in detail. 

Dialectics, diah-lektiks (Greek, dia, 
through; lego, to read). The practical 
part of logic, which treats of the rules of 
reasoning. 

Dialogue, diah-log (Greek, dia, 
through; logos, a discourse). A discourse 
or conversation between two or more per- 
sons ; a written composition, representing 
two or more persons as conversing. 

Dialysis, di-al-e-sis. A mark or charac- 
ter consisting of two points placed over 
one or two vowels, as mosaic, to separate 
the diphthong and show that they must be 
sounded distinctly. In rhetoric, dialysis is 
a figiire of speech in which several words 
are placed together, without the aid of a 
conjunction, as veni, vidi, vici, 1 came, I 
saw, I conquered. 

Diam.eter, di-ammy-tur (Greek, dia, 
across ; metron, a measure). A line which 
passes through the centre of a circle, and 
divides into two equal parts. 

Diametrically, diah - mettri - kally 
(Greek, dia, across; metron, a measure). 
Directly; in the direction of a diameter; 
used to express an action or line of conduct 
directly opposed to some other. 

Diapason, diah-payson (Greek, dia, 
thi-ough; pas, all). In music, an octave or 
interval Avhich includes all the tones. 

Diaphanous, di-affah-nus (Greek, 
dia, through; phaino, to show). Trans- 
mitting light ; peUucid ; clear. 



t 



DIA 



DIF 



Diaphoretic, di-affo-rcttik (Greek, 
diaphoreo, to carry through). Promoting 
perspiration ; medicines which increase the 
discharge of humours through the skin in 
an imperceptible manner. 

Diaphragm, diah-fram (Greek, dia- 
phragma). A nervous muscle, vulgarly- 
called the midriff, dividing the breast from 
the stomach. 

Diastase, dias-tase (Greek, dia, 
through; istemi, to set). A peculiar vege- 
table substance formed during germina- 
tion. It is prepared by reducing freshly- 
germinated barley into a pulp, with half 
its weight of water, and then pressing out 
the liquor strongly. 
IjR Diathesis, di-athy-sis (Greek, dia- 
" tithemi, to depose). Peculiar condition of 



the body ; pre-disposition to certain dis- 



Diatonic, diah-tonik (Greek, dia, 
through; tonos, a tone). The ordinary 
species of music, consisting of ascending 
and descending by tones and semitones. 

Diatribe, diah-tribe (Greek, diatribe). 
A continued discourse; disputation; ap- 
plied sarcastically to lengthy and tedious 
harangues. 

Dictate, dik-tate (Latin, dicfo, to repeat). 
To tell with authority; to deliver a com- 
mand to another; to speak certain words 
which another pei'son is to write down. 

Dictator, dik-tator (Latin, dictator). 
One who dictates ; a person invested with 
unlimited authority. 

Diction, dik-shun (Latin, dictio). Ex- 
pression of ideas by words ; style ; language ; 
form of expression. 

Dictum, diktum (Latin, dictum, some- 
thing said). An authoritative sajdng or 
opinion; the ruling of a judge; the find- 
ing of an arbitrator. 

Didactic, di-daktik (Greek, didaslo, 
to teach). Preceptive ; giving instruc- 
tions and rules ; teaching. Didactic ipoetry 
is that which is written professedly for the 
purpose of instruction ; as, Pope's Essay 
on Man, or Young's Night TkougUs. 

•Die, di. A small cube marked on each 
of its sides with specks or dots, numbering 
from one to six, and used for games of 
chance and hazard ; pliu-al, dice. . 

Die-sinking. A process employed in 
the preparation of coins, medals, &c. 

Dies non, di-eez non (Latin, dies, a 
day ; non, not). A law phrase, meaning a 



day on which no legal proceedmg-s can take 
place. Such days are all the Sundays ia 
the year; the Purification, in Hilary term; 
the Ascension, in Easter term ; the festival 
of St. John the Baptist, in Trinity term ; 
and those of All Saints and All Souls, in 
Michaelmas term. In a general sense, a 
dies non is a day upon which, from some 
circumstance, no business can be trans- 
acted. 

Diesis, di-esis. The mark (J); called 
also a double dagger, and used as a mark 
for reference. Diesis, in music, the divi- 
sion of a tone less than a semitone ; or an 
interval consisting of a less or imperfect 
semitone. 

Diet, di-et (Greek, (Ziai'to, a rule of life). 
In a general sense, food or victuals ; more 
particularly applied to a regular course of 
living, or to food prescribed for the pvir- 
pose of maintaining or regaining health. 

Diet, di-et (Teutonic, diet, a multitude). 
An assembly of princes and states, espe- 
cially that known as the German diet: a 
convention of princes, electors, eccle- 
siastical dignitaries, and representatives 
of free cities, to deliberate on the affairs 
of the empire. 

Dietetics, diet-etiks (Greek, diaita, 
mode of living). The science or philoso- 
phy of diets ; or that which teaches us to 
adapt particular food to particular organs 
of digestion, or to particular states of the 
same organ, so that the largest amount of 
nourishment may be extracted from a 
given quantity of nutritive matter. 

Dieu et m.on Droit, dooh ay mong 
drwah (French). "God and my right." 
The motto of the royal arms of England. 
First assumed by Richard the First, to in- 
timate that he did not hold his empire in 
vassalage of any mortal. 

Differential, diffur-enshy-al (Latin, 
differo, to bear apart). A term applied 
to any quantity infinitely small ; so small 
as to be less than any assignable quantity. 
Differential calcuhcs is the method of find- 
ing the ratios of the differences of variable 
magnitudes, on the supposition that these 
differences become infinitely small. 

Diffidence, diffy-dens (Latin, dis, a 
negative particle ; Jido, to trust). Want of 
trust or confidence, especially in ourselves ; 
a moderate degree of timidity or bashful- 
ness. 

Diffuse, dif-fews (Latin, diffundo, to 
pour out). To pour out as liquid; widely 
spread ; applied to style of composition or 



94 



DIG 



DIM 



manner of expression, when it contains an 
excess of words. 

Digamy, diggah-me (Greek, dis, twice ; 
gamia, marriage). Marriage to a second 
wife after the death of a first, as opposed 
to bigamy. 

Digest, de-jest (Latin, digero). To 
dissolve in the stomach, as food after it has 
been swallowed : hence, to reduce to method 
that which has been received into the 
mind ; to distribute or arrange methodically 
into different classes. 

Digest, di-jest (Latin, digestus). A 
collection of the Roman laws, ranged and 
digested under their proper titles, by order 
of the Emperor Justinian. 

Digit, dij-it (Latin, digitus, a finger). 
A finger ; the measure of a finger's breadth, 
or thi'ee-qiiarters of an inch. In arithmetic, 
the numerals under ten, as 12345678 9, 
are called digits, from the ancient and 
original custom of counting on the fingers. 

Dignitary, dignit-tary (Latin, dignns, 
worthy). In the canon law, an ecclesiastic 
who holds a dignity or a benefice which 
gives him some pre-eminence over mere 
priests and canons, as a bishop, dean, 
archdeacon, prebendary, &c. 

Digraph, di-graf (Greek, dis, twice; 
qraplio, to wiite). A union of two vowels, 
of which only one is pronounced, as in 
'bread. It is essentially different from a 
diphthong, which consists of two vowels 
also, but produces a sound which neither 
of the vowels has separately. 

Digression, de-gresh\m (Latin, di, 
from; gradus, step). Wandering from 
the main subject; atiuning aside; a de- 
viation. 

Dike (Saxon, die). A mound of 
eai-th, stones, or other materials, raised 
to prevent low land being inundated 
by the sea or a river ; a channel made to 
receive water; a ditch. 

Dilapidation, de-lappy-dayshun (Lat., 
di, from; lai:>is, a stone). Euin; decay; 
waste. In ecclesiastical law, the waste or 
decay of a parsonage, for want of necessary 
repair, and for which the profits of the 
benefice may be sequestered. 

Dilate, de-late (Latin, latus, broad). 
To expand, spread out, enlarge, stretch, 
or widen. Figuratively, to relate any- 
thing at great length ; to narrate an event 
with all its minute circumstances. 

Dilatory, dillah-turry (French, dila- 
toire). Given to procrastination ; habitually 



delaying the performance of duties ; tardy ; 
slow; behindhand. In law, intended to 
cause delay; tending to delay, as a dilatory 
plea. 

Dilemma, de-lemmah' (Greek, dis, 
twice ; lenima, an assumption). A difficult 
or doubtful choice; a perplexing state or 
alternative. In logic, an argument con- 
sisting of two or more propositions, so dis- 
posed, that, grant which you wiU, the 
same conclusion must be inferred. 

Dilettante, dillet-tan-te (Italian). An 
admirer or lover of the fine arts ; one who 
greatly interests himself in promoting 
science or the fine arts. 

Diligence, dil-e-zhaunce. The name of 
a kind of stage-coach used in many parts 
of the Continent, especially in France. 

Diluent, dil-ewent (Latin, di, from; 
hio, to wash away). Making thin or more 
fluid ; that which reduces strength, as of 
liquors. In medical treatment, applied to 
a liquid which has a tendency to increase 
the fluids in the body. 

Dime, dime (French, dime, tithe). A 
silver coin of the United States, value ten 
cents, the tenth of a dollar. 

Diminuendo, dim-en-u-endo (Itahan). 
In music, those passages where the volum.a 
of sound is to be lessened from loud to 
soft, and marked thus (:=—). 

Diminution, dimmin-ewshun (Latin, 
di, from ; minor, less). The act of making 
less ; the state of growing less ; discredit ; 
loss of dignity or power. 

Diminutive, dim-innu-tiv (Latin, di, 
from ; minor, less). Small ; little ; con- 
tracted. In grammar, a word or termina- 
tion which lessens the meaning of the 
original word ; as lajyillus, in Latin, a little 
stone ; maisonette, in French, a httle house ; 
gunion, in Greek, a little woman ; rivulet, 
in English, a little river. 

Dimissory, dim-issur-re (Latin, d.i, 
from ; mitto^ to send). Sending away ; 
dismissing to another jurisdiction. A letter 
dimissory is one given by a bishop to a 
candidate for holy orders, liaving a title in 
his diocese, directed to some other bishop ; 
and giving leave for the bearer to be or- 
dained by him. 

Dimple. A smaU natural cavity in the 
flesh, usually forming in the cheek or about 
the chin, and generally considered as im- 
parting- beauty and expression to the 
features. 



DIN 



DIS 



95 



Dint. A blow or stroke ; the mark 
made by a blow ; the cavity remaining 
after great pressure ; violence ; force ; 
power. Figuratively, the force brought to 
bear upon the accomplishment of anything ; 
as by di7it of pex'severance. 

Diocese, dio-ses (Greek, dioilceds, a 
government). An ecclesiastical division of 
a kingdom or state, subject to the juris- 
diction of a bishop : hence one having such 
authority is termed the diocesan. 

Diorama, dio-rahmah (Greek, dia, 
through ; oravia, sight). A pictorial rep- 
resentation of natural scenery painted on 
a flat surface ; an exhibition of paintings, so 
arranged as to receive shades of light and 
various hues by means of movable blinds ; 
also the name of a building for such 
exhibition- 
Diphthong, dip-thong (Greek, dis, 
twice ; phthongos, a sound). A union of 
two vowels pronounced in one syllable or 
sound, as vain, Caesar. 

Diploma, dip-lomah (Greek, diploos, 
double). A writing conferring some pri- 
vilege ; a certificate of ability, merit, or 
honoui'. Diplomas are given to graduates 
of colleges, on their receiving the usual 
degrees ; to clergymen who are licensed to 
exercise the ministerial functions ; to phy- 
sicians who are licensed to practise their 
profession ; and to agents who are autho- 
rised to transact business for their prin- 
cipals. The name is given because 
diplomas were formerly written on waxed 
notes, which were doubled together. 

Diplomacy, de-plomah-se. Forms of 
negotiation ; customs, rules, and privileges 
of ambassadors, envoys, and other repre- 
sentatives of princes and states at foreign 
courts. In a general sense, the exercise of 
great art and judgment in an tmdertaking. 

Dipping. Among miners, sig-nifies the 
interruption or breaking off of the veins 
of ore ; an accident often attended with 
considerable trouble before the ore can bo 
again discovered. 

Dipping Needle. A long straight 
piece of steel, equally poised on its centre, 
and afterwards touched with a loadstone, 
whereby it dips or inclines to the earth, 
and demonstrates the exact tendency of 
the power of magnetism. 
. Diradiation, di-rady-ayshun (Latin, 
diridiatid). In medicine, an invigoration 
of the muscles by the animal spirits. In 
optics, the rays of light emitted and dif- 
fused from a luminous body. 



Dire (Latm, dirus). Dreadful ; horrible; 
dismal ; evil in a great degree ; affecting a 
beholder with horror. 

Direct, de-rekt (Latin, di, from ; o-ectus, 
straight). In a straight line ; leading or 
tending to an end, as by a straight line or 
course ; plain ; open ; express. In music, 
a direct interval is that which forms any 
kind of harmony on the fundamental sound 
which produces it. A direct tax is one 
upon real estates, houses, and lands. 

Director, de-rektui-. A person ap- 
pointed to manage the affairs of a public 
company ; as the director of a bank, or a 
railway comj)any . 

Dirge, durj (Teutonic, dp^l-e). A 
mom-nful song or tune, used as a lament 
for the dead. 

Dirk (Erse, dirl; dark). A kind of 
dagger or poniard, specially adapted for . 
assassination and use in the dark. 

Dis. A prefix or inseparable prepo- 
sition, implying a negation or jprivation, 
as dis-ohey, dis-oblige, kc. Or to signify 
separation and detachment ; as dis-arming, 
dis-trihuting . 

Disable, dis-aybul (Latin, dis, Saxon, 
aid). To deprive of force ; to weaken ; 
to render powerless ; to diminish or destroy 
any competent means. 

Disability, dissah-billy-te. In law, a 
state which renders a person ineligible as 
a holder of certain leeral benefits. 



Disabuse, dissah-buze (French, desa- 
huser). To \mdeceive ; to set right ; to 
explain away error or misapprehension. 

Disaffection, dissah-fekshun (Latin, 
dis, ad, factmn). Alienation of affection, 
attachment, or good-will ; a state of dis- 
content and murmuring ; disloyalty. 

Disafforest, dissah-forest. To throw 
open a forest to common use ; to do away 
with forest laws and their oppressive re- 
strictions. 

Disallow (Latin, dis; Saxon, a, lyfan"). 
To deny ; to refuse pennission ; to testify 
dislike, dissent, or disapprobation ; not to 
grant ; not to permit ; to reject. 

Di salto, de sal-to (Italian, di salto'). 
In music, a motion by skips, not by de- 
grees ; a melody which, in its progress, 
omits one or more degrees. 

Disaster, diz-astur (Latin, dis, from; 
astrum, a star). Misfortune ; calamity ; 
misery. The word is derived from the 



*)6 



DIS 



DIS 



-•ancient belief in the influence of the stars 

■ on human fortunes. 

Disavow, dissah-vow (Latin, dis, ad, 
voveo). To disown ; to deny knowledge of ; 
not to admit as tme or justifiable. 

Disband, dis-band (Latm, dis; Saxon, 
handa). To dismiss from service ; to dis- 
perse ; to break up a band or body-of men 

■ enlisted. 

Disburse, dis-burs {L&im, dis, from; 
T)ursa, a pui'se). To pay away ; to spend 
or layout money. 

Disc, disk (Saxon, disc, a plate). The 
body and face of the sun or moon, as 
either appears to the spectator on the 
earth. In optics, the magnitude of a tele- 
. scope glass, or the width of its aperture. 

Discard, dis-kard (Spanish, discartar). 
To dismiss from service, employment, or 
use. To cast off, or reject, as useless cards 
are thrown out of the hand. 

Discern, diz-m-n (Latin, dis, from ; 
cerno, to perceive). To discover ; to distin- 
guish; to recognise at a distance ; to judge. 

Disciple, dis-sj3)ul (Latin, disco, to 
learn). A learner; one who attends the 
teachings and professes the tenets of 
another. In a scriptural sense, the fol- 
lowers of Jesus Christ. 

Discipline, dissy-plin (Latin, disco, to 
learn). Education ; rule of government ; 
-the act of cultivating "the manners, and 
forming the mind ; subjection to rules, 
laws, orders, and regulations ; correction ; 
chastisement. 

Disciplinarian, dissy - plin - ary - an , 
One who is well versed in tactics and 
manoeuvi-es, and who exacts a strict ob- 
servance of them from those under Ms 
command. 

Disclaim, dis-klaim (Latin, dis, from ; 
damo, to cry out). To disown ; to deny ; 
to renounce ; to withdi'aw a claim ; to dis- 
avow all part or share. 

Disclaimer. In law, an express or 
imphed denial by a tenant that he holds 
an estate of his lord; a denial of tenure 
by plea or otherf\'ise. 

Disclosure, dis-klozhure (Latin, dis, 
from ; clausum, shut up, secret). Eeveal- 
ing ; an uncovering, and opening to view ; 
making kncwn what has hitherto been 
secret or concealed ; that which is disclosed 
or uiade known. 

Discolouration, dis - kuUur - ayshun. 
Change of colour ; stain ; alteration of 
complexion or appearance. 



Discomfiture, dis-kumfit-ure (Latin, 
dis, from ; coii, with ; figo, to fix). Over- 
throw ; defeat ; rout ; ruin. 

Discompose, diskom-poze (Latin, dis, 
from ; con, with ; liositum, placed). To 
. disorder ; to disturb ; to vex ; to ruffle ; to 
agitate. 

Disconcert, diskon-sert (Latin, dis, 
from ; con, with ; certo, to strive). To de- 
feat or interrupt any order, plan, or ^r- 
monious scheme ; to unsettle the niind ; to 
disturb. 

Disconsolate, dis-konso-late (Latin, 
dis, con; solor, to comfort). Without con- 
solation or comfoi-t ; bereaved ; friendless ; 
sorrowful. 

Discord, dis-kawrd (Latin, dis, cor; 
the heart). Disagreement ; want of union 
among persons or things ; difference <5f 
opinions ; want of order. In music, dis- 
agreement of sounds ; a union of so-onds 
which is inharmonious, grating, and 
disagi-eeable to the ear. 

Discount, dis-kownt (Latin, dis; con., 
puto, to prune). A sum deducted for. 
prompt or advanced payment ; a deductiottj 
made from the nominal price. AmoE^sJ 
bankers and bill-brokers, when a biU ofl 
exchange is converted into cash, thel 
interest for the time which the biU has to 
run is deducted, and is caUed discount. 
Again, a merchant who allows, say, three 
months' credit, wiU deduct a certain rate 
per cent, for payment in hand, and this 
sum is called the discount. 

Discountenance, dis - kownty - nans. 
To discourage; to restrain; to check by 
frowns, censxu-e, argument, opposition, or 
cold treatment. 

Discourteous, dis-kurty-us (Latin, 
dis. French, cour). Uncivil ; rude ; want- 
ing in complaisance. 

Discreet, dis-kreet (French, disa-et). 
Prudent ; circumspect ; wise in avoiding 
errors or evil, and in selecting the best 
means to accomplish a pm-pose. 

Discrimination, dis-krimmin-ayshun 
(Latin, discrimen, a difference). The act 
or faculty of distinguishing ; the act of 
making or observing a difference ; judg- 
ment displayed in selection. 

Discursive, dis-kursiv (Latin, dis- 
cursum, speed). Moving about; roving 
from place to place ; desultory. In logic, 
proceeding from things known to things 
unknown. 






DIS 



MS 



97 



Discussion, dis-kusshun (Latin, dis; 
quatio, to shake). Argument; disquisi- 
tion; the examination of a subject by- 
debate. 

Discutient, dis-kewshent (Latin, dis- 
cutio, to beat asunder). Dispersing morbid 
matter. In medical practice, a medicine or 
application which disperses a tumom* or 
tnj coagulated fluid in the body. 

Disdain, dis-dain (Latin, dis; dignus, 
worthy). To treat with scorn; to deem 
unworthy; to regard mth contempt; to 
refuse or decline with abhorrence; con- 
temptuous anger and indignation; imply- 
ing a consciousness of superiority of mind, 
or a supposed superiority. 
, Disembark, dis-embark (French, dis- 
embarqzier). To land ; to put on shore ; to 
remove from on board a ship to the land. 

Disenchant, diss-en-tshant. To free 
from enchantment ; to arouse a person 
from an imaginary to a real state of things. 

Disengage, dis-engaje (Latin, dis, in. 
French, gager). To separate ; to extricate ; 
to withdraw ; to release ; to free. 

Disfavour, dis-fayvur. Slight dis- 
pleasure ; vmfavourable regard ; with- 
holding support. 

Disfigure, dis-figure. To change 
anything to a worse form ; to render ugly 
that which was before beautifxil, or to cause 
existing ugliness to appear stiU more 
imsightly. 

Disfranchise, dis-fran-tshiz. To de- 
prive of the rights and privileges of a free 
citizen ; to take away the power of voting 
at elections. In England, to deprive a 
constituency of the power of returning 
members to parliament. 

Disfrock, dis-frok. To punish a clergy- 
man or priest, by forbidding him to 
perform his ministrations, and thus 
tiguratively taking away from him the 
frock or gown, which is the external 
emblem of his sacerdotal functions. 

Disgorge, dis-gawrj (French, degorger, 
to discharge). To eject or discharge ; to 
empty itself. Figuratively, the being 
compelled by force to give up what is 
unlawfully possessed. 

Disheveled, dish-ewuld (French, de, 
from ; cheveu, hair). Thrown into dis- 
order ; flowing loosely and negligently, 
especially applied to the hair of the head. 

Disinherit, dissin-herrit (Latin, (Zw, m/ 
Jicires, an heir). To cut off from an in- 
heritriQce ; to deprive of hereditary right. 



Disintegration, dis-inty-grayshun 
(Latin, dis, from ; integer, the whole). Sepa- 
ration of the integrant parts of a 
substance, as distinguished from decompo- 
sition, or the separation of constituent parts. 

Disjunctive,^ dis - jungktive (Latin, 
dis; jungo, to join). Separating; dis- 
joining; incapable of union. In gram- 
mar, a disjunctive conjunction, or connective, 
is a word which unites sentences or the 
parts of a discourse in construction, but 
disjoins the sense, noting an alternative or 
opposition — as, " I love him," or, " I fear 
him." In logic, a disjunctive proposition 
is one in which the parts are opposed to 
each other by means of disjunctives. 

Dislocation, dislo-kayshun (Latin, dis, 
from ; locus, a place). The act of dis- 
placing or putting out of joint ; the act of 
removing or forcing a bone from its socket. 

■ Dislodge, dis-lodj (Latin, dis. Saxon, 
logian). To remove from a place where a 
person lodges or rests ; to drive from the 
place of natural or ordinary rest and 
habitation. 

Disloyal, dis-loy-al. Not true to 
allegiance ; faithless ; false ; perfidious ; 
inconstant in love, or friendship. 

Dismantle, dis-mantul (Latin, dis. 
Saxon, mentel). To strip ; to divest ; to 
deprive of furniture or appurtenances ; t» 
break down anything external. 

Dismay, dis-may (Latin, dis. Spanish, 
Tiiayar, to crush). Loss of power and 
courage, occasioned by some fearful 
apprehension. 

Dismember, dis-mem-bur. To sepa- 
rate ; disjoin ; disunite member from 
member, limb from limb, one part or 
portion of an entire body from another ; to 
divide ; to sever ; to cut or tear to pieces. 

Disoblige, disso-blije. To do some- 
thing contrary to the wishes of another ; 
to offend by an act of unkindness and 
incivility. 

Disorganization, dis-awr-ganni- 
zayshun. The act of destroying organic 
sti-ucture or connected system ; the un- 
settUng the disposition and aii .ngemwit of 
parts ; disorder ; derangement. 

Disparagement, dis-parraje-ment 
(Latin, dis, from ; par, equal). Injury by 
comparison ; under-rating ; under- valuing ; 
suffering by union or comparison with 
something of inferior excellence. 

Disparity, dis-parry-te (Latin, dis, 
from ; p^r, equal). Inequality ; unlike- 



DIS 



DIS 



ness ; difference in degi'ee, ran k, age, 
condition, or excellence. 

Dispart, dis-part (Latin, dis ; pars, a 
part). To divide ; to separate ; to dis- 
sever. In gunnery, to set a mark on the 
muzzle-ring of a piece of ordnance, so 
that a sight-line from the top of the base 
ring to the mark on or near the muzzle 
may be parallel to the axis of the bore or 
hollow cylinder. 

Dispassionate, dis-passhun-ate. Cool ; 
calm ; impartial ; free from passion or 
feeling; exercising temperance and modera- 
tion. 

Dispatch. See Despatch. 

Dispel, dis-spell (Latin, dis, from ; pello, 
to drive). To disperse ; to clear away any 
obstruction by scattering it; hence to 
dispel gloom or sadness. 

Dispense, dis-pence (Latin, dispenso, 
to lay out). To distribute ; to deal out in 
portions or parts ; to administer ; to allow ; 
to give leave or permission to do or not to 
do ; to exempt ; to excuse ; to waive. 

Dispensation, dispen-sayshun (Latin , 
dispenso, to lay out). Distribution; the 
act of dealing out by method ; the dealing 
of Providence to mortals. Mosaic dispen- 
sation, or the Levitical law and rites ; the 
Gospel dispensation, or scheme of human 
redemption by Jesus Christ. 

Disperse, dis-purse (Latin, dispergo, to 
scatter). To scatter ; to spread ; to dissi- 
pate ; to drive asunder ; to go or move 
into different parts. 

Dispersion of Light. The division 
of a ray of white light into its variously 
coloured component rays, as seen upon the 
spectrum after it has undergone refraction, 
by transmission through a prism. 

Displayed. In heraldry, a term used 
in connection with the position of a bird, as 
an eagle displayed, that is, with the wings 
expanded, and the legs stretched out on 
either side. 

Disport, dis-port. To sport ; to play 
about ; to move with a lively and un- 
restrained air. 

Disposition. In an artistic sense, the 
general arrangement of a group, or the 
various parts of any picture or composition, 
in regard to its general effect ; the pro- 
per distribution of aU which forms a 
composition for the artist's use. Compo- 
sition may be considered as the general 
order or arrangement of a design ; dispo- 
sition disiliQ particular order adopted. 



Disputant, dispu-tant (Latin, W?s ,* 
piUo, to lop). One who argues against, 
or opposes the opinions of another; a 
person fond of controversy. 

Disqualification, dis-kwally-fe-kay- 
shun (Latin, dis ; qxialis^ of what kind). 
The act of disqualifying, or that which 
disqualifies ; the divesting or depriving of 
certain qualities, which are fitting, enabling, 
and entitling. 

Disquietude, dis-kwi-et-ude (Latin, 
dis ; quies, rest). Want of peace or tran- 
quillity; uneasiness of mind; anxiety; 
solicitude. 

Disquisition, diskwe-sis-shun (Latin, 
disquiro, to search diligently). A formal or 
systematic inquiry into any subject, by 
argument or discussion of the facts and 
circumstances, that may elucidate truth. 

Dissection, dis-sekshun (Latin, dis; 
seco, to cut). The act of cutting apart or 
in pieces, and thus laying open for in- 
spection or examination ; the act of 
separating into constituent parts, for the 
purpose of critical examination. 

Dissemble, dis-sembvil (Latin, dis; 
simulo, to feign). To conceal real motives 
and facts by some false pretence ; to 
invest with false appearances or qualities ; 
to disguise ; to play the hypocrite. 

Disseminate, dis-semmin-ate (Latin, 
dissemino, to sow as seeds). To scatter as 
seed ; to spread abroad anything, as to 
disseminate report. 

Dissension, dis-senshun (Latin, dis ; 
se7^i^o, to perceive). Disagreement; discord; 
angry or warm contention in words ; breach 
of union or friendship. 

Dissent, dis-sent (Latin, dis ; sentio, 

to perceive). To differ or disagree in 

sentiment or opinion ; to think in a 
different or contrary manner. 

Dissenter. One who dissents to the 
worship of an established church, and 
attends some other form of worship. The 
dissenters of England maintain that Christ 
alone is the head of the Church, and they 
acknowledge no human authority in matters 
of religion. 

Dissertation, dissur-tayshun (Latin, 
dissero, to discuss). An argument or 
debate intended to illustrate a subject ; a 
written essay ; a treatise ; a discourse. 

Dissever, dis-sewur. To part in two ; 
to separate into several parts or divisions ; 
to divide. 



DIS 



BIT 



99 



Dissimulation, dis-siminu-laysliun 
jjiatin, dis ; dmilis, like). The act of 
dissembling; abiding under false pretence; 
hypocrisy. 

Dissipate, dissy-pate (Latin, dissipo, 
to scatter in different ways). To scatter ; 
to waste by throwing away in all directions ; 
hence to dissipate groundless fears and 
alarms. 

Dissolute, disso-lute (Latin, dissoluttis). 
Dissolved in, or abandoned to idle pleasures 
and vice ; loose ; unrestrained in morals ; 
licentious ; riotous ; profligate. 

Dissolution, disso-lewshun (Latin, dis, 
from ; solvo, to loosen). The act of dissolv- 
ing ; the destruction of anything by the 
separation of its parts. In an especial 
sense, death, or the separation of the 
body and soul. 

Dissolve, diz-zolv (Latin, dis, from ; 
solvo, to loosen). To destroy the form of a 
thing by loosening or disuniting its parts ; 
this word has a wide signification ; thus a 
solid may be dissolved into liquid ; partner- 
ship may be dissolved ;, and an assembly 
may be dissolved. 

Dissonant, dis-so-nant (Latin, dis, 
apart ; sono, to sound). Disjoined or dis- 
tmited in sound ; discordant ; harsh ; in- 
harmonious. 

Dissuade, dis-swade (Latin, dis; 
Sicadeo, to persuade). To prevail upon a 
person to abandon some object or pursuit ; 
to represent as unfitting, or disadvanta- 
geous ; to persuade not to do. 

Dis-syllable,dis-sillah-bul (Greek, dis, 
twice ; syllabos, a syllable). A word of 
two syllables. 

DistafF, dis-tahf (Saxon, distcef). The 
staff of a spinning wheel, to which a bunch 
of tow or flax is tied, and from which the 
thread is drawn. 

Distance. The extreme boundary of 
view in a picture. In perspective, the 
point of distance is that portion of the 
picture where the visual rays meet. Mid- 
dle distance is the central portion of a 
picture, between the fore ground and the 
extreme distance. 

Distaste, dis-taste. Aversion of the 
palate ; repugnance of the feeling; dis- 
gust ; dislike ; disrelish. 

Distemper, dis-tempur (Latin, dis; 
tempero, to moderate). A disproportionate 
mixture of ingredients. In medicine, 
some disorder of the animal economy, oc- 
casioned by the redundancy of certain 
morbid humours; also a disorder of the 



mind, arising from the predominance cf 
any passion or appetite. In painting, a 
term used for the admixture of colours 
with some other ingredient besides water 
and oil, as size, or white of egg ; the term 
being originally applied owing to the 
alternation of temperattire occasioned by 
the process. 

Distend, dis-tend (Latin, dis; tendo, 
to stretch). To fill out ;• to stretch apart ; 
to widen ; to extend ; to swell. 

Distich, dis-tik (Greek, dis, twice ; 
stichos, a row). In poetry, a couplet of 
lines ; a poem consisting only ot two 
verses ; a theme or subject treated of and 
comprised in two lines. 

Distil, dis-til (Latin, di, from ; stillo, 
to drop). To separate di'op by drop ; to 
flow gently ; to extract spirit. 

Distort, dis-tawrt (Latin, dis; torqueo, 
to twist). To twist ; to bend aside ; to 
deform ; to writhe. 

Distract, dis-trakt (Latin, dis; traho, 
to draw). To draw apart ; to pull in 
different directions and separate ; to draw- 
away the thoughts or the attention ; to 
perplex and unsettle the mind. 

Distrain, dis-train (Latin, di; stringo, 
to bind). To seize for debt ; to make 
seizure. 

Distraugllt, dis-trawt (Latin, dis; 
tralw, to draw). Metaphorically, torn to 
pieces by wild and profane thoughts. 

Distribute, dis-trib-ute (Latin, dis; 
tribuo, to allot). To apportion ; to d>eal 
out ; to assign in shares and portions ; to 
allot to certain places and stations. 

District, dis-trikt (Latin, dis ; stringo, 
to bind). A province ; a territory ; a cir- 
cuit ; all that space within which there are 
special powers for coercing and punishing ; 
a word apphcable to any portion of land 
or country, or to any part of a city or 
town, which is defined by law or agree- 
ment. 

Distringas, dis-tring-gas (Latin, di&' 
tringas). In law, a writ commanding the 
sheriff to distrain a person for debt, or for 
his appearance at a certain day. 

Dithjncambie, dith-e-rambik (Greek, 
Diihyrarahos, one of the names of Bacchus). 
A song in honour of Bacchus, in which the 
wildness of intoxication is imitated ; any 
poem written in wild, enthusiastic strains ; 
anything wild and enthusiastic. 

Ditto, dit-to (Latin, dictum, as said). 
A word denoting said, aforesaid, or tho 
n2 



100 



DITJ 



same thing ; au abbreyiation used to avoid 
Pepetition. Contracted into Do. in books 
i»f accounts. 

Diurnal, di-umal (Latin, dies, a day). 
Pertaining to the day ; relating to the day- 
time ; daily ; performed in a day. 

Divan, de-van. A word much used in 
Turkey, Persia, and Arabia. It is the 
grand judicial tribunal of Tiu'key, wherein 
justice is administered ; and the council of 
Eastern princes. The term is also applied 
to any hall or saloon set apart for the re- 
ception of company. It further signifies a 
kind of sofa, or lounging seat. 

Divaricate, di-varry-kate (Latin, di ; 
varico, to straddle). To divide into two ; 
to separate into two branches ; to open ; 
to stride. In botany, to turn off irregu- 
larly, and almost at a right angle. 

Diverge, de-\n.\rj (Latin, di ; xergo, to 
lie or look towards). To turn away or 
apart ; to tend various ways from one 
point ; to shoot, extend, or proceed from a 
point in different directions, or not in 
parallel lines. 

Divergent Rays. Those rays which, 
proceeding from a point of a visible object, 
are dispersed, and continually separate one 
from another, in proportion as they are 
removed from the object ; in which sense 
they are opposed to convergent rays. 

Divers, di-vurz (Latin, diversus, dis- 
similar). Different ; sevei-al ; various ; more 
than one, but not a gi'eat number. 

Diversify, de-vursy-fi (Latin, diversiis, 
dissimilar). To vary ; to make different ; to 
give variety to ; to distinguish by various 
characteristics ; to mark with various 
colours. In oratory, to vary a subject, by 
enlarging on what has been briefly stated, 
Oy brief recapitulation, by adding new 
ideas, by transposing words or periods, &c. 

Diversion, de-vershun (Latin, di ; 
verto, to turn). A turning aside ; that 
which turns the mind aside or diverts ; 
hence diversion means amusement, but of a 
lighter and less engrossing kind than 
pleAsui'e. In war, the act of di'awing off 
an enfemy from some design, by an attack 
made at some other place. 

Divert, de-vert (Latin, di; verto, to 
turn). To turn aside fi-om any com-se ; to 
call away the attention ; to amuse ; to 
entertain ; to exhilarate ; to draw the 
forces of an enemy to a different point. 

Divertisement, de-vertiz-ment. A 
dance or interlude introduced on the stage 



DIV 

for the purpose of lightening and diversirfy^ 
ing the entertainment. 

Divest, de-vest (Latin, di; vestis, a 
garment). Literally, to strip off, as a gar- 
ment, hence to deprive anything of what 
covers, suiTOunds, or attends it ; thus also, 
in a figurative sense, to free the mind from. 

Dividend, diwy-dend (Latin, divido, 
to divide). The proportion of profits 
which the members of a society or public 
company receive at stated periods. The 
papnent made to creditors out of a bank- 
rupt's estate. The annual interest paj^able 
upon the national debt. - In arithmetic, 
any number to be divided is called a 
dividend, and the successive dividends in a 
process of long division are called dividuals; 
the dividing number is caUed the divisor. 

Divine Kight of Kings. The 

absolute and unqualified claim of sovereigns 
on the obedience of the people. 

Divining Rod, de-vi-ning rod. A 
forked branch, usually of hazel, by which it 
has been superstitiously believed that 
minerals and water may be discovered in 
the earth ; the rod, if slowly carried along 
in suspension, dipping and pointing down- 
wards, it is affirmed, when brought over 
the spot where the concealed mineral 
treasure or spring of water is to be found. 

Divination, diwin-ayshun (Latin, 
divino, to foretell, from Dem, God). The 
supposed knowledge of future events, which 
cannot be obtained by natural means. It 
was a received opinion among the heathens, 
that the gods were wont to converse 
familiarly with some men, whom they 
endowed with extraordinary powers, and 
admitted to the knowledge of their counsels 
and designs. 

Divinity, de-vinny-te (Latin, Deus, 
God). Godhead; having the powers or 
attributes of God ; the Deity ; the Supreme 
Being ; a false deity or idol ; also a celestial 
being, inferior to the supreme God, but 
superior to man ; likewise, the science of 
divine things ; the science which unfolds 
the character of God, his laws and moral 
government, the duties of man, and the 
way of salvation. 

Divisible, de-vizzy-bl (Latin, divide, to 
divide). That may be divided ; capable of 
being actually or mentally divided into 
parts. 

Division, de-vi^zhun (Latin, divide, to 
divide). The act of dividing ; that which 
divides. The divisions of an army are the 
parts into which it is distributed, each 



J 



DIV 



DOG 



Ijeing commanded oy a general officer. 
The divisions of a battalion are the several 
parts into which it is told ofif, for the pur- 
pose of manoeuvring. Each regiment is 
di^dded into five grand divisions, ten di- 
visions, or companies, twenty sub- divisions, 
and foi*ty sections. 

Divorce, de-vorse (Latin, di ; verto, to 

turn). The legal separation of man and 

wife ; the dissolution of the marriage 

contract. 

} Divulge, de-vulj (Latin, vulgus, the 

j common people). To publish; to make 

1 publicly and commonly known ; to dis- 

I close or discover ; to make manifest ; to 

\ declare. 

Dizzy, diz-ze (Saxon, dysig). Giddy ; 
a sensation of swimming in the head and 
turning round ; whii'ling ; thoughtless. 
^^ Do, doe. In music, the first syllable in 
solfefifjio, or the Italian mode of reading 
aiusic. 

Doab. A Persian word meaning two 
waters, and applied in Indian nomenclature 
'o any tract of country included between 
ywo rivers. 

Dobash. The name given in India to 
)ne who speaks two languages, now synony- 
nous with interpreter. 

Docile, dos-sil (Latin, doceo, to teach). 
Teachable ; easily taught ; willing to be 
nstructed, and quick to learn. 

Dock, dok (Welsh, tociaw). To cut 
'ff ; to lop off ; to curtail or shorten. In 
;:iw, an expedient for cutting off an entail 
* a lands or tenements, to enable the o^vner 
sellj give, or bequeath the same ; to 
3ssen the charges in a bill ; to reduce the 
mount of anything. 

Dock, dok (Greek, dole, a deep place). 
. place sunk for the reception of ships ; a 
' lace for building or repairing ships ; the 
)rmer is called a u-et dock, the latter a 
ry dock. 

Docket, dok-et (Welsh, tociaw). A 
naU piece of paper or parchment con- 
lining the heads of a writing ; a sub- 
sription at the foot of letters patent by 
le clerk of the docket ; a bill tied to goods 
ontaining some directions. 
: Doctor. Literally, a teacher. One who 
as taken the highest degTce in the faculties 
f divinity, law, or physic. Doctor of 
Hvinity; abbreviated, D.D. Doctor of 
jaws ; abbreviated, LL.D. Doctor of 
Medicine ; M.D. The title is either con- 
erred publicly with certain ceremonies, or 
jy diploma. 



Doctors' Commons. The popular 

name for the com-tsand offices occupied by 
the college of doctors of law, where the 
professors formerly lived in common, as at 
colleges ; hence the name. Doctors' Com- 
mons. 

Doctrine, dok-trin (Latin, doceo, to 
teach). The principles or positions of any ;: 
sect or master ; the thesis or maxims de- * 
livered in a discourse ; anything taught ; 
the act of teaching. 

Doctrinaires, doktree - nairz. A 
party of French politicians, supporters of a 
constitutional monarchy ; persons fond of 
new systems and theories. 

Document, dokku-ment (Latin, doceo, 
to teach). Written instruction; official 
paper or publication ; a writing produced 
in evidence or as proof. 

Dodecagon, do-dek-ka-gon (Greek, 
dodeha, twelve ; gonia, an angle). A geo- 
metrical figure of twelve sides and angles. 

Dodo, doe-doe. The name given to an 
extinct bird said to have existed in the 
Maiu-itius previous to the seventeenth 
century. Considerable diflterence of 
opinion has existed among natui'alists as 
to the real charactex* of the dodo ; the 
generally received one being that the dodo 
resembled an ostrich in the legs and body, 
and had a head not unlike that of the. 
vultm-e. 

Doe (Saxon, da). A she-deer; the 
female of the buck. 

Doff, dof {do off). To put off ; to lay 
aside ; as, to doff a hat or cloak. 

Dog. To follow about as a dog does ; 
to pui'sue or hunt like a hound, so as to 
follow and find out where one is going to. 

Dog. A sort of iron hook or bar, 
with a sharp fang at one end, so formed as 
to be easily driven into a piece of timber, 
to drag it, by means of a rope, out of the 
water or ship-board. 

Dog Days. The name given to certain 
days of the year, diu-ing which the dog- 
star rises and sets with the sun, namely, 
from the 3rd of July to the 11th of August. 

Doge, doje (Italian, doge, duke). The 
title formerly given to the chief magistrate 
in the republics of Venice and Genoa. In 
Venice it was held for life, in Genoa for 
two years only. 

Dogged, dog-ged (German, dogge). 
Sullen ; morose ; ill-humoUred ; applied to 
those who have the ill-tempers or dispo- 
sitions of dogs, or curs. 



102 



DOG 



DOM 



Dogger, dog-gTir. A small ship or 
fisliing vessel, built after the Dutch fashion, 
with one mast, a narrow stem, and a well 
in the middle for keeping fish alive ; 
principally used for fishing on the Dogger 
Bank, in the German Ocean, whence the 
name is derived. 

Doggerel, dog-gur-el. An epithet 
given to ii'regular, mean poetry, or to mere 
rhjones strung together without harmony 
or sense. The term is supposed to be de- 
rived primitively from dog ; hence, rhyme 
without harmony ; harsh ; discordant ; 
resembling the noise made by a clog. 

Dogma, dog-mah (Greek, dogma). An 
opinion or doctrine said or assumed to be 
clearly seen or discerned; and therefore 
positively affirmed, and authoritatively 
asserted ; a settled opinion ; a doctrinal no- 
tion, particularly in matters of faith and 
lihilosophy. 

Dogmatic, dog-mattik (Greek, dogma). 
Authoritative ; arrogant ; magisterial ; 
positive. 

Dog-vane. A small vane composed of 
thread, cork, and feathers, fastened to a 
half pike, and placed on the weather gun- 
wale, to assist in steering a ship on the wind. 

Dog-watch. Among seamen, a watch 
of two hours ; there being two such be- 
tween 4 and 8 o'clock, p.m. 

D'Oily, doy-le. A species of coarse 
woollen stuff, said to be so called from the 
first maker; also the name for a small 
napkin used at dessert. 

Doit, doyt (French, doigt. Latin, 
digitus, a finger). A very small piece of 
money, or so much brass as may be 
covered by the tip of the finger; and 
hence, the merest trifle. 

Dolce, dol-cha ) 

Doleem.ente,dolcha-men-te j (Italian). 
In music, a direction, signif jdng that the 
music is to be played or simg softly and 
sweetly. 

Dole (Saxon, dcelan). To deal out ; to 
divide ; to distribute ; to paii; with in 
small portions ; that which is dealt or dis- 
tributed ; the portion assigned to any one. 

Doleful, dole-ful (Latin, doleo, to 
grieve). Sorrowful ; dismal ; expressing 
grief ; causing grief ; having the external 
appearance of sadness. 

Dollar, dol-lar. A silver coin of Spain 
and the United States, value 100 cents, or 
4s. 2d. British. The name is said to be 
derived from Bole, the town where the 



coin was first made. The German and 
Italian dollars are of rather less value than 
the above. 

Dolphin, dol-fin (Greek, delphin, a 
fish). A name gi-\'en to two kinds of fish, 
one of the whale species, measm-ing about 
ten feet ; the other about five feet, charac- 
terised by its surprising changes of colour 
when in a dying state. 

Doloroso, doUo-ro-zo (Italian, dolo- 
roso). In music, pathetic. 

Dolt (Saxon, dol). A dulled, heavy, 
stupid fellow. 

Dom, dum. Used as a termination; 
denotes jurisdiction, or property and juris- 
diction, as king(^o?Ji, dukecZowi. 

Dom. An abbreviation of the Latin 
word dominus (a master who owns), and is 
applied by the Portuguese, as a title of 
honour and respect, in the same way that 
Don is in Spanish. 

Domain, do-mane (Latin, domimis, a 
master). A person's patrimony or inheri- 
tance ; land possessed by one as proprietor, 
heir, or governor; the land about the 
mansion of a lord, and in his immediate 
occupancy. 

Dom.e. In architecture, an arched 
roof or cupola. The word is derived from 
the Italian duomo (a cathedral) because 
those buildings had such roofs generally. 

Domestic, do-mestik (Latin, dovnis, a 
house). A servant employed in household 
duties. 

Domesticate, do-mesty-kate (Latin, 
dom^is, a house). To make domestic ; to 
tame, reclaim, or civilise ; to retire from 
public ; to settle down at home. 

Domicile, dom-my-sil (Latin, dornus, a 
house). A house ; residence ; mansion ; 
place of abode. 

Domiciliary, dom-my-sil-ya-re. Per- 
taining to a private residence. A domi- 
ciliary visit is a legal intrusion on the 
privacy of a house for the pm-pose of 
searching it. 

Dominical Letters, do-minny-kal 
(Latin, Dominus, the Lord). The letters 
noting the Lord's day, or Sunday; thus, 
in the calendar there is one of the first I 
seven letters of the alphabet attached to 
every day in the year ; namely, A to the 
1st of January, B to the 2nd, C to the 3rd, 
and so on for a week; A marking the 
8th, 15th, 22nd, 29th days, and so with 
the other letters. The consequence is, 
that aU the days which have the same 



DOM 



DOU 



103 



letter fall on the same day of the week. 
The dommical letter for any year is that 
letter on which all the Sundays fall. 

Dominicans, do-minny-kans. An 
order of monks, founded by Dominic de 
Guzman, a Spanish gentleman, bom in 
1170. In France they were called Jaco- 
bins, and in England Black Friars, or 
Preaching Friars. 

Dominant, dom - my - nant (Latin, 
dominus, lord, or master), Euling; 
governing ; prevailing ; having power and 
authority over. In music, of the three 
notes essential to the tone, the dominant 
is that which is a fifth from the tonic. A 
dominant or sensible chord is that which 
is practised on the dominant of the tone, 
and which introduces a perfect cadence. 

Domino, dommy-no. A dress formerly 
worn by ecclesiastics in winter, serving to 
protect the face and head from the weather ; 
in the present day, a masquerade dress, 
consisting of a long silk mantle with cap 
and wide sleeves. 

DomoReparando, do-mo repar-ando 
(Latin). A writ which lies for a person 
against his neighbour, whose house he 
fears will fall, to the damage of his own. 

Don [do on). To put on ; to invest ; as, 
to don a hat or cloak. 

Don. A Spanish title of distinction or 
gentility ; a name given at the English 
universities to the masters and fellows. 
Don is also used in derision, to imply a fop 
or conceited person. 

Donation, do-nayshun (Latin, dmio, 
to give. ) The act of giving or bestowing ; 
a gift or grant. In law, tJbe act or con- 
tract by which a thing, or the use of it, is 
transferred to a person or coi-poration as a 
free gift. 

Donative. In law, a benefice given to 
a clerk by the patron, without presen- 
tation to the bishop. 

Donjon, dun-jun (French, donjon). 
The grand central tower of a Norman or 
mediaeval castle. It was the strongest 
portion of the building, and contained the 
principal rooms. 

Donor, do-nur (Latin, dono, to give). 
The name applied to a benefactor, or one 
who gives away anything, chiefly as ap- 
plicable to the public good. In the 
middle ages, this term was applied to the 
giver and foimder of a work of art for 
religious purposes ; as, the giver of a 
church picture, statue, or painted window. 



Doom, doom (Saxon, dom). The sen- 
tence or condemnation of a judge ; the 
state for which one is destined. The old 
name for the last judgment, which im- 
pressive subject was usually painted over 
the chancel arch in parochial churches. 

Doomsday Book, doomz-day book. 
A register made by order of William the 
Conqueror, of the lands of England, value 
of tenures, &c., with a view to their being 
adjudged, or doomed for taxation. 

Dormant, dawr-mant (Latin, dormio, 
to sleep) . Sleeping ; at rest ; not in action ; 
unused ; concealed ; not divulged. Dor- 
mant, in heraldry, is applied to an animal 
when in a sleeping posture ; in commerce, 
to a partner in a concern who takes no 
active share in the business. 

Dormitory, dawr-my-tur-ry (Latin, 
dormio, to sleep). A place, building, or 
room to sleep in ; a gallery in convents, 
divided into several cells, where the reli- 
gieuse sleep ; also a place of final rest ; a 
burying-place. 

Doric, dor-ik. From Doris, in Greece ; 
pertaining to Doris or the Dorians. The 
Doric order of architecture is that peculiar 
shape of a column and its entablature 
originally formed in imitation of a 
wooden fabric, supported with fluted posts 
or the trunks of trees. The order is 
characterised by strength and simplicity, 
and is appropriately employed in the gates 
of cities, the exterior of churches, &c. 

Dorsal, dawr-sal (Latin, dm^sum, the 
back). Belonging to the back, as the 
dorsal fin of a fish. 

Dose, dose (Greek, dosis, a giving). In 
pharmacy, the quantity determined by 
weight and measure, of any medicine 
which is to be taken at one time ; the 
portion of medicine given at one time. 

Dotage, do-taje (Dutch, doten). The 
feebleness of age ; weakness or imbecility 
in mind or understanding ; siUy fondness. 

Dotal, do-tal (Latin, dos, a portion^. ■;! 
Pertaining to the dower or marriage por- 
tion ; constituting, or comprised in dower. 

Dotard, do-tard (Dutch, doten). One 
whose mind is impaired by age ; one in his 
second childhood ; one foolishly fond. 

Dote (Dutch, doten. ) To love with ex- 
cessive fondness; to have the mind 
impaired by age or passion ; to be silly. 

Douay Bible, doo-ay (Douay, a town 
in France). The English translation of the 



104 



DOU 



Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, 
saaictioned by the Roman Catholic Church. 

Double-Bank. A term applied to an 
oar being pulled by two men. A boat is 
double-banked, when there are two men 
on every thwart, each pulling a short oar. 
The term is derived from the bank or 
bench upon which the rowers sit in a 
galley. 

Double-Bass. The large musical 
instrument of the viol kind ; it has three 
strings, and is tuned in fourths. 

Double Dealer. A two-faced per- 
son ; one who acts two different parts in 
the same transaction, or at the same time ; 
a person who says one thing and designs 
or thinks another. 

Doublet, dub-blet (French, doublet). 
The inner or xmder-garment of a man, so 
called from its affording double the wannth 
of another. 

Doubling. In miHtary tactics, put- 
ting two files or ranks of soldiers into one. 
In naval tactics, doubling upon is a phrase 
used for inclosing part of an enemy's 
fleet, so as to cannonade it from two sides. 
Doubling a cape is to sail round or pass be- 
yond it. Doubling, m hunting or coursing, 
is a turning back or winding, to escape 
pursuit, or effect a capture. 

Doubloon, dub-loon (Spanish, doblon). 
A Spanish gold coin, worth about sixteen 
dollars, or £3 4s. British. There are also 
half and quarter doubloons of proportional 
value. This coin being the form generally 
given to gold in the mining countries of 
South America, is extensively circulated 
as bullion. 

Douceur, doo-sur (French, douceur, 
sweetness). A term generally applied to 
that which su-eeteus, renders pleasant or 
jigreeable ; in a more direct sense, a gift, a 
present, a bribe ; a siveetener. 

Douclie, doosh (French, douche^ shower- 
bath). A jet or current of water thrown 
upon some diseased part of the body, 
thereby causing a shock, and producing 

Ij certain effects upon the system. 

i Doughty, dow-te (Saxon, dolitig). 

Brave; valiant; noble; renowned. 

Dovetail, duv-tail. In carpentry, the 
art of joining boards or timber, by letting 
one piece into another in the form of a 
wedge reversed or a dove's-tail ; considered 
to be one of the strongest modes of joining. 

Dowager, dow-a-jur (French, donair- 
iere). A widow with a. jointure; a lady 



DBA 

who sm-vives her husband ; a title particu- 
larly given to the widows of royal and 
noble persons ; the widow of a king is 
called (jiteen doivager; the widow of a duke 
duchess dowager, &c. The word is primi- 
tively derived from dowry ; a dowager in 
this sense being one who enjoys a dovrry 
after the death of her husband. 

Dowdy, dow-de (Gaelic, dudds, rags). 
One whose clothes hang on like rags ; a 
person who presents a mean, old-fashioned, 
or slovenly appearance; in a slovenly 
manner. 

Dower, dow-ur (Greek, dos, a gift). 
The property which a wife brings to her 
husband ; the portion of a widow ; the 
gift of a husband to a wife ; endowment ; 
gift. 

Downs. Low hills of blown sand which 
skii'tthe shores of England, Spain, Holland, 
and other countries. 

Doxology, dok-sollo-je (Greek, doxa, 
praise; lego, to speak). In Christian 
worship, a hymn in praise of the Almighty ; 
a particular form of giving giory to God ; 
as in the Church Service, the frequently 
recuning " Gloiy be to the Father," &c. 

Doze, doze (Danish, doser). To slum- 
ber ; to sleep lightly ; to be in a state of 
drowsiness. 

Draelim, dram (Latin, drachma). A 
weight, in medicine, the eighth of an 
ounce ; in avou'dupois weight, the sixteenth 
of an ounce. 

Draft, drahft (corrupted from draught). 
The quantity di-awu ; the quantity drank 
at once ; an order drawn for the payment 
of money; a sketch; a detachment; a 
figm-e described on paper ; the outline of a 
deed, agreement, or other writing ; depth 
of water necessary to float a sliip. 

Draggle, drag-gul. To wet and soil 
by dragging on 'fehe ground, or mud, or 
damp grass, as the dress of a female when 
carelessly carried. 

Dragoman, di-ag-oman (Italian, drag- 
omanno). An interpreter in Eastern 
countries ; especially attached to European 
embassies and consulates in the East. 

Dragonnades, drag-im-naydz. A 
term applied to certain severe persecu- 
tions in France, under Louis the Four- 
teenth, against the Protestants. 

Dragoon, drah-goon (French, dragon, 
from the Latin draconarivj!, the bearer of 
a standard on which was the figure of a 
di-agon). A cavalry soldier trained to 



DliA 



DRO 



105 



fight on foot, if necessary. In a figurative 
sense, to act as a dragoon, with military 
rigour, extreme severity; to harass; to 
force to submit. Dragoonade is the 
abandoning of 'a place to the rage of 
soldiers. 

Drama, drah-mah (Greek, drama, 
action). A composition representing a 
picture of human life, and accommodated 
to action ; in a general sense, acted plays 
and theatrical representations. 

Dramatis Personse, dram-a-tis per- 
so-ne (Latin). The various characters 
represented in a drama. 

Drapery, drape-ery (French, drap, 
cloth). In painting and sculpture, the 
repx-esentation of tlie clothing of the 
human figure; also tapestiy, hangings, 
curtains, &c. 

Drastic, dras-tik (Greek, drasi-kos, 
effective). A tei-m applied to medicines 
which are rapid and powerful in their 
operation. 

Draught, draft (Saxon, dmgan). The 
act of di-awing ; the quality of being drawn ; 
a current of hot or cold aii*. See Draft. 

Draught-horse, draft - hawrs. A 
horse used in drawing a plough, cart, or 
other carriage, as distinguished from a 
saddle-horse. 

Draughtsman, drafts-man. A man 
who draws writings or designs ; an artist in 
a limited sense ; one who is principally 
engaged in copying the di-awings of others, 
and not an original designer. 

Dra'wback, draw-bak. ]\Ioney or an 
amount paid back or remitted. In com- 
merce, a term used in reference to those 
duties of custom or excise which are re- 
paid by the Government on the exporta- 
tion of the commodities upon which such 
duties were levied. This repayment is 
made to enable the exporter to sell his 
goods in the foreign market unburdened 
I with duties. 

j Drawbridge. A bridge so constructed 
as to be drawn up or let down to admit or 
I hinder communication; sometimes they 
I are drawn aside horizontally. 

Drawer and Drawee. In commerce, 
the drawer is he who draws a biU of ex- 
change or an order for the payment of 
money, and the draivee the person on 
whom it is drawn. 

Drawing-Room. A • room appro- 
priated for the reception of company at 
court; au apartment into which, in ordi- 



nary cases, parties withdraw after dinner. 
Also, the company assembled at coui-t to 
pay their respects to the sovereign. 

Drawl (Dutch, draaUn, to linger). To 
utter words in a slow, lengthened tone ; to 
speak with slow utterance; a lengthened 
tone in speaking. 

Drawn-Battle. A fight from whicli 
the combatants withdraw without either 
side claiming the victory. 

Dredging, dred-jing. The act of fish- 
ing with a dredge, which is a strong net 
fastened to three spills of iron, and drawn 
at 0. boat's stern, gathering whatever it 
meets with at the bottom of the water ; this 
method is principally employed for taking 
oysters. 

Drift (Saxon, drifan). That which is 
di-iven by wind or water; a heap driven 
together; anything diiven, aimed at, or 
intended ; the aim, intention, or purpose. 
The drift of a current is its angle and velo- 
city ; a snow-drift is an immense body of 
snow driven in a heap by the force of the 
wind. 

Drill (Saxon, tldrlian). To pierce with 
a drill; to bore; to penetrate; to pass 
thi'ovigh; to sow in rows; also to turn 
about, drive round, as in the act of boring ; 
hence, diilling as applied to bodily exercise. 

Driveller, driv-vl-iu-. An idiot ; a 
fool ; so called because, with this class of 
persons, the saliva is driven, out of tlio 
mouth, as with infants. 

Drizzle, diiz-zul (Saxon, dreosan, to 
fall). To fall in small di-ops; to fall as 
water from the clouds, in very fine particles. 

Droit, di-oyt (French, droit, _ right). 
Eight; title; fee; privilege. Droits of the 
Admiralti/ ai-e the perquisites resulting 
chiefly from the seizure of the property of 
an enemy at the commencement of a wai", 
anJ attached to the ofiice of Lord High- 
Admiral. 

Droll, drole (German, troll, to roll or 
tumble). Exciting mu-th by eccentric 
gestures and odd sayings ; a farce, or ex- 
hibition full of tricks calculated to raise 
laughter ; a jester ; a buffoon. 

Drone (Saxon, drcen). The male of 
the honey-bee. The drones make no honey, 
but after being suffered to live for a few 
weeks, they are Idlled or driven from the 
hive : hence a person is called a drone Vv-ho 
is sluggish in Ms habits, and prefers living 
upon the labours of others to working for 
himself. To drone is to emit a low hum- 



105 



DRO 



DUA 



niing sound, resembling the noise made by 
the drone. 

Dropsy, drop-se (Greek, Jmdor, water ; 
oj)s, the aspect). A morbid collection of 
water in any part of the body. 

Drosky. A Russian four-wheeled 
carnage, without a covering, fitted with a 
long nari'ow bench, upon which the riders 
^re seated with their feet almost touching 
the ground. 

Dross (Saxon, dros, dress). The scum 
of metals, thrown off in the process of 
meltiag ; that which falls, sinks, precipi- 
tates, or is cast down ; the gross sediment 
from purer substances ; any foul or worth- 
less refuse. 

Drougllt, drowt (Saxon, drygan, to 
dry). Dryness ; want of rain ; a parching 
state ; diyness of the throat and mouth ; 
excessive thirst. This word is sometimes 
spelt and pronounced drouth. 

Dro"WSy, drow-ze (Saxon, dreosan, to 
droop). Sleepy ; heavy ; dull ; inclined to 
heaviness ; disposed to sleep ; lethargic. 

Drudge, drudj (Saxon, dreogan, to 
labour). To work hard; to labour in mean 
offices; to undergo continual labour and 
employment, with weariness and fatigue ; 
one employed in mean labour ; a slave. 

Druid, drew-id (Greek, drus, an oak). 
An ancient British or Gallic priest. The 
Draids were, in Britain, chosen out of the 
best families, and were held, both by the 
honours of their birth and their office, in 
the gi-eatest veneration ; they are said to 
have been learned in science and literature, 
and had entrusted to them the administra- 
tion of all sacred things. The relig-ious 
rites of the Druids were performed in 
groves of oak, which tree, as well as the 
misletoe growing upon it, were held 
sacred. 

Drug (Saxon, drygan, to dry). The 
o-eneral name for substances used in 
medicine, meaning literally dried (herbs, 
roots, plants, &c. ). The word is used in a 
fig-urative sense, to denote anything that 
is^worthless (dried up) or of no value ; the 
term is also used sometimes for poison. 

Drugget. A material of coarse and 
flimsy texture, sometimes manufactm-ed 
wholly of wool, and sometimes partly of 
wool and partly of cotton ; it is employed 
as a covering for carpet, or as a substitute 
for \t. The name is said to be derived 
from Drogheda, in Ireland, noted formerly 
for manufactm-es of this kind. 



Drum-Major, drum-ma.y-jur. The 
chief drummer of a regiment. Every 
regiment has a drum-major, who has the 
command over the other drummers. 

Druse, droos (Greek, drtise). Amonga 
miners, a cavity in a rock, having its inJf 
terior surface studded with crystals, or" 
filled with water. 

Druses, droo-zes. The name of a re- 
markable people of Syria, who inhabit the 
mountains of Lebanon, and are governed 
by princes, termed emirs. They worship 
the images of saints, yet observe the fast 
of Eammedan, and offer up their devotions 
both in the Mohammedan mosques and the 
Christian churches. They are a strong 
and robust people, accustomed from theit 
earliest infancy to endure hardships and 
fatigues. Their language is pure Arabic. 

Dryads, dri-ads (Greek, driis, an oak). 
In mjrthology, a kind of deities, or nymphs, 
imagined by the ancient heathens as in- 
habiting gi'oves and woods, and regarded 
as the goddesses of woods and trees in 
general. 

Dryers. Among artists, a term used 
for substances— chiefly metallic oxides — 
added to certain fixed oUs, to impart to 
them the property of drying quickly when 
used in painting. 

Dry Goods. A term applied to cloths, 
silks, stuffs, &c., in distinction from gro- 
ceries and perishable commodities. 

Dry Nurse, dri nurs. A nurse who 
does not give suckle ; a woman who brings 
up and feeds a child upon artificial food. 

Dry Hot, dri rot. A fimgus which is 
found growing in timber, decomposing its 
fibres, and occasioning rapid decay. It is 
so named in contradistinction to the 
ordinary rot or decay to which wood is 
liable. 

Drysalter, dri-saul-tur. A dealer in 
salted or dried meats, or in the minerals 
used in pickling, salting, and preserving 
various kinds of food. The term is further 
extended to those who deal in saline sub- 
stances, and in drugs and dyestuffs. 

Dualism, dewal-izm (Latin, duo, two). 
That system of philosophy which refers all 
existence to two ultimate principles. 

Duality, du-al-ly-ty (Latin, duo, two). 
That which expresses tzco ; division ; sepa- 
ration : the state or quahty of being two. 

Duarcliy, duar-ke (Latin, duo, two ; 
Greek, arche, rule). A form of govern- 
i ment carried on by two persons. 



J)UJ3 

Dub (Saxon, duhhan, to strike). To 
strike ; hence, to dub a person a knight, 
by striking a blow with a sword. 

Dubious, dewby-ns (Lat., dvMiis). Not 
settled in opinion ; not fully proved, or 
having equal probability on either side ; 
uncertain ; doubtful ; not clear. 

Ducal, du-kal. Belonging or relating 
to a duke. 

Ducat, duk-at. A. coin of several 
countries in Europe, and of various values, 
struck in the dominions of a duke. It is 
especially common in Germany. The 
general value of the gold ducat is about 
9s. 4d. The Neapolitan ducat is a silver 
coin worth 3s. 3|d. 

Ducatoon, duk-a-toon. A silver coin, 
struck chiefly in Italy, of the value of 104 
cents, or about 4s. 8d. sterling. The gold 
ducatoon of Holland is worth twenty florins, 
or about £1 19s. 2d. sterling. 

Duces Tecum (Latin, duces., bring ; 
t^cvLm, with thee). In law, a writ com- 
manding a person to appear on a certain 
day in the Covn-t of Chancery, and bring 
with him such writings, evidences, or other 
things, which the Court would view. 

Duchy, dutch-e. The territory or 
dominions of a duke. Duchy court is a 
court of the duchy chamber of Lancaster, 
held at Westminster. 

Duct, dukt (Latin, ductus, a canal). A 
canal, or tube, through which fluids are 
conve3''ed, in the internal structure of 
animals or plants. 

Ductile, duk-til (Latin, duco, to lead). 
Easily led, or drawn ; tractable ; comply- 
ing ; yielding to the wishes of others. 

Dudgeon, dud-jun (German, degen). 
Stubbornness ; suUenness ; quarrelsome- 
ness ; offence ; iU-will. The literal mean- 
ing of dudgeon is root of box, hence cross- 
grained ; rough; strong-willed. 

Due, dew (Latin, debeo, to owe). Owed, 
or owing ; anything that ought to be paid 
or done ; exactly ; directly, as to sail due 
east or due west ; suitability ; fitness, 
as the distinction diie to a person ; apt ; 
seasonable, as a thing arriving in due 
course. 

Duel, dew-el (Latin, duellum). A com- 
bat between two ; a premeditated contest 
between two persons for the purpose of 
deciding some private difference or quarrel. 

Duenna, dew-ennah (Spanish, chiemia, 
from Latin, domina, a governess). A term 
applied, in Spain, to a lady holding a middle 



DUN 



lor 



station between governess and companion^ 
and appointed to take charge of thar 
younger female members of a nobleman's 
or gentleman's family ; also the name given 
to the chief lady in waiting upon the Queen 
of Spain ; likewise a general term for a 
sort of ancient widow kept in all great 
houses in Spain for grandeur. 

Duet, dew-et (Italian, duetto'). A piece 
of music composed in two parts, for either 
voices or instruments. 

Duke. One of the highest order of 
nobility; a title of honour and nobility 
next below the princes. In some countries 
it is the title of the sovereign prince. 

Dulcet, dul-set (Latin, dulcis, sweet). 
Sweet ; melodious ; harmonious ; pleasing 
to the ear, 

Dulcification, dul-siffy-kayshun (Lat., 
didcis, sweet). The act of sweetening ; 
freeing from acidity, saltness, or acri- 
mony. 

Dulcimer, dul-se-mur, A musical 
instrument, so called from the siveetness of 
its sound. 

Dullard, dul-lard (Saxon, dol). A 
person of dull apprehension ; a block- 
head. 

Duloeracy, dul - okrah - se (Greek, 
doidos, a slave ; krateia, government). A 
government in which slaves and base 
people hold the reins of power. 

Dumb Waiter. A frame, fitted with 
shelves, for conveying food from the 
kitchen to the dining-room ; so called 
because it answers all the purposes 'of a 
waiter at table, except that of speech. 

Dum.m.y, dum-me. A fig-ure which is 
dumb and inanimate ; anything fabricated 
to represent real objects. 

Dumous, du-mus (Latin, dumus, a 
bush). Abounding with bushes and briars. 

Dumps (German, dum^n). Sadness ; 
melancholy; dulness or inactivity of the 
mind. 

Dumpy. A term applied to anything 
short and thick. 

Dun (Saxon, dynan). To make a din 
or noise in the ears of a debtor ; to clamour 
for the payment of a debt ; to persevere or 
persist in demanding ; to make repeated 
demands. 

Dun (Saxon, dunn). Of a dark colour ; 
of a colour partaking of brown and black ; 
of a dull bro%\'n colour ; swarthy ; dark ; 
gloomy. 



■a 



108 



DUN 



DYS 



Dunderhead, dun-dur-ned. A stupid 
iiead ; a dull fellow ; derived, probably, 
from tiie Dutch donderen, to thunder, or 
stupefy. 

Dungeon, dun-jun (French, donjon). 
A close prison ; a deep, dark place of cou- 
tinenient. In former times, prisoners were 
confined in the donjon, as being the 
strongest and most inaccessible part of a 
eastle ; hence the word dungeon came to be 
applied to other strong, close places of 
confinement or imprisonment. 

Dunnage, dunnij. A name given to 
loose wood or other materials, laid in the 
bottom of a vessel in order to elevate the 
stowage, either with a view of raising the 
heavy goods, Avhich might make her too 
stiff, or in order to keep the cargo suf- 
ficiently raised from the bottom that it 
may sustain no damage by water, should 
the vessel prove leaky. 

Duo, dew-o (Latin, duo, two). A song 
in two parts. 

Duodecimals, duo-dessy-mals (Latin, 
duodecim, twelve). In arithmetic, a method 
of ascertaining the number of square feet 
and square inches in a rectangular, the 
sides of which are given in feet and inches; 
a cross-multiplication, in which the de- 
nominations, increase by twelves. 

Duodecimo, duo-dessy-mo. A book, 
shaped like an octavo, and next smaller in 
size. Originally, it had ticelve leaves to a 
sheet ; hence the name. 

Dupe (Norman, duper, to cheat). A 
credulous person ; one easily tricked or 
cheated ; one who is deluded through his 
own credulity ; to deceive ; to trick ; to 
mislead. 

Duplex, dew-plex (Latin, duo, two ; 
2^00, to fold). Double, or two-fold ; 
applied to leaves, petals, kc, of plants. 

Duplicate, dew-plee-kat (Latin, duo, 
two ; plico, to fold). Double ; two-fold ; 
an exact copy ; another corresponding to 
the first, or a second tlung of the same 
kind. 

Duplicity, dew-plissy-te (Latin, dico, 
two ; pHco, to fold). Doubleness of heart 
or speech ; the act of dissembling one's 
real opinions v/ith a design to mislead ; 
double-dealing ; dissimulation ; deceit. 

Durance, dew-rans (Latin, d'uro, to 
continue). Continuance ; imprisonment ; 
restraint of the person ; custody. 

Duram.en, dew-raymen (Latin, dura- 
mai, stability). The fully-formed central 



layers of the wood of exogenous trees, 
generally termed the heart-wood. It is 
merely the sap-wood solidified by the 
infusion of certain secretions into the 
interior of the cells and tubes of which 
such wood is composed. 

Dura Mater, dew-rah may-tiu- (Lat.). 
In anatomy, the external skin which en- 
compasses and enwraps the brain. 

Duration, dew-rayshun (Lattn, dMro, 
to continue). Continuance; length of 
time ; power of continuance. 

Durbar. A Persian word used in 
India for a court where a sovereign -or 
viceroy gives audience. 

Duress, dew-ress (Norman, duresse). 
Hardship ; imprisonment ; harsh confine- 
ment. In law, constraint, either actual or 
by tkreats, occasioning a reasonable fear, 
such as will invalidate an 'act, though 
otherwise legal by a party suffering it. 

Dusk (Dutch, dulster). Tending to 
darkness ; to become dark or dim ; that 
time in the evening when daylight departs 
and night has not yet succeeded. 

Dutch. Gold. A name given to bronze 
leaf, with which toys, and other articles, 
are ornamented. 

Dutch School. In painting, a style 
founded on a faithful representation of 
Nature, and portraying minutely every 
detail, without regarding selection or re- 
finement. 

D"warf Plants. A term in botany for 
plants that grow low, as distinguished from 
those of the same kind which rise to a con- 
siderable height. 

Dwindle, dwin-dul (Saxon, d.winan, to 
waste). To be, or cause to be, thin; to 
become less ; to shrink ; to waste gradually 
away. 

Dsmam, din-am (Greek, dynamis, 
power). A term proposed by Dr. Whewell 
as expressive of a pound or other unit, in 
estimating the effect of mechanical labour. 

Dynamics, din-amiks (Greek, dy- 
namis, power). • That branch of mechanics 
which treats of the force of moving bodies. 

Dsnaasty, di-nas-te, or din-as-te (Greek, 
dynastes, a prince or ruler). A race or 
family of sovereigns in succession, who 
govern a particular country, as the Tudor 
dynasty, the Stuart dynasty, &c. 

Dyspepsia, dis-pep-seah (Greek, dys, 
badly ; jpepto, to digest). Indigestion ; 



DYS 



ECU 



109 



difficulty or weakness of digfestioii, arising 
in general from inflammation or a morbid 
condition of the stomach. 

Dyspnoea, disp-neah (Greek, dys ; 
fneo, to breathe). Difficulty in breathing ; 
shortness of breath. 



IBad. and Ed. In names, a Saxon word 
denoting happy, fortunate ; as Edioard, 
happy preserver ; Edgar ^ happy power ; 
EdtL'in, happy conqueror ; EaduLiih, happy 
assistance. 

Earnest, er-nest (Saxon, eornest). 
Ai'dent in the pursuit of an object ; sincere ; 
serious; warmly engaged. Earnest, in 
commercial law, is money advanced to the 
buyer of goods, to bind the seller to the 
performance of a general bargain ; hence, 
any gift or concession made at the outset 
of an •undei'taking or enterprise is so 
called. 

Ear-shot, eer-shot. That space or 
distance within which anything may be 
heard. 

Easel, e-zul. An appai'atus constructed 
of wood, upon which the panel or canvas is 
placed while a picture is being painted. 

Easing, e-zing. In nautical language, 
signifies the slackening of a rope, or some 
other part of the ship : thus, "to ease the 
bowhne or sheet," is to let it go slacker ; 
" to ease the helm," is to let the ship go 
more at large, more before the wind, or 
more larboard. 

Easterling, ees-turliug. A native of 
some country eastward of another, 

Eau-de-Cologne, o - deh - ko - lone 
(French, water of Cologne). A liquid per- 
fume originally prepared at Cologne. 

Eau-de-Vie, o-deh-ve (French, water 
of life). A name commonly given to 
French brandy. 

Eaves, eevz (Saxon, efese, the skirt or 
edge of anything). The edge or lower 
border of the roof of a building, which 
overhangs the walls and casts off the water 
that falls on the roof. 

Eaves-Dropper, eevz-drop-pur. One 
who takes his station under the drip-pings 
or droppings of the eaves, to listen and 
hear what is said within doors ; hence ap- 
pHed to all persons who listen secretly 
under any circumstances. 

Ebb (Saxon, ehhe). The reflux of the 
tide ; the return of tide-water toward the 
sea, opposed to flood or flowing; to go 



away ; to recede ; to retire. Figuratively, 
decline, decay, waste, as the ebb of life ; 
the ebh of foi'tune. 

Ebriety, e-bri-ety (Latin, elriiis, 
drunken). Drunkenness, intoxication oc- 
casioned by strong liquors. 

Ebullition, ebbul-lish-un (Latin, lulla, 
a bubble). Literally, the act of boiling or 
bubbling ; figuratively^ applied to the 
temper, when heated, and when the blood 
is supposed to be in a hailing state. 

Eccaleobion, ek-kally-obeyun (Greek, 
elcJcaleo, to call forth ; hios, life). A con- 
trivance or apparatus for hatching eggs by 
ai-tificial heat. 

Eece Homo, ek-se ho-mo (Latin, ecce 
Jiomo, behold the Man). In painting, a 
name applied to any pictm-e which repre- 
sents our Saviour given up to the people 
by Pilate. 

Eccentric, ek-sentrik (Latin, ex, out 
of ; centri'jn, a centre). Wandering or 
deviating from the centre ; hence, not con- 
forming to or guided by rule ; irregular ; 
not answering the end intended ; departing 
from the ordinary modes of proceeding ; 
singular ; odd. 

Ecchymosis, ekkim-osis (Greek,. 
ekcheo, to pour out). The extravasation of 
blood into the cellular membrane, between 
the flesh and the skin, resulting from 
blows, as a hlach eye. 

Ecclesiastic, ek-leezy-astik (Greek, 
elclcaleo, to call forth). Pertainmg or re- 
lating to the Church, or assembly called 
forth by the proclamation of the g'ospel ; a 
person consecrated to the service of tho 
Church and the ministry of religion. 

Echelon, esh-e-lon (French, eclielon, 
round of a ladder). In military tactics, a 
formation in which the divisions of a regi- 
ment are placed in a situation resembling 
the steps of a ladder; hence the name. 
The echelon position and movements are 
not only necessary and applicable to the 
immediate attack and retreat of great 
bodies, but also to the oblique or direct 
changes of situation which a battalion or 
more considerable corps, already formed in 
line, may be compelled to make to the 
front or rear, on a fixed particular division 
of the line. 

Echo, ek-ko (Greek, echos, a sound). 
A sound reflected or reverberated to the 
ear from some solid body ; hence, used 
figuratively to imply an identical senti- 
ment or opinion to one previously enuu- 
ci.Ated. 



ilO 



ECL 



EDI 



Selaircissement, ek-klarsis-mong 
(^French). A full explanation ; a clearing 
up of anything hitherto obscure or mis- 
understood. 

Eclat, ay-klaw (French). A manifes- 
tation of applaiise ; renown, foUoAving 
some action or event ; approbation ; 
lustre. 

Eclectic, ek-lektik (Greek, eJdego, to 
choose). Selecting ; preferring ; or having 
the power of choosing. This term Avas 
applied to certain philosophers of antiquity 
who, without attaching themselves to any 
particular sect, selected whatever appeared 
to them the best and most rational from 
each. 

Eclipse, e-klipE (Greek, eUeipo, to fail). 
In astronomy, the darkening one of the 
luminaries by the interposition of some 
opaque body between it and the eye, or. 
between it and the sun. Figuratively, the 
obscm'ation of a lesser light by superior 
splendour. 

Ecliptic, e-kliptik (Greek, ehleipxis, an 
ecHpse). In astronomy, the orbit described 
apparently by the sun round the earth, and 
in reality by the earth round the sun. It 
is named from the circumstance that all 
edip.-^es can happen only when the moon is 
in the same plane or veiy near it. 

Eclogue, ek-log (Greek, eldego, to 
select). A pastoral poem, the scenes of 
which are confined to rural life, and the 
persons represented shepherds. The pri- 
mitive meaning of the word is a choice or 
select piece, 

Econoiny, e-kon-no-me (Greek, ot^os, a 
house; nomas, a law). The regulation or 
management of household or domestic 
affairs : an expenditure of money, and 
regulation of income to advantage and 
without incurring waste. In a wider sense, 
a system of rules, regulations, rites and 
ceremonies, as the Jewish economy. In 
physiology, the', aws which govern the 
organisation of plants and animals ; the 
order and connection of the phenomena 
exhibited by organised bodies. 

Ecstasy, ckstah-se (Greek, acistemi, to 
be entranced). Any sudden passion of the 
mind by which the thoughts are for the 
time absorbed ; excessive joy ; rapture ; 
enthusiasm. 

Ectasis, ek-taysis (Greek, elctadios, ex- 
te^-'-^.'^d). In rhetoric, the lengthening of a 
sj^llable from short to long. 

Edacity, e-dassy-te (Latin, edo, to eat). 
Veracity; greediness; gluttony. 



Edda, ed-dah. A book containing a 
system of Runic or Scandinavian mytho- 
logy, with some account of the theology 
and philosophy of the northern nations of 
Europe. 

Eddy, ed-de (Saxon, ed, backward ; ea, 
water). A current of water returning to 
the place whence it flowed ; water rimning 
back, or in a contrary direction to the main 
stream ; a ciui-ent of water or of air in a 
circular direction ; a whirlpool. Also, to 
move circuitousiy, as in a whii'lpool. 

Eddy-tide. Among seamen, means 
where the water i-uns back contrary to the i 
tide, or that which hinders the free passage 
of the stream, and so causes it to return. 

Eden, e-den (Hebrew, pleasure, delight). 
Paradise ; the country and garden in which 
God placed Adam and Eve, 

Edible, eddy-bl (Latin, edo, to eat). 
Fit to be eaten ; intended for food ; eat- 
able ; esculent. 

Edict, e-dikt (Latin, e, out; dico, to 
speak). A publication or proclamation by- 
authority ; an order by which a despotic 
Government makes known its will to the 
people ; a command ; a law. 

Edification, ed-iffy-kayshun (Latin, ^ 
cp.dU, a house ; facia, to make or build). ' 
The act of bmldiag. Figuratively applied 
to a buUding up in a moral or mental sense. 

Edifice, eddy-fis (Latin, cedis, a house ; 
facio, to build). A building ; more appro- 
priately applied to a large structure, or any 
building distinguished for grandeur, 
dignity, and importance. 

Edtfy, eddy-fi (Latin, cedis, a house ; 
facio, to bmld). To impart knowledge to ; 
to instinict or teach. 

Edile, e-dile (from Latin, cedes, a house). 
A Roman magistrate who superintended 
public buildings, highways, &c., resembling 
the suiweyor of the present day. 

Edition, e-dishun (Latin, edo, to 
publish). The publication of a book or 
other composition ; one impression, or the 
whole number of copies published at one 
time. 

Editor, eddit-ur (Latin, e, out, do, to 
give). A person who corrects and has the 
care of anyliterarj^ production ; one usually 
supervising the 'labours of others, and 
adding such emendations as he may think 
suitable to the work ; the superintendent 
of the Hterary department of any news- , 
paper or periodical publication, composed 
of the contributions of various writers. , 



EDU 

Educe, e-duse (Latin, e, out ; duco^ to 
lead). To bring out ; to lead or draw 
forth the powers of the mind ; to elicit ; to 
extract. 

Efface, ef-fase (Latin, ex, from ; facio, 
to do). To destroy or damage the surface 
of an object, whether painted or carved ; 
to erase ; to blot out ; to destroy any im- 
pression on the mind or the memory. 

Effect, ef-fekt (Latin, e; facio, to 
do). To accomplish ; to bring to pass ; 
to achieve; that wjiich is produced by 
an operative cause ; a (jonsequence intended 
or unintended. In the fine arts, that 
quality in a production which gives efficacy 
to others, so as to bring them out and 
attract the notice of the spectator. 

Effectual, ef-fekt-yual (French, effec- 
tuel). Producing the end, object, or design 
intended ; veracious ; expressive of facts. 

Effeminacy, effem-innah-se (Latin, 
fernina, a wonfin). An indulgence in 
womanly habits, amusements, occupations, 
&c., on the part of a man ; having the ap- 
pearance of a woman ; softness, weakness, 
or immanliness. 

Effendi, ef-fen-de (Turkish, effendi, a 
master). A title applied in Tiirkey to 
various officers of raiik, as to emirs, the 
mufti priests of mosques, and to men of 
law and learning. 

Effervesce, effer-ves (Latin, ex, from ; 
ferveo, to be hot). To be in commotion; 
to grow or become hot and agitated ; to 
bubble and hiss, as fermenting or gaseous 
fluids when some parts escape. 

Effete, ef-feet (Latin, e:c ; foetics, a 
young one). Barren ; worn out ; impro- 
ductive ; incapable of reproduction. 

EJ0B.cacy, effy-kah-se (Latin, efficio, to 
effect). Power to produce effects ; pro- 
duction of the effect intended. 

Efficient, ef-fishent (Latin, efficio, to 
effect). Causing effects ; capable of pro- 
ducing ; that which causes anything to be 
what it is ; he that makes. 

Ef&gy, effeh-je (Latin, effingo, to form 
or fashion). An image or likeness ; resem- 
blance ; representation ; any substance 
fashioned into the likeness of a person ; a 
portrait or figure in sculpture ; on coin, the 
head of the mler, &c. To hum or hang in 
effigy, is to do thus to an image, picture, or 
other representation of the person intended 
to be executed, disgraced, or degraded. 

EfQ.orescence, efflo-ressens (Latin, ex, 
from ; flos, a flower). Production of 



EIG 



111 



flowers ; the budding and bursting forth of 
flowers. In natm-al history, an excrescence 
in the form of flowers. In medicine, a 
breaking out of some humours on the skin. 

EfB.UVia, ef-loov-yah (Latin, effiiLo, to 
flow out). An exhalation emitted by a 
body, through the agency of minute and 
often invisible particles; as the odom* of 
plants, the exhalation from putrefying 
animal and vegetable substances, &c. This 
word in the singular is Uffiv.rium. 

Efa.UX, ef-fluks (Latin, ex, out ; jiuo, to 
flow). The act of flowing out, or issuing 
in a stream ; effusion ; emanation. 

Effrontery, ef-fruntur-e (Latin, a:, 
out ; frons, the face). Hardiness of front ; 
excessive assurance ; boldness; impudence; 
immodesty. 

Effulgence, ef-fuljens (Latin, e, out ; 
fidgeo, to shine). Lustre; brightness; 
excessive brilliancy; a blazing forth; an 
emission of brightness. 

Eftsoons, eft-soonz (Saxon, eft, after ; 
sona, soon). Instantly ; immediately 
after; again. This word is chiefly to be 
met with in ancient authors. 

E. G. {exempla gratia). A Latin term 
signifying "for instance," " for example ;" 
it is also written ex. gr. 

Egis, e-jis (Latin, cegis, a shield). 
Figm*atively, applied to a protection, or 
anything capable of warding off danger. 
Properly, the shield of Jupiter, so named 
from its having been covered with the 
skin of the goat Almathea. 

Egotism, ego-tizm (Latin, ego, I). 
Literally, the too frequent use of the word 
ego, I ; or the continual reference to one's 
self; an undue importance ' with which a 
person regards his own doings, sayings, 
opinions, &c. 

Egregious, egree-jeous (Latin, e ; grege, 
out of the flock). Remarkable ; eminent ; 
extraordinary ; enormous ; distinguished 
for peculiar qualities ; extraordinai'ily good 
or bad ; generally used in a bad sense, as 
egregioihs folly ; eg7-egimis vanity. 

Egress, e-gress (Latin, e, out; gressum, 
step). The act or power of going out; the 
power of departing from any confined or 
inclosed place ; the passage out of any place. 

Eider Dow^n, e-dur down. Down, or 
soft feathers of the eider duck ; a large 
species of biri common in the Orkneys, 
Hebrides, and Shetland. 

Eigh-teenmo, ayteen-mo (eighteen, 
and ^e last syllable of the Latin dicimo). 



112 



EIS 



ELE 



Boiioting the size of a book, in which the 
sheet is folded into eighteen leaves ; also 
written 18mo. 

Eisteddfod, e-sted-fod (Welsh, eistedd, 
to sit). A name given in former times to 
the meetings of the Welsh bards. 

Ejaculate, e-jakku-late (Latin, e, out ; 
jacio, to throw). To cast or throw out ; 
to shoot or dart forth ; generally applied 
to the utterance or expression of short, 
sudden, and occasional sentences ; as a 
brief prayer, or an ardent exclamation. 

Eject, e-jekt (Latin, e, out of ; jacio, to 
cast). To cast forth; to di'ive out; to 
expel ; to dispossess. 

Ejectment, e-jekt-ment. Expulsion ; 
dispossession. In law, a possessory 
action, by wHch. a lessee for years, when 
ousted from his farm, may recover his 
term and damages. It is real in respect of 
the lands, but personal in respect of the 
damages. It is also a common method of 
trying the titles to lands and tenements. 

Eke, eek (Saxon, eacon, an addition). 
To increase ; to join on ; to add to ; to 
lengthen ; to prolong ; to make use of 
sparingly. 

Elaborate, e-labbo-rate (Latin, e, out ; 
labor, work). To produce with exceeding 
care, difl&culty, and labour; to do any- 
thing fully and finely ; to heighten and 
improve by successive endeavours and 
oj)8rations. 

Elain, e-la]/in. That portion of fat 
or oil which remains in a liquid state when 
pressed out of solid fats ; the oily principle 
of solid fats. 

Elapse, e-laps (Latin, e, out of ; labor, 
to slide). To glide by or away ; to slip or 
pass by, as time. 

Elastic, e-lastik (Greek, elao, to impel 
or drive). Springing back when stretched 
or pressed ; having the power of returning 
to the form from which it is distorted or 
withheld. 

Elate, e-late (Latin, e, out; latum, to 
carry). Flushed with success ; carried 
"^.wav ; elevated in mind ; puffed up ; 
exalted. 

Eld (Saxon, yldan, to endure). Old 
age ; old people ; the olden time. 

Elder, el-dur (Saxon, ealder). Sur- 
passing another in years ; one more 
advanced in age than another. Among 
the Jews, elders were persons eminent for 
age, experience, or wisdom, as the seventy 
men associated with Moses ia the govern- 



ment of the people. In the first Christian 
churches, elders were persons who enjoyed 
offices or ecclesiastical functions. In the 
Presbyterian churches, elders are officers 
who, with the ministers and deacons, com- 
pose the sessions of the kirk, and have 
authority to take cognizance of matters of 
religion and discipline. 

El Dorado, el-do rah-do (Spanish, el, 
the ; dorado, golden region). A name 
given by the Spaniards to the capital of an 
undiscovered region in the interior of South 
America, supposed to be immensely rich 
in gold, gems, &c. ; hence, any imaginary 
treasure is spoken of by the above name. 

Election, e-lekshun (Latin, e, out of ; 
lego, to choose). The act or power of 
choosing ; the choice of officers or repre- 
sentatives ; a final choice. 

Electioneering, e - lekshun - eering. 
The tactics employed, and the influence 
used, in promoting or securing the election 
of a candidate. 

Elective Affinity, e-lektiv af-finity. 
A tendency in bodies to unite with certain 
kinds of matter rather than with others. 

Elector, e-lektur. One who has the 
right of voting at elections. In Germany, 
a prince who formerly had a vote in the 
choice of the Emperor of Germany, as 
George the First of England, Elector of 
Hanover. 

Electricity, e-lek-trissy-te (Greek, elel- T 
iron, amber). An extremely subtle fluid, 
which, causes repulsion and attraction, and 
which is diffused through most bodies. It 
may be excited by friction ; and it was in 
the friction of amber that this property 
was originally discovered ; hence its name. 

Electro, e-lektro. In nomenclature, 
a word affixed to others, denoting theii' 
connection with electricity. Electro chem- 
istry, a department of science which treats 
of the agency of electricity and galvanism 
in effecting chemical changes. Electro 
dynamics, the phenomena of electricity in 
motion. Electro magnetism, a branch of 
electrical science showing the joint effects 
of electricity, or galvanism and magnetism ; 
magnetism produced by electricity. Elec- 
tro metallurgy, the application of electricity 
and galvanism to the operations of gilding, 
plating, &c. Electro type, the art of 
executing fac-simile medals by electricity. 
Electro plating, a process by which a 
pattern, cast in alloy or white metal, after 
being properly chased and prepared, is 
transferred to a tank or trough, and sub- 



ELE 



ELL 



113 



jected to galvanic agency. After a time a 
fine film of metallic silver is deposited on 
the smrfaces of tlie articles suspended in 
the trough, and thus become plated. 

Electuary, elek-tu-aiy (Greek, el;, 
from; leicko, to lick). A medicinal pre- 
paration of various ingredients, made of 
the consistence of honey, and adapted to 
be taken by licking. 

Eleemosynary, elee-mozy-nary 
(Greek, deos, mercy). Given in charity ; 
pertaining to charity; intended for 
distribution of alms, or for the use and 
management of donations, whether for the 
subsistence of the poor, or for the support 
and promotion of learning. Eleeniosijnary 
corporations ai'e such corporations as ai-e 
constituted for the perpetual distribution 
of free alms, or the bounty of their founder, 
to such persons as he has directed. 

. Elegiac, el-e-jiak (Latin, elegicC). Per- 
taining to elegies ; mournful ; son-owful ; 
expressing sorrow or lamentation. 

Elegit, el-ejit (Latic, elegit). In law, a 
writ of execution by ^-hich a defendant's 
goods are appraised and delivered to the 
plaintiff, upon a recognizance that he is 
able in his goods to satisfy his creditors. 

Elegy, el-ly-je (Greek, elegos, lamenta- 
tion). A funeral poem ; a plaintive song ; 
a composition expressive of sorrow and 
lamentation. 

Element, el-ly-ment (Latin, elementum, 
from the ancient eleo, to grow). Literally, 
that whence all things arise. The first or 
constituent principle of anything; also a 
rudiment and first principle of art. The 
elements, as specially understood, are earth, 
air, fire, water. 

Elementary, elly-men-tury (Latin, 
elementum). Relating to elements; pri- 
mary ; simple ; that -which cannot be 
separated or decomposed into constituent 
parts ; having dissimilar properties. 

Elephant Paper. Drawing paper, 
measuring twenty-eight inches in leng-fch, 
and twenty-three in width ; uo called for- 
merly from its large proportions. 

Elephantine, elly-fantin. Relating 
to the elephant; a term apphed to heavy, 
awkward, and ungainly movements and 
gestures. 

Elephantiasis, elly-fan-ti-asis. A 
disease which affects the legs and feet, so 
as to occasion swelling, with roughness 
and scales upon the skin, which becomes 
thick, unctuous, and insensible ; sometimes I 



also the limb attains an immense size, 
which has occasioned it to be compared to 
the extremities of the elephant ; hence the 
name. 

Elf (Saxon, celfe, fairy). An imaginary- 
wandering spirit, frequenting solitary 
places ;_ a fairy ; also, resembling an elf ; 
fantastic; capricious; mischievous. 

Elfin (Saxon, celfe, fairy). Pertaining 
to elves ; having qualities and dispositions 
like those ascribed to elves ; a little urchin. 

Elgin Marbles, el-gin mar-biilz. A 
collection of fragments of ancient statues, 
reliefs, &c., which were brought from the 
Parthenon of Athens to England by Lord 
Elgin, and pm-chased by the British 
Government. 

Elicit, e-lissit (Latin, elicio, to draw 
out). To find out ; to bring to light ; to 
discover by dint of labour and art ; to 
strike out. 

Eligible, el-idjah-bul (Latin, e, out from ; 
lego, to select). Fit to be chosen ; worthy 
of choice; qualified to fill certain ofiices, 
and perform certain duties; well adapted 
for use or possession. 

Eliminate, e-limmin-ate (Latin, e, out 
from ; limen, a boundary). Literal!}-, to 
thrus-t out doors ; to expel : figuratively, 
to di-aw out; to free from surrounding 
obstacles. 

Elision, e-lizhun (Latin, e. off ; lado, 
to cut). A striking, breaking, or cutting 
off. In grammar, -the cutting off a vowel 
or syllable in a word, as in " th' attempt," 
when e is cut off, because coming before a 
vowel. This is frequently practised in 
English poetry, and always observed in 
Latin verse. 

Elite, ay-leet (French, elite, elect, or 
choice). A select body of persons; the 
flower of an army; the best part or 
portion. 

Elixir, e-liksui- (Arabic, eliksvr, 
quintessence). A pure and refined 
spirit ; a compound essence ; a liquid 
medicine. Elixir of love, a substance 
prepared at Aboyna, in the East Indies, 
from the minute farina-like seeds of the 
plant Grammatephyhilum speciosum. 

Elizabethan, e-lizzah-beethan. Per- 
taining to Queen Elizabeth of England, c.r 
her times, as Elizabethan style of archi- 
tecture, &c. 

Ell, (Saxon, elne, an arm). Originally, 
a measure of the length of an arm. The 
eU, English, v/as fixed by the length of tho 



114 



ELL 



arm of King Henry the First, in the year 
1101. Hence elhow, the low or bend of the 
dl) or arm. 

Ellipsis, el-lipsis (G-reek, elldpsis, de- 
ficiency). In geometry, a figure generated 
from the section of a cone by a plane 
cutting both sides of the cone, but not 
parallel with the base ; popularly called 
an oval. In grammar, a figure of syntax 
by which one or more words are omitted. 

Elocation, el-lo-kayshun (Latin, eloco, 
to place out) . A removal from an ordinary 
place of residence ; a placing out or away. 

Elocution, el-lo-kewshun (Latin, elo- 
quor, to speak out). Pronunciation ; utter- 
ance ; delivery of words ; more especially the 
art of applying apt words and sentences to 
the matter. 

Eloge, ay-loje (French, eloge, eulogy). 
A panegyric on the dead ; a funereal 
oration in praise of a deceased person. 

Elongate, e-long-gate (Latin, e, out 
fiom ; longiis, long). To protract ; to 
lengthen ; to draw out ; to increase to a 
greater length or distance ; to put or place 
farther off. 

Elope, e-lope (Dutch, loopen, to leap, 
or run). To run off or away from; to 
escape privately ; to run away secretly or 
without permission. 

Else, els. Other ; one or something 
beside ; otherwise ; in the other case. 
This word was formerly written alles, 
aleys, alyse, elles, ellus, ellis, ells, els, and is 
no other than ales or alys, the imperative 
of the Saxon.Wes-cw^i or alys-an, to dismiss. 

Elucidate, e-lewsy-date (Latin, e, out 
from ; lux, light). To make clear or mani- 
fest ; to throw light upon ; to clear ; to 
expound ; to express. 

Elude, e-lude (Latin, e ; hido, to play). 
To escape by stratagem ; to avoid by arti- 
fice ; to remain unseen or undiscovered ; 
to baffle pursuit and search. 

Elutriation, e-lewtry-ayshun (Latin, 
t,', out from ; hio, to wash). The operation 
(k pulverising a solid substance, mixing it 
with water, and pouring off the liquid, 
while the foul or extraneous substances are 
floating, or after the coarser particles have 
subsided, and while the finer parts are sus- 
pended in the liquor. 

Elysian, e-hzhean (Latin, Elysium, the 
Pagan heaven). Pertaining to Elysium, or 
the seat of dehght ; yielding the highest 
pleasures; deliciously soothing ; blissful in 
tlie highest degree. 



EMB 

Elysium. In heathen mythology, tho 
supposed abiding place of the blessed after 
death. It was represented as a region of 
beautiful fields and groves, made har- 
monious with the warbling of birds, the 
rippling of fountains, &c. ; the earth teeming 
with perpetual fruits, and the verdure of 
spring was perpetual ; while all cares, 
pains, and infirmities, were exchanged for 
the purest bliss. 

Emaciate, e-mayshe-ate (Latin, e; 
maceo, to be lean). To grow lean ; to waste 
away ; to lose flesh gradually ; to be de- 
prived of muscular strength. 

Emanate, emman-ate (Latin, e, out 
from ; mano, to flow). To proceed or flow 
from ; to issue from a soiirce ; to come out 
from. 

Emancipate, e-mansy-pate (Latin, e; 
m ancipium, a slave). To free from slavery ; 
to release from bondage ; to set free from 
servitude by the voluntary act of the 
proprietor. 

Emasculate, e-maskew-late (Latin, e ; 
mas, a male). To deprive of manliness, 
strength, or vigour : to render effeminate ; 
to weaken or debilitate. 

Embalm, em-bahm (Greek, e)i, in ; 
halsamon, balsam, or balm). To dress, 
anoint, or preserve with halm, and other 
fragrant ointments. The actual process of 
embalming is the opening a dead body, 
taking out the intestines, and filling the 
vacancy with odoriferous and desiccative 
spices and drugs, to prevent putrefaction. 
Among the ancients this was very generally 
practised, from a belief that after death 
the soul stiU continued with the body. 

Embargo, em-bargo (Spanish, embargo, 
to detain by the opposition of a bar). An 
order issued by the government of a 
country to prevent the sailing of ships out 
of or into port. To lay an embargo on any- 
thing is, in a general sense, to restrain, 
detain, or obstruct, imtil certain conditions 
are fulfilled. 

Embark, em-bark (Spanish, embarcar). 
To go on board a ship, boat, or vessel ; to 
put on shipboard. In a figurative sense, 
to engage in any undertaking ; to go upon 
any risk, venture, or enterprise. 

Embarrass, em-barras (French, em- 
barras, to hinder). Literally, to interpose 
or bar against ; to obstruct ; to put obstacles 
in the way ; to render intricate or 
confusing. 

Em.barrassment, em-barras-ment. 
Perplexity or confusion arising from som® 



EMB 



EMB 



115 



difficult affair ; want of seK-possession ; in 
a pecuniar}' sense, inability to discharge 
debts, from a want of funds. 

Embassy, embas-se (Spanish, enibux- 
oda). A public message or commission to 
a foreign nation ; the mission of an am- 
bassador ; the persons by whom a public 
message is sent, or their residence. 

Embedded, em-beded {en; Saxon, led). 
Sunk in another substance; hidden by 
surrounding matter ; deposited; inlaid. 

Embellish, em-bellish (Latin, in, in ; 
iellus, beautiful). To beautify ; to adorn ; 
to decorate ; to make beautiful or elegant 
by ornaments. 

Em.ber Weeks. Fom- seasons in the 
year, more particularly set apart for prayer 
and fasting ; namely, the first week in 
Lent, the next after Whitsuntide, the 
fourteenth of September, and the thir- 
teenth of December. Emher days, 
particular days of fasting and humiliation 
in the Ember weeks. Although the 
etymology of this word is generally attri- 
buted to the supposed employment of 
embers or ashes at this season, it does not 
ftppear to be so feasible a derivation as that 
of emh, about, and rene, a course, because 
these feasts are observed at certain set 
seasons in the course or circuit of the year. 

Em.bers, em-burz (Saxon, cemyrian, to 
strike out sparks). Hot cinders or ashes ; 
ashes in appearance extinct, but betraying 
hidden fire, by the faint and decaying light 
of sparks glittering among them. 

Em.bezzle, em-bezzul (French, embler, 
to steal). To purloin with breach of trust ; 
to appropriate fraudulently, to one's own 
use, monies or goods intrusted to one's 
care and management. 

Em.blazoii, em-blazun- [en; Saxon, 
hlase). To adorn with figures of heraldry ; 
to deck in glaring colours ; to display or set 
forth conspicuously or ostentatiously; to 
publish or proclaim to the world. 

Em.blem, em-blem (Greek, emblemo, to 
insert). A picture imaging forth a truth 
or lesson by some figure or scene ; a picture 
representing one thing to the eye and 
another to the understanding: a painted 
enigma, or figure, representing some 
obvious history ; a device, charged with 
some moral instruction ; also, something 
inlaid as a device or motto. 

Emblem.ata, emblem-ata (Greek). The 
figures with which the ancients decorated 
golden, silver, and even copper vessels, and 



which could be taken off at pleasure. 
Taese were generally executed in precious 
metals, but sometimes carved in amber. 

Emblematic, emblee-mattik. Per- 
taining to or comprising an emblem ; rep- 
resenting by some allusion or customary con- 
nection ; representing by similar qualities. 

Em.body, em-body {en ; Saxon, hodig). 
To form into a body ; to incorporate ; to 
form or collect into a body; to give a 
definite form to what has hitherto had but 
a partial existence. 

Embonpoint, awng-bong-pwahang 
(Fr.). Plumpness of body or person; in- 
clined to stoutness. 

Emboss, em-boss (French, hosse). In 
architecture and sculpture, to form bosses 
or protuberances; to fashion in relief or 
raised work. 

Em.bowel, em-bowel. To take out the 
bowels or entrails of any creature ; to sink 
or inclose in another substance. 

Embrasure, em-brayzhure (Frencn, 
embrasure). In fortification, an opening in 
a parapet thi-ough which cannon are 
pointed to fire into the moat or field. In 
architecture, the enlargement of the 
aperture of a door or window, or the inside 
of a wall, to give greater play to the open- 
ing of the door or casement, or for 
admitting mere light. 

Embrocation, embro-kayshun (Greek, 
breclio, to moisten). The act of moistening 
and rubbing a diseased part with a cloth 
or sponge dipped in some liquid substance ; 
the liquid or lotion with which an affected 
part is anointed or washed. 

Embroidery, em-broyd-ery (French, 
en brode^'). Ornamented needle-work ; 
work with various threads, and formed into 
designs or figures. 

Embroil, em-broil (French, en, brouiller). 
To confound ; to mingle ; to intermix 
confusedly ; to disturb ; to trouble ; to 
perplex. 

Em.bryo,em-bree-o (Grrok, en,m; bryo, 
to spring forth). In physiuLogy, the iirst 
rudiments of an animal in the womb, be- 
fore the several members are distinctly 
formed. In botany, the fleshy body, 
occupying the interior of a seed, and con- 
stituting the rudiments of a future plant. 
Figuratively, the rudiments of anything 
yet imperfectly formed ; the beginning or 
first state of anything not fit for pro- 
duction ; anything in an early, rude, un- 
formed, unfinished state. 



116 



EME 



EMP 



Emendation, emen-dayshun (Latin, 
emendo, to amend). Correction ; iniprove- 
ment; freeing from deficiency; altering 
for the better. 

Emerge, e-murj (Latin, emergo, to rise 
out of). Literally, that which rises out of a 
thing, and comes into view by becoming 
higher ; hence a person who rises in life 
from a lowly condition, is said to emerge 
from obscurity. In a general sense, to rise 
out ; to issue, to proceed from. 

Emergency, e-murjens-se. Pressing 
necessity; a sudden occasion; an unex- 
pected event ; exigence ; any event or 
occasional combination of circumstances, 
which calls for immediate action or remedy^ 

Emetic, e-mettik (Greek, emeo, to 
vomit). That which causes vomiting ; in- 
ducing to vomit ; a medicine which excites 
vomiting. 

Emente, ay-muht (French, emeiUe, from 
Latin, e, out of ; onotus, moved), A 
seditious commotion ; a riot on a limited 
scale ; a mob. 

Emication, emik-ayshun (Latin, e, out 
of ; mico, to shine). A flying off in small 
particles, as from heated iron, or fermented 
liquors. 

Emigration, emmy-grayshun (Latin, 
e, out of ; migro, to remove). The remov- 
ing from one's native country; the 
changing of residence from one state or 
country to another. 

Eminence, emmy-nens (Latin, emineo, 
to stand above). An exalted state ; lofti- 
ness; height; distinction; fame; conspic- 
uous above others. A title of honour borne 
in Europe by different dignitaries at va- 
rious times, but appropriated to cardinals 
by a Papal decree issued in the year 1620. 

Em.ir, e-mer (Arabic, emir, chief, or 
lord). A Turkish title, expressive of com- 
mand or ofl&ce. Emir-al-mumenin, chief 
or commander of the faithful ; Emir-al- 
omera, prince of princes, or chief of 
cliiefs. 

Emissary, emis-sary (Latin, e, out; 
mitto, to send). A person sent on a 
mission ; a secret agent ; one sent on a 
private message or business. 

Emit, e-mit (Latin, e, out ; mitto, to 
send). To send forth; to issue out; to 
eject ; to give vent to. 

Emollient, e-mol-yent (Lat., e ; mollis, 
soft). That which softens or soothes; 
anything which makes gentle or tranquil, 
pliant or supple. 



Em.oIuinent, e-mollu-ment (Latin, e, 
from ; mola, a mill). Literally, the gain 
derived from grinding; the profit arising 
from office or employment; profit; gain; 
advantage. 

Emotion, e-mo-shun (Latin, e, out of; 
motum, motion). A moving of the feelings ; 
agitation. In a philosophical sense, an 
internal motion, or agitation of the mind, 
which passes away without desire ; when 
desire follows, the motion or agitation 
becomes passion. 

Empannel, em-pannel. To summon a 
jury; literally, to inscribe or write the 
names of the jury upon the pannel, skin, 
or parchment ; from the French panne, a 
skin, felt, or hide. 

Emperor, emper-rur, A title of 
honour among the ancient Eomans, con- 
ferred on a general whose arms had been 
victorious ; now made to signify a sove- 
reign prince, or supreme ruler of an 
empire. The title adds nothing to the 
rights of sovereignty; it only gives pre- 
eminence over other sovereigns. 

Emphasis, em-fah-sis (Greek, en, on ; 
pJuziTW, to shine). In rhetoric, a particular 
stress of utterance, or force of voice, given 
to the words, or parts of a discourse, whose 
signification the speaker intends to impress 
specially on his hearers ;] or a distinctive 
utterance of words with such stress as to 
convey their meaning in the clearest manner. 

Empire, em-pire (French, empire). The 1 
dominion of an emperor ; supreme power ; 
absolute authority. An empire is usually 
a territory of greater extent than a king- 
dom. Figuratively, governing influence ; 
sway ; as the empire of reason or of truth. 

Empiric, em-pirrik (Greek, en, on ; 
peirao, to attempt). Literally, one who 
makes experiments ; hence, applied to a 
pei'son commonly called a quack, or a 
person who enters on the practice of 
medicine without a regular professional 
education, and relies on the success of his 
own experience. The term is applied 
generally to any pretender or charlatan. 

Employe, om-ploy-ay (French, em- 
ploye). A person employed ; an assistant, 
a clerk ; a shopman. 

Emporium, em-pory-um (Latin, gni* 
poriuin). A place of merchandise ; a mart ; 
a town or city of trade ; a place to which 
merchandise is conveyed. » 

Emprise, em-prize (French, en p^-ts). 
An enterprise; a hazardous attempt; a 
bold imdertaking. 



±:MP 

Empjrreal, empir-eal (Greek, en, in ; 
pyr, fire). Formed of pure fire or light; 
refined beyond aerial matter. 

Empyrean, empi-re-an (Greek, en, in ; 
pyr, fire). The highest heaven, where the 
pure element of fire has been supposed to 
subsist. 

Eiiipyreuniatic,empy-ru-mattik(Gk. , 
en, in ; pyr, fire). Having the taste or 
smell of slightly-burned animal or vege- 
table substances ; that peculiar and dis- 
agreeable smell produced by the burning 
of animal and vegetable oily matters in 
close vessels, or under such circumstances 
as prevent the accession of air to a con- 
siderable part of the mass, and occasions 
an imperfect combustion. 

Emulsion, e-mulshun (Latin, ertmlgeo, 
to milk). Any kind of cream or mOky 
humour. In medicine, a soft, liquid 
remedy resembling milk, made by mixing 
oil and water, by means of a saccharine or 
mucilaginous substance. 

Em.iilation, emmu - layshun (Latin, 
asmulus, emulous). Kivalry; a striving to 
excel another ; contending with or against; 
endeavouring to surpass. 

En. A prefix to many English words, 
chiefly borrowed from the French, signify- 
ing usually in or on, and before &, p, or m, 
is changed into em, as in employ, empoiver, 
enibody. 

Enact, en-akt. To make a law; to 
establish by law ; to perform a last act of 
legislation to a bill, giving it validity as a 
law. 

Enamel, en-ammel (Saxon, onyltan, to 
melt). The hard, silicious substance which 
covers the teeth. In the arts, a coloured 
glass^ formed by combination of different 
metallic oxides, to which some fixed fusible 
salt is added. Enamels possess all the 
properties of glass except its transparency. 
They are used to counterfeit gems, and in 
enamel painting. 

Enamour, en-ammur (Latin, in, in ; 
arnor, love). To inflame with love ; to 
kindle the passion of love ; to till with 
delight. 

Encamp, en-kamp (Latin, in, in; 
campus, a field). To form an army into a 
camp ; to pitch tents, or form huts, as an 
army ; to lodge or dwell in camps. 

Encaustic, en-kawstik (Greek, en, in , 
Jcaio, to bm-n). Literally, that which can 
or may bum ; a term applied to a species 
of painting in wax liquefied by heat; 



END 



117 



whereby the colours acquire considerable 
hardness, brilliancy, and durability; the 
term has also been applied to painting on 
porcelain, enamel- work/ and to painting on 
glass; and, in short, to all species of 
painting where the colours are fixed by 
means of heat, and even to works in metals 
where gold and silver are inlaid, melted, 
or laid on by the application of heat. 

Enclianter, en-tshantur (Latin, in, in; 
canto, to sing; a mag^c song). One who 
enchants ; a sorcerer or magician ; one 
who pretends to perform surprising things 
by the agency of demons. Feminine, En-- 
chantress. 

Enchase, en-tshase (French, en, in; 
caisse, case). To incase ; to inclose ; to 
insert ; to adorn or embellish ; to set off in 
an ornamental style or manner by em- 
bossing, engraving, &c. 

Encomiast, en-ko-me-ast (Greek, 
enkomioii, praise). One who bestows praise 
on another ; a panegyrist ; one who utters 
or writes commendations. 

Encomium, en-ko-meum (Greek, 
enkomion, praise). Praise ; panegyric ; a 
favourable representation of the virtues 
and excellencies of another. 

Encompass, en-kumpas (Latin, in, in ; 
con, with ; passum, passed). To encircle ; 
to surround ; to inclose ; to move or go round. 

Encore, ong-kore (Fr,, encore, again). 
An exclamation used by auditors and 
spectators of plays, concerts, and other 
entertainments, intimating a desire for the 
repetition of any particular performance. 

Encroach, en-krotshe (French, en, in ; 
croc, a hook). Literally, to grasp or seize 
upon; to enter on the rights' and posses- 
sions of another ; to intrude in a person's 
apartments ; to trespass on another's time ; 
to steal on beyond the due bounds or limits. 

Encumber, en-kiunbur (Dutch, 7com- 
meren, to clog). To oppress with a load or 
burden; to impede motion by inconveni- 
encing the limbs. Figuratively, to em- 
barrass and distract the mind by a variety 
of difiiculties. 

Endemic, en-demik (Greek, en, in ; 
demos, a people). Peculiar to a place or 
people ; native ; domestic. In pathology, 
applied to diseases which affect particular 
situations, and result from causes. 

Endogenous, endoj-enus (Gk., endon, 
within ; gennao, to produce). A term 
applied to plants, the growth of whose 
stems takes place by addition from within. 



118 



END 



Endorse, en -dors (Latin, in, in; 
dorsum, the back). To back. In com- 
merce, to write one's name on tbe back of 
a bill of exchange or promissory-note ; to 
render negotiable ; any signature on the 
back of a document. Figuratively, to 
hack or support the opinion or statemetit 
of another. 

Endow, en-dow (Latin, in, in ; dos, a 
gift). To give a portion to any person ; to 
assign or alienate any estate or sum of 
money to the support or maintemance of 
any charity, as an almshouse, asylum, &c. ; 
to give or bestow any quahties of mind or 
body. 

Endue, en-dew (Greek, enduo, to put 
into). To supply or furnish with internal 
gifts, virtues, or excellencies. 

Energy, enner-je (Greek, energeo, to 
act). Internal or inherent power ; the 
power of operating, whether brought into 
action or not ; active resolution ; lively ; 
strength. 

Enervate, enner-vate (Latin, e, out of ; 
nervus, a nerve). To take away or deprive 
of nerve ; to weaken ; to render feeble. 

Enfeoff, en-fef (Latin, in, in ; fides, 
trust). To invest with possession ; to 
surrender ; to give up. 

Enfilade, en-fe-lade (French, enMer, to 
draw out the ends). In military tactics, 
to proceed in a straight line ; to pierce or 
penetrate straight forward ; and further, 
to sweep the whole length of a straight 
line with artillery. 

Enfrancliise, en-fran-tshiz (French, en 
franc). To endow with the liberties and 
privileges of free citizens ; to free ; to set 
at liberty ; to naturalise. 

Engender, en-jendur (Latin, in, in ; 
genus, a kind). To beget ; to produce ; to 
cause to exist. 

Engross, en - grose (Latin, in, in ; 
crassus, thick). To increase in bulk; to 
appropriate anything large or largely ; to 
copy in a large hand ; to assume in undue 
quantities and degrees. 

Engulf, en-guK (French, engolfer). To 
east into a gulf ; to swallow up ; to absorb. 

Enhance, en-hans (French, enhausser). 
To raise Jhe price or value of a thing ; to 
heighten the esteem or degree of any 
quality. 

Enigma, e-nigmah (Greek, ainigma, to 
hint anything darkly). A proposition 
delivered in obscure, remote, and am- 
biguouo terms, in order to exercise the wit. 



ENT 

En Masse, ong mass (French, en masse). 
In the mass, or whole body. 

Enmity, enmy-te (Latin, in, not ; 
amicus, a friend). Unfriendly disposition ; 
ill-will ; malevolence ; a state of irreconcil- 
able opposition. 

Ennui, awn-we (Fr., ennui). Weari- 
ness ; lassitude ; tired out with pleasure 
and excitement ; heaviness of time. 

Enunciation, e-nunshe-ayshun (Latin, 
nuncio, to teU). The act of uttering or 
pronouncing ; a simple expression or 
declaration of a thing, either affirmatively 
or negatively, without any application ; a 
declaration, proclamation, or public attest- 
ation. 

En Passant, ong pass-ong (French, 
en, in ; passant, passing). By the way ; 
incidentally. 

Enrol, en-role (French, enroller). 
Literally, to write or inscribe upon a 
roll of parchment or paper ; to write or 
inscribe in a register or record ; to insert 
a name, or enter in a list or catalogue. 

Ensconce, en-skons {en; German, 
schanze). To cover as with a sconce or fort ; 
to cover or protect the head ; to cover ; to 
protect ; to secure. 

Ensemble, ong-sawm-bul (French, 
ensemble). A term used in the fine arts to 
denote the general effect of a whole work, 
without reference to the parts; one with 
another; together. 

Ensign, en-sine (Latin, zn ; signum, a 
sign). The flag or standard of a regiment ; 
a mark or badge of distinction and 
authority ; any sign or mark by which one 
thing may be known from another; also 
applied to the officer in a foot regiment 
who carries the ensign or standard. 

Entablature, en-tablah-ture (Latin, 
in ; tabula, a table). In architecture, the 
whole of the parts of an order above a 
column ; and comprehending the architrave, 
frieze, and cornice. 

Entail, en-tail (French, entailler, to 
cut off). In law, to settle the succession 
of an estate, so that it cannot be bequeathed 
at pleasure by the person who succeeds to 
it. 

Enterprise, enter-prize (Latin, inter, 
between. French, pris, taken). An 
undertaking of hazard ; an arduous at- 
tempt ; generally apphed to that which is 
undertaken or attempted to be performed. 

Entertain, enter-tain (Latin, inter, 
between ; teneo, to hold). To communicate 



ENT 

ftiental improvement, or employ a person's 
time in agreeable discourse ; to receive 
gnd to eat hospitably ; also to reserve or 
conceive in the mind. 

Enthusiasm, en-thewsy-azzum (Gr., 
entheos, an inspired man; from en, in; 
Theos, God). Ardent zeal ; a transport of 
the mind, in which the imagination over- 
comes the judgment; a ravishment of 
the spiiit, whereby things are regarded as 
sublime and surprising ; as the enthusiasm 
of the poet. In a religious sense, a vain 
confidence of divine favour or communica- 
tion. 

Entice, en-tise (Saxon, tihtan,^ to 
allure). To incite or instigate, by exciting 
hope or desire ; to seduce ; to lead astray ; 
to hold out temptation ; to throw out a 
bait. 

Entire, en-tire (Latin, integer, whole). 
Whole ; undivided ; unbroken ; complete ; 
having all its parts ; undivided in affection, 
attachment, or fidelity. 

Entity, en-te-te (Latin, entiias, from ; 
esse, to be). Being ; existence ; a real 
being or species of being. Applied to 
things which have a real existence, in con- 
tradistinction from those things whose ex- 
istence is imaginary. 

Entomology, ento-molo-jy (Greek, 
entoma, insects ; logos, a discourse). That 
branch of science which treats of insects ; 
the natural history of insects. 

Entrails, en-trals (Greek, enter a, the 
bowels). The internal parts of animal 
bodies ; so called because they interweave 
or erJwine one with the other. 

Entree, ong-tray (French). Admission, 
or means of admission ; privilege to come 
and go at any time ; freedom of entrance. 

Entremet, ong-trem-ay (French, entre, 
between; viet, put). A small dish set 
between the principal dishes at table ; or 
a choice dish served between the courses. 

Entre nous, ong-tnih noo (French). 
A term used to imply between ourselves ; 
in confidence, &c. 

Entrepot, ong-trep-o (French, entrepot). 
In commerce, the name given in France, 
and some other countries, to a warehouse 
or other place, where goods brought from 
abroad may be deposited. 

Entresol, ong-tres-sol (French, entre- 
sol). In architecture, a French word for a 
fioor betvveen other floors, usually con- 
sisting of a low ai)artment or apartments, 
placed above the first floor. I 



EPI 



119 



Envelop, en-vellup (French, envelqpper, 
to enwrap). To cover, or inclose in a 
covering; to surround entirely; to hido 
from sight. 

Envelope, awng-ve-lope. A wrapper ; 
an inclosing cover ; especially applied to 
the receptacle for notes and letters. 

Envenom, en-vennum (Latin, in/ vent- 
mim, poison). To poison; to infuse or 
impregnate with poison; figuratively, to 
invest with the noxious, mahgnant, hate- 
ful qualities of poison. 

Environ, en-vire-un (French, en, 
round ; mrer, to turn). To surround; to 
encompass ; to hem in on aU sides. 

Environs, envir-unz. Places adjacent ; 
the outskirts of a town ; the suburbs of a 
city. 

Envoy, en-voy (French, envoye, a 
messenger). A person deputed to negotiate 
a treaty with some foreign prince or state ; 
a public minister sent from one power to 
another. L'Envoy is a sort of fanciful 
postscript to a tale, poem, &c. ; serving to 
direct the reader's particular attention to 
some moral, or other important point. 

Eolian, e-o-le-au. Pertaining to Eolus, 
or the winds. An Eolian harp is a musical 
instrument, the sounds of which are drawn 
from it by a current of air acting on the 
strings. 

Ep (Greek, epi). In composition,, an 
affix usually signifying on or iipon. 

Epaulet, ep-paw-let (French^ epaulette, 
from epaul, the shotdder). A shoulder 
knot ; an ornamental badge worn on the 
shoulder by military and naval officers. 

Epergne, ay-payrn. An ornamental 
stand for a large glass dish, placed in the 
centre of the table. 

Ephemeral, e-femmy-ral (Greek, epi, 
for ; hemera, a day). Beginning and end- 
ing in a day ; short-lived; perishing quickly; 
applied to anything which has attached to 
it only a passing interest, and no perma- 
nent benefit or value. 

Epic, ep-ik (Greek, epos, a poem). 
Narrative ; containing narration ; rehears- 
ing; heroic. An epic poem is one that 
narrates a story, real or fictitious, or both, 
representing in an elevated style son^ 
signal action or series of actions and events 
usually the achievements of some distin. 
guished hero, and intended to form the 
morals and affect the mind with a love of 
vi]-tue. 



120 



EPI 



EPO 



Epicene, eppy-sen (Greek, epil-omos, 
common). Common to both sexes ; of 
both kinds. Especially applied to nouns 
of common gender, as parent, cousin, &c. 

Epicure, epik-yur (from Epumrus, a 
Greek philosopher). A disciple or follower 
of Epicurus ; a follower of the doctrines 
unjustly imputed to Epicmnis, and thus a 
sensualist ; a voluptuary ; one addicted to 
luxury. 

Epicurean, ep-eku-rean. A philoso- 
phy taught by Epicurus, who maintained 
that pleasiu'e is the chief end of human 
pursuit, but this pleasure he placed in an 
exemption from pain, and a perfect tran- 
quillity of body and mind ; the means 
pointed out to attain this end were pru- 
dence, temperance, and fortitude. The 
Epicurean philosophy, therefore, is mis- 
represented when it alludes only to sen- 
sual enjo5Tiients, and those of the table 
especially. 

Epidemic, eppy-demmik (Greek, ejn, 
•ut)on ; demos, the people). Affecting great 
numbers ; generally prevailing ; a disease 
arising from a general cause, and affecting 
many people at the same time in the same 
district. 

Epidermis, eppy-dermis (Greek, epi, 
on ; derma, the skin). The true skin ; 
the cuticle or scarf-skin of an animal or 
plant. 

Epigastric, eppy-gastrik (Greek, epi- 

fastrion, the xipper part of the bellj'^). 
'ertaining to the upper and anterior paii; 
df the abdomen. 

Epigram, eppy-gram (Greek, epigram- 
ma, an inscription). A shoi-t, pointed 
poem ; a couplet or stanza wittUy hitting 
off a pai'ticular person or fault. 

Epigrammatic, eppy-gram-attik. Be- 
longing to epigrams ; concise ; pointed ; 
telling. 

Epigraph, eppy-graf (Greek, epi, 
upon ; graplio, a writing). An inscription 
on a statue, building, &:c. 

Epilepsy, eppy-lepsy (Greek, epilepsis, 
from epilamhano., to seize upon). A 
convulsion either of the whole body or of 
some of its parts, attended with a loss of 
consciousness ; and returning from time to 
time in fits or paroxysms. It is commonly 
called the ''falling sickness," because 
persons, when attacked with it, usually fall 
down. 

Epilogue, eppy-log (Greek, epilego, to 
say after). A poem or speech recited at 
the end of a play. 



Epiphany, e-piffa-no (Greek, epipha- 
neia, an appearance). A Christian festival, 
celebrated on the sixth day of January, 
and the twelfth after Christmas, in com- 
memoration of our Saviour's being 
manifested by the star, which conducted 
the wise men of the East to Bethlehem. 

Episcopalians, episko - paley - yans. 
An appellation given to those who adhere 
to the episcopal form of church government. 

Episcopacy, epis-kopah-se (Greek, 
episcopeo, to inspect). Government of the 
Church by bishops. 

Episode, eppy-sode (Greek, epi, upon ; 
eisodos, an entry), A separate incident, 
story, or action which a writer inserts in 
the main narrative, to impart a variety ; 
something foreig-n to the subject, or con- 
nected with it only by a slight thread; 
minor events in a person's history or life. 

Epistle, e-pissul (Greek, epistello., to 
send on). A letter, or wi-itten communi- 
cation ; a waiting sent ; a missive parti- 
cularly from or to an apostle. 

Epistolary, e-pisto-lary. Pertaining 
to epistles or letters ; suitable to letters 
and correspondence ; familiar ; contained in 
letters ; carried on by letters. 

Epitaph, eppy-taf (Greek, epi, upon ; 
taphos, a sepulchre). Aii inscription on a 
monument or tomb, in honour or memory 
of the dead. 

Epithalamium, eppy-thah-layme-um 
(Greek, epi, upon ; tlialamos, a bridal 
chamber). A nuptial song ; a poem com- 
posed in celebration of a marriage. Among 
the ancients such a song was sung on the 
occasion of the bride being led to her 
chamber. 

Epithet, eppy-thet (Greek, epi, upon ; 
titliemi, to put). A name added ; a word 
imposed, ascribing or describing some 
quality, and employed for the sake of 
emphasis or discrimination. 

Epitome, e-pitto-me (Greek, epi,\i.von ; 
temno, to cut). An abbreviation or abridg- 
ment ; abstract ; summary ; compendium. 

Epizootic, eppy-zootic (Greek, epii, 
upon ; zoon, an animal). An epithet for a 
disease which prevails among cattle, in 
the same manner as an epidemic does 
among human beings. 

E pluribus unum, e plury-bus u- 
num (Latin). One composed of many; the 
motto of the United States of America. 

Epoch, e-pok (Greek, epi, upon ; ccha, 
to rest). In chi-onology, a certain period 



EPO 

of time, from which calculation commences, 
and at which it terminates and again com- 
mences ; thus foi-ming certain bounds or 
limits, confining the calculation of time. 

Epode, ep-ode (Greek, epi, upon ; ode^ 
a song). In lyric poetry, the third or last 
part of the ode ; that which follows the 
strophe and antistrophe, the ancient ode 
being divided in strophe, antistrophe, and 
epode. The term is now used as the name 
of any little verse or verses, following more 
considerable ones. 

Epopee, ep-o-pe (Greek, epos, a poem ; 
poieo, to make). Literally, the making or 
imitating by words ; an epic poem, or the 
fable of it. 

Epsom Salts. A popular name for 
sulphate of magnesia, formerly obtained 
by boiling down the mineral water found 
in the vicinity of Epsom, Surrey ; but now 
prepared from bittern and magnesia lime- 
stone. 

Equanimity, ekwah-nimmit-e (Latin, 
ivqm'.s, equal ; animus^ the mind). Even- 
ness of temper ; a state of mind which is 
neither elated nor depressed ; a capability 
of sustaining prosperity without excessive 
joy, and adversity without much grief. 

Equable, e-kwah-bul (Latin, ceqiialis, 
equal). Equal and uniform at aU times ; 
having the same or similar appearances ; 
causing the same or similar sensations ; 
smooth ; calm ; steady ; unrufiled ; undis- 
turbed. 

Equator, e-kwaytur (Iiatin, acfueo, to 
divide equally). A great circle of the 
sphere, equally distant from the two poles 
of the world, and dividing it into two 
hemispheres, the northern and southern. 
It is called the equator, because when the 
sun is in this circle the days and nights are 
of equal duration in all parts of the world. 
Erom this circle the latitude of places, 
whether north or south, is reckoned, in 
degrees of the meridian ; the longitude of 
places is reckoned in degrees around this 
circle, 

Equery, ek-kwerry (Fr-ench, ecuyer, the 
stable of a prince or nobleman). An officer 
of the royal household, under the master 
of the horse. The equerries are five in 
number, and ride in the leading coach on 
gTand occasions, and have a table provided 
for them. 

Equestrian, e-kwes-tiy-un (Latin, 
equv.s, a horse). Pertaining to a horse or 
horsemanship ; riding on a horse ; skilled 
iu riding ; being on horseback ; repre- 
ssntiTig a perse n on horseback. 



EQU 



121 



Equidistant, eekwe-distant (Latin^ 
cequus, equal ; distans, distant). Being at 
an equal distance from some point or place : 
standing apart or separate in the same 
degree in space or time. 

Equilateral, eekwe-latter-ul (Latin, 
cequus, equal ; latus, a side). Haiing all 
the sides equal or of the same length. 

Equilibrium, eekwe-libbry-um (Latin, 
cequus, equal ; libro,^ to poise). In mecha- { 

nics, a term applied to an equality of ! 

forces acting in opposite directions, where- j 

by the body acted upon remains at rest, i 

In fine arts, equilibrium means the just [ 

poise or balance of an object, so as to ap- ii 

pear to stand firmly ; figm'atively, it is '\ 
used to express equanimity of mind, even- ' 

ness of temper. 

Equinoctial, eekwe-nokshai (Latin, 
ceqvAis, equal ; nox, night). The great 
cu'cle of the sphere under which the equa- 
tor of the earth moves in its diurnal 
coiu'se, and to which, when the sun in his 
progress to the ecliptic comes, he makes 
equal days and nights all over the globe, as 
then he rises due east, and sets due west. 
Equinoctial gcdes, storms which generally 
take place about the time the sun crosses 
the equinoctial. 

Equinox, eekwe-nos (Latin, osqiiiis, 
equal ; nox, night). The precise time at 
which the sun enters one of the equinoctial 
points, for then, moving exactly in the 
equinoctial circle, he makes our days and 
nights equal. The equinoxes take place 
twice a year ; namely, the 21st of March 
and the 23rd of September ; the first of 
which is the vernal equinox, and the second 
the autumnal equinox. 

Equipage, ek-kwe-paje (French, equi- 
page). The furniture of a horseman ; 
attendance ; as horses, carnages, and 
retinue ; the outfit of a militaiy man, 
particularly arms and their appendages. 
Tea equipage, a set of china and other 
articles used for tea, complete. 

Equip, e-kwip (French, equiper, to arm 
or attire). To dress ; to fit out ; to furnish 
with arms, or a complete suit of arms, for 
military seiwice ; to furnish with men, 
artUleiy, and munitions of war, as a ship ; 
to fit for sea. 

Equipoise, eekwe-poyz (Latin, cequus, 
equal ; pondus, weight) , E'quality of weight 
or force ; equilibrium ; balance. 

Equitable, ek-witah-bul (French, equi- 
table). Equal in regard to the rights of 
persons ; giving or disposed to give each 
his due ; impartial ; just. 



122 



EQU 



EEU 



Equity, ekwit-te (Latin, cequitus,^ from 
■cequus, equal). Impartial distribution of 
justice; a just regard to right or claim. 
Technically, the rules of decision observed 
by the Court of Chancery. In a general 
sense, distinguished from mere law. 
Equity of redemption is the advantage 
allowed to a mortgagor, of a reasonable 
time to redeem lands and tenements mort- 
gaged, when the estate is of greater value 
than the sum for which it is mortgaged. 

Equivalent, e-kwiwah-lent (Latin, 
cequus, equal; valeiis, strong). Equal in 
value, power, or strength ; equal in moral 
■''orce, cogency, or etfect on the mind ; 
equal in excellence or moral worth. That 
which is equal in value, weight, dignity, or 
force, with something else. 

Equivalents. In chemistry, a term 
used to denote the primary proportions 
in which the various chemical bodies re- 
ciprocally combine, referred to a common 
standard, as oxygen or hydrogen, reckoned 
unity or 1-000. 

Equivocal, e-kwiwah-kal (Lat., cequus, 
equal ; voco, to name). Literally, words of 
equal moaning ; being of doubtful signifi- 
cation ; capable of being understood in 
'different senses ; a form of expression fre- 
quently employed to deceive or mislead ; 
in a general sense, doubtful ; capable of 
different constructions, as equivocal conduct, 
an eqidvocai reputation. 

Equivocate, e-kwiwo-kate (Latin, 
cequus, equal ; voco, to name). To use 
words of doubtful signification; to give 
indirect and ambiguous answers ; to ex- 
press an opinion in terms which admit of 
different constructions. 

Equivoke, ekkwe-voke (French, eciui- 
■voque). An ambig-uous term ; a word 
susceptible of different significations ; pre- 
varication. 

Era, e-rah (Latin, cera, a mark upon 
money). A point or period of time ; an 
indefinite series of years beginning from 
some ■unknown epoch ; a point of time fixed 
by some nation or denomination of men, as 
the Christian era. 

Eradiate, e-rady-ate (Latin, e, from ; 
radio, to beam). To shoot foi-th hke rays 
from the sun ; to emit light or splendour ; 
to beam. 

Eradicate, e-raddy-kate (Latin, e, 
from ; radix, a root). To root up, or root 
■out ; to destroy utterly. Figuratively, to 
exterminate evil and wickedness, before it 
has become a habit, or suffered to tale root. 



Erase, e-rase (Latin, e, out ; rado, to 
scrape). To scrape or scratch out, as 
letters or characters written, engraved, or 
painted ; to obliterate ; to efface ; to 
draw the pen through, so as to render 
illegible. 

Ere, ayr (Saxon, cer, first). Before ; 
sooner than ; as ere-long, ere-now, e?-e- while. 

Ergo, er-go (Latin, ergo). Therefore ; 
consequently. 
Erin. One of the names of Ireland. 

Ermine, er-min. The name of a fm- 
belonging to the ermine or mouse of 
Armenia. In heraldry, a white field or fur 
dotted with black spots. This word is 
used symbolically to denote state or dig- 
nity ; robes of state being usually trimmed 
or bound with ermine fur. 

Eroded, e-ro-ded (Latin, erodo, to gnaw). 
A term, in zoology, applied to an edge 
when irregularly jagged. 

Erotic, e-rotik (Greek, eros, love). 
Pertaining to love ; treating of love. Erotic 
poetry, a term for amatory poetry. The 
name of erotic writers has been applied 
particularly to a class of romance writers 
who belong to the later periods of Greek 
literature, and whose works abound in 
sophistical subtleties and meretricious 
ornaments. 

Errant, er-rant (Latin, erro, to wander). 
Wandering; rambling; roving about. 
Knight errants were knights of the Middle 
Ages who wandered about seeking adven- 
tures, and vieing with each other in heroism 
and generosity. 

Erratic, er-ratik (Latin, erro, to 
wander). Wandering ; not stationary ; 
having no certain course ; roving about 
without a fixed destination ; irregTilar ; 
changeable. 

Erratum, er-raytum (Latin, erratum). 
An error or mistake in writing or printing ; 
plural, errata. 

Erse, urs. The language of the descen- 
dants of the Gaels or Celts in the highlands 
of Scotland. 

Erst, urst (Saxon, cerest). First ; at 
first ; formerly ; once upon a time ; long 
ago ; some time previously ; tiU now. 

Eructation, eruk-tayshun (Latin, e, 
out ; o'ucto, to belch). The act of throwing 
up wind from the stomach ; belching : 
bursting forth. 

Er'adition, er-u-dishun (Latin, e; 
rudis, ignorant). Deep learning ; thorough 
knowledge ; instruction gained by study or 



J 



EEU 

from books, particularly learning in 
literature as distinct from the sciences. 

Eruginous, e-ru-jenus (Latio, ccmgi- 
nosus). Partaking of the nature or 
substance of copper, or the rust of copper. 

Eruption, e-rupshun (Latin, e, out; 
rumpo, to break). A breaking out ; a 
bursting forth ; a violent emission of any- 
thing, particularly of flames and lava from 
.-x volcano. In pathology, a breaking ovit 
of the skin; figuratively, a commotion 
oaused by the breaking forth of the people. 

Erysipelas, erry-sippy-las (Greek, eryo, 
to draw; pelas, adjoining). A disease 
characterised by a particular kind of inflam- 
mation, vulgarly termed rose, from its red- 
ness ; and St. Anthony's fire, because that 
saint was supposed to heal it miraculously. 

Escalade, eskah-lade (French, escalade, 
a scaling, from echelle, a ladder). In 
military tactics, the taking or surprising of 
a place by scaling the walls. 

Escapade, eskah-pahd (French, esca- 
pade). Literally, the fling or irregular 
motion of a horse ; hence applied to 
unconscious impropriety of speech or 
behaviour. 

Escapement, e-skape-ment. A me- 
chanical contrivance for transmitting the 
maintaining power of a clock or watch to 
the regulator, whether balance or pendu- 
lum, in order to restore the loss of motion 
in every vibration, arising from the friction 
of the acting parts and the resistance of 
the air. 

Escarp, es-karp (French, escarjjer, to 
slope). In fortification, the exterior slope, 
facing fortified works ; the interior slope is 
the counter-sca,rp. 

Escliar, es-kar (Greek, escliara). A 
crust or scab caused by the apphcation of 
caustic to a part of the animal body. 

TUsclieat, es-cheat (Norman, escheir, to 
happen). Any possession which falls to a 
lord of fee within his manor, either by 
forfeiture, death of tenant, failure of heirs, 
or other contingency. 

Eselie"W, es-tshoo (German, scheuen, to 
shun). To flee from ; to avoid ; to shun. 

Escort, es-kawrt (French, escorte, a 
guard). A safeguard or protection on the 
way ; a g-uide ; convoy ; safe conduct. In 
military affairs, a body of armed men to 
protect an ofi&cer, or to guard baggage, 
provisions, or munition conveyed by land 
from place to place, to protect them from 
an enemy, or in general for security. 



ESQ 



123 



Escritoire, eskre-twor (French, ecri- 
toire). A box witli implements for writing ; 
or a desk or chest of drawers, with an 
apartment for the instruments of writing. 

Eseulapian, eskew-laype-un (from 
JSsculapius, the heathen god of medicine). 
Medical ; pertaining to the healing art. 

Esculent, eskew-lent (Latin, esca, good 
for food). Anything eatable, or that can 
or may be eaten with safety. 

Eseurial, es-kewry-al. The palace or 
residence of the Sovereign of Spain. 

Escutcheon, es-kutchin (Greek, scu- 
tum, a shield). In heraldry, the shield on 
which a coat of arms is represented. It is 
an imitation of the ancient shields used in 
war. 

Esophagus, e-sofah-gus (Greek, aio, 
to perceive ; phago, to eat). The gullet ; 
the canal or passage leading from the 
pharynx to the stomach, and through which 
the food is conveyed from the mouth to 
the latter. 

Esoteric, es-o-terik (Greek, eso, within, 
secret). Private ; an epithet applied to 
the private instructions and doctrines of 
Pythagoras ; opposed to exoteric. 

Espalier, es-palyer (French, esjpalier, 
the first seat of rowers in a galley). In 
gardening, a row of. fruit-trees or orna- 
mental shrubs, set close together, their 
boughs interlaced one within the other, 
and trained up regularly to stakes, rails, or 
pales. 

Espionage, es-peo-nahje (French, 
espionage). A systematic employment of 
spies ; a practice of secretly watching 
others. 

Esplanade, esplah-nade (French, 
esplanade). In fortification, a clear space 
of ground, separating the citadel of a for- 
tress from the town. The word is used in 
a general sense for a sloping walk or 
promenade. 

Espousal, e-spowzal (Latin, e; spon- 
sum, a promise). Used in or relating to 
the act of espousing or betrothing ; adop- 
tion ; protection. 

Esprit de Corps, es-pree de ka^n-r 
(French). The spirit of the body or asso- 
ciation; cliqueism; clanship. 

Espy, es-pi (French, epier). To see at 
a distance ; to seek or search after ; to dis- 
cover unexpectedly. 

Esquire, es-kwire (French, ecuyer, 
from Latin, scutiger, a shield-bearer). 
Anciently, an attendant on a knight ; the 



124 



ESS 



ETH 



title next in degree to a knight. The title 
now pertains to the younger sons of noble- 
men^ to officers of the royal courts and of 
the household, to counsellors at law, 
justices of the peace while in commission, 
sheriffs, and other gentlemen. Latterly, 
however, the title of esquire has become 
a vague compliment, and may be regarded 
as a mere designation of courtesy, and 
expression of respect. 

Essay, es-say (French, essay er). To 
attempt; to make a trial or experiment; 
to endeavour to perform anything. In 
literature, a composition intended to prove 
or illustrate a particular subject, 

Sssayist, es-sajist. One who writes 
essays. 

Essence, es-sens (Latin, essens, being). 
The nature, substance, or being of any- 
thing ; the real, internal, but generally un- 
known constitution of things, whereon 
their discoverable qualities depend. In 
popular language, perfume, odour. 

Essential, es-senshal (Latin, essens, 
being). Necessary to existence; highly 
important ; the chief point. 

Essential Oils. Oils obtained by dis- 
tillation from odoriferous vegetable sub- 
stances. Several of the volatile or essen- 
tial oils are called essences. 

Estafette, estah-fet (Spanish, esta/eito). 
A term made use of originally for a military 
courier, but now used in all the modern 
countries of Europe to denote an express 
consigned to the care of postillions, who are 
changed with every relay of horses till the 
express reaches the point of destination. 

Estate, es-tate (Latin, statum, con- 
dition). A term applied to all or any of 
the circumstances under which anything 
stands or exists, or by which it may be 
affected; more especially applied to the 
rank or condition of a person ; possessions 
and property; also, to the general estab- 
lishment of Government, In law, the 
interest a person has in lands, tenements, 
•or other effects. 

Estates of tlie Sealm. In poHtics, 
the several parts of the English Government, 
consisting of King or Queen, Lords, and 
Commons ; of late years the public press has, 
by common consent, been added to these, 
and is distinguished as " the fourth estate," 

Esthetics, es-thettiks (Greek, aisthe- 
tikos, endovred with sensibility), A philo- 
sophical science which cultivates a taste 
for everything beautiful and sublime in 
nature and art. 



Estoppel, e-stop-pel (French, eiotcper, 
to impede). In law, an impediment or 
bar to an action arising from a person's 
own act or deed, against which he is for- 
bidden to plead. 

Estovers, esto-verz (Norman, estoffer, 
to store). In law, reasonable allowance 
out of lands or goods for the sustenance of 
a felon in prison, a woman divorced, &c. 
The term is more commonly taken for the 
allowance of wood to tenants, called from 
the Saxon, house-bote, plough-bote, fir^- 
bote, cart- bote, &c. 

Estrade, es-trahd (French). An even 
or level place ; a balcony. 

Estrange, es-tranje (French, etranger). 
To alienate ; to keep at a distance ; to 
withdraw ; to shun or avoid ; to withhold 
from ; to turn from kiudness to indiffe- 
rence or malevolence. 

Estreat, e-streat (Latin, ex, from ; 
tractum, drawn out). In law, a copy, note, 
or an extract of some original record, espe- 
cially that of fines, set down in the rolls of 
court, to be levied by the bailiff or other 
officer on every offender. Estreated recog- 
nizances are such as become forfeited or 
absolute ; and being estreated or extracted 
from the other records and sent up to the 
Exchequer, the party and his sureties 
become the sovereign's absolute debtor. 

Estuary, es-tuaiy (Latin, cestuo, to 
boil, or be agitated). An arm of the sea; 
a frith ; a narrow passage, or the mouth of 
a river or lake where the tide meets the 
current, or flows and ebbs. 

Etat Major, ay-tah mah-zhor (French). 
Officers attached to the person of a com- 
mander ; staff, 

Et Cetera, et-setty-ra (Latin). The 
rest ; and so forth ; contracted etc and <fcc. 
Employed in speaking and writing when 
the leading subjects have been denoted, 
and it is not considered necessary to detail 
what comes after. 

Etching, etch-ing (German, etzen). 
The art of engraving on metal by means of 
first dravknng lines or strokes, and then 
appljdng aquafortis ; the impression taken 
from an etched plate. 

Etesian, e-te-zhan (Latin, etesius). 
Periodical ; stated. A term applied to 
yearly or anniversary winds, answering to 
the monsoons of the East Indies. 

Ethereal, eethe-real (Greek, aither). 
Formed of ether ; containing or filled with 
ether; heavenly; celestial; consisting of 
ether or spirit. 



ETH 



EVA 



123 



Ethics, eth-iks (Greek, ethos, manner). 
Kelating to manners or morals ; treating 
of morality; pertaining to the theory of 
morals; the science of moral philosophy. 

Ethnical, eth-ue-kal (Greek, etJinos, a 
nation, or people). Heathen ; pagan ; 
applied to nations not of the Jewish or 
the Christian faith. 

Ethnology, eth-uollo-je (Greek, eihnos, 
a nation ; logos, a discourse). The science 
that treats of the various races of men. 

Etiolation, eetio-layshun (Greek, aitho, 
to shine). The operation of being whitened, 
or of becoming white ; the process of 
whitening plants, by excluding the light 
of the sun. 

Etiology, eety-ollo-je (Greek, aitia, a 
cause ; logos, a discourse). That branch 
of pathology which treats of the causes of 
disease. 

Etiquette, etty-ket (French). Polite- 
ness ; forms of ceremony or decorum ; the 
forms which are observed towards particu- 
lar persons at particular places. The 
word etiquette means literally, a iiclcet or 
small card, on which the foi-ms and cere- 
monies necessary to be observed at court, 
&c., on pai-ticular occasions were inscribed ; 
thence ''according to etiquette," means 
according to the ticket or prescribed form. 

Etruscan, e-trus-kan. A native of 
Etruria ; belonging to Etruria, the ancient 
name of a district in Italy. 

Etui, et-we (French, etui). A case for 
pocket instruments. 

Etsrmology, etty-mollo-jy (Greek, ety- 
inos, true ; logos, a discourse). That 
branch of philosophy which treats of the 
origin and derivation of words. The term, 
as used in grammar, implies not only deri- 
vation, but also inflection of nouns and 
verbs. 

Eu. A Greek prefix attached to many- 
words, particularly scientific terms, signi- 
fying well, good, fine. 

Eucharist, u-ka-risf (Greek, eu, good ; 
chai-is, thanks). The sacrament of the 
Lord's Supper ; the act of giving thanks. 

Euchology, u-kollo-jy (Greek, euche, 
prayer; logos, a discourse). The name of 
the ritual of the Greek Church, in which 
the order and administration of their cere- 
monies, sacraments, ordinations, &c., are 
inscribed. 

Euclitie, eu-klitik (Greek, egUitihos, 
inclined). In grammar, a term applied to 
particles or words so closely connected 



with others as to seem parts of them, as qm 
in virumgue. 

Eucrasy, u-krah-se (Greek, eu; Iratys, 
strong). An agreeable temperament or 
good condition of body. 

Eulogy, u-lo-je (Greek, eu, favourable ; 
logos, discourse). Praise ; panegyric : a 
speech or writing in commendation of a 
person, on account of his valuable qualities 
or services. 

Euphemism, u-fe-mizm (Greek, eu, 
well; phemi, to speak). A rhetorical 
figure, in which a soft or agreeable word or 
expression is substituted for one which is 
offensive to delicate ears. 

Euphony, u-fo-ne (Greek, e^i, agree-, 
able; j)hon§, sound). Harminous sound; 
an easy, smooth enunciation of sounds ; a 
pronunciation of words and letters which 
is pleasing to the ear. 

European, u-ro-peean. Pertaining to 
Europe ; a native of Europe. 

Euthanasia, u-than-ayzhea (Greek, eu, 
good; tkanatos, death). An easy, qiiiet 
death ; among divines, death in a state of 
grace. In politics, it means such peculiar 
theories as have the best tendency to up- 
hold the state, or disentangle it from difii- 
culties. 

Evacuate, e-vakku-ate (Latin, e, from 
vaco, to be empty). To make empty ; to 
throw out or draw out till empty ; to leave 
empty ; to quit ; to withdi*aw from a place. 

Evade, e-vade (Latin, e, from; vado, 
to go). To go out or away ; to avoid by 
dexterity ; to escape by strategem or arti- 
fice ; to elude ; to escape. 

Evanescent, evan-nessent (Latin, e, 
from ; vanesco, to vanish). Vanishing ; 
waning ; decaying or falling away ; dis- 
appearing from the sensations or pej'cep- 
tions ; fieeting. 

Evangelical, evan-jelle-kal. Accord- 
ing to the Gospel ; sound in the doctrines 
of the Gospel ; orthodox. A term used to 
designate the low cMtrch party by way of 
distinction from Jiigh church. 

Evangels, e-vanjells (Greek, eu, good; 
angelos, messenger). Another term for the 
four Gospels written by the Evangelists. 

Evaporate, e-vappo-i-ate (Latin, e, 
from ; vapoi', vapour). To pass off in 
vapour ; to waste insensibly ; to disperse 
in steam or smoke ; to vanish into air. 

Evasion, e-vayzhun (Latin, e, from; 
vado, to go). The act of eluding, avoiding, 
or escaping ; particularly from the cogency 



126 



EYE 



EXC 



of an argument^ from an accusation or 
charge, or from an interrogatory ; excuse ; 
subterfuge ; equivocation. 

Eventide, eevun-tide {even, evening; 
and Saxon, tid, time). The time of even- 
ing. 

Bventfiil, e-vent-ful (Latin, e, forth ; 
i-e7iio, to come). Full of events or inci- 
dents ; marked with changes ; momen- 
tous. 

Eventuate, e-ventu-ate (Latin, e, 
from ; fenio, to come). To issue ; to 
terminate ; to come to an end. 

Evergreen. A term applied to plants 
frhich have persistent or perennial leaves ; 
that is, leaves which remain perfect upon 
the plant beyond a single season, as holly, 
common laurel, myrtle, &c. 

Evict, e-vikt (Latin, e, out ; victum, con- 
quered). To take away by a sentence of 
law ; to recover lands or tenements by 
law ; to dispossess. 

Evoke, e-voke (Latin, e, forth ; 'voco, 
to call). To summon forth ; to appeal ; to 
remove ; to cause anything 'to be brought 
from concealment. 

Evolution, ewo-lewshun (Latin, e, 
out ; volvo, to roll). Literally, the act of 
imfolding or unrolling ; a series of things 
unfolded or unrolled. In mUitary tactics, 
certain movements by which the disposi- 
tion of troops is changed, as the doubhng 
of ranlcs or files, wheeling, counter-march- 
ing, &c. 

Ex. A prefix signifying out of, from, 
out. Also used to denote the being out of 
office once held, as an ex-mayor, an ex- 
memher. 

Exaction, egz-akshun (Latin, ex, from ; 
acti'jii, driven). Extoition; unjust demand ; 
anything enforced or obtained by pressure. 

Exacerbate, egz-asser-bate (Latin, ex, 
from ; acerhus, bitterness, sharpness). To 
embitter ; to increase mahgnant qualities ; 
to irritate ; to inflame angry passions. 

Exaggerate, egz-ajjy-rate (Latin, ex; 
a.ggei^, a heap). Literally, to heap up; 
hence, in a figurative sense, to heighten by 
representation; to enlarge beyond the 
truth. In painting, to heighten in colour 
or design. 

Exasperate, egz-aspy-rate (Latin, ex ; 
asper, rough or sharp). To ii-ritate ; to 
aggravate ; to provoke ; to excite anger, or 
to inflame it to an extreme degree. 

Ex catliedra, eks kathee-dra. A Latin 
phrase applied to every decision pro- 






nounced by one in the exercise of his 
authority — a professor in his chair, a judge 
from the bench, &c. Ironically applied to 
any opinion or dictum expressed with an 
air of authority and self-sufficiency. j 

Excavation, eks-kah-vayshun (Latin, 
ex, out ; cavus, hollow). The digging out 
a cavity or hollow ; a hollow or cavity 
formed by remoiing the internal sub- 
stance. 

Excellency, eksel-lensy (Latin, ex- 
cellentia) . A title of honour formerly given 
to kings and emperors, but now applied to 
governors, ambassadors, &c., who are 
elevated by virtue of particular offices. It 
is in no case hereditary or transferable, 
but belongs to the office. 

Excelsior, ek-»elsy-or (Latta, excelsiis, 
high, lofty). This word is the comparative 
of high, and signifies " stiU higher ;" figu- 
ratively, to endeavour to excel in any 
pursuit or performance, to rise higher in 
fame, public estimation, &c. 

Exception, ek-sepshun (Latin, excipio, 
to take out). Exclusion ; objection through 
dislike or disapproval ; exclusion from 
what is comprehended in a general rule or 
proposition. In law, a stop or stay to an 
action. In common law, a denial of matter 
in bar to an action. In chancery, an excep- 
tion is that which is alleged against the suffi- 
ciency of an answer. 

Excerpts, ek-serpts (Latin, ex, out; 
carpo, to pluck). Things picked or cuUed 
out; passages selected from authors; 
extracts. 

Exchange. In commerce, a term ap- 
plied to a building or other place in 
considerable trading cities, where the 
merchants, agents, bankers, brokers, and 
other persons engaged in commerce, as- 
semble at certain times to confer and 
treat together of matters relating to ex- 
changes,- remittances, payments, assur- 
ances, freights, and other mercantile 
negotiations both by land and sea. This 
word is commonly contracted into ^Change. 

Exchequer, eks-chekker (French,ec7«€c). 
An ancient comi; of record, intended prin- 
cipally to collect and superintend the 
revenues and debts of the Crown, and so 
called from scaccharium, denoting a 
chequered cloth which covers the table. The 
exchequer consists of two divisions : the 
receipt of the exchequer which manages 
the revenue, and the judicial department, 
which is sub-divided into a court of equYty^ 
and a court of common law. 



EXC 



EXH 



127 



Exchequer Bills. Bills or tickets 
issued by the Exchequer, payable out of 
the produce of a particular tax, or generally 
out of the supplies granted for the year. 

Excise, ek-size (Latin, ex, out ; ccesura, 
cut). The name given to the taxes or 
duties levied on commodities consumed at 
home, and on certain licenses. 

Exclusive, eks-klewsiv (Latin, ex, out ; 
claudo, to shut). Debarring from partici- 
pation ; a coterie or social company which 
excludes others, 

Excommuiiicate, eks-communy-kate 
(Latin, ex, out of ; communico, to commu- 
nicate). To expel from communion ; to 
exclude or debar a person from partaking 
of the sacrament of the Lord's Supper ; to 
put out of the pale of the Church. 

Excoriation, eks-kory-ayshun (Latin, 
excoi-io, to remove the skin). An abrasion 
or stripping of the skin ; the act of -wear- 
ing or rubbing off. 

Excrescence, eks-kres-sens (Latin, ex, 
out of ; cresco, to grow). That which grows 
out uselessly and superfluously ; a pi'eter- 
natural protuberance of growth on any 
part of the body of an animal or plant. 

Excruciating, eks-krooshe-ayting 
(Latin, ex ; crux, a cross). Excessively 
painful ; extremely distressing ; agony in 
the greatest degree. 

Exculpate, eks-kulpate (Latin, ex ; 
culpo, to blame). To free from blame ; to 
clear from any charge or accusation. 

Excursive, eks-kursiv (Latin, ex, out 
of ; curro, to run). Eambling ; wandering 
or deviating; departing from bounds or 
method. 

Exeat, eks-e-at. An ecclesiastical tenn 
for the permission granted by a bishop to a 
priest to go out of his diocese. 

Execrable, eksy-krah-bul (Latin, ex, 
out of ; sacer, holy). Detestable ; hateful ; 
accursed ; held in utter detestation or 
abomination. 

Execution, eksy-kewshun (Latin, ex, 
out ; sequor, to follow). In law, a judicial 
writ grounded on the judgment of the 
court whence it issues, and supposed to 
be granted by the court at the request of 
the party at whose suit it is issued, to give 
him satisfaction on the judgment which 
has been obtained. 

Executive, eks-ekku-tiv. In politics, 
that branch of the Government which 
carries out the functions of the State. 



The word is used in distinction from 
legislative and judicial. 

Executor, eks-ekku-tor (Latin, ex, out ; 
sequor, to follow). One who executes, or 
carries into effect. In law, ' a person ap- 
pointed by another in his last will and 
testament, to perform or execute the com- 
mands and dii'ections contained therein 
after his decease ; if a person so appointed 
be a female, she is termed an executrix. 

Exemplar, egs-emplar (Latin). A 
model, original, or pattern to be copied or 
Imitated. 

Exemplary, egs-emplah-re (Latin, 
exevyph'.m, a model). Worthy of imita- 
tion ; serving as a model ; such as may 
serve as a warning to others. 

Exemplify, egs-emply-fi (Latin, exem- 
phtrii, an example; fio, to be made). To 
illustrate by example ; to take an attested 
copy ; to prove or show by copy. 

Exempt, egs-empt (Latin, ex, out ; 
erao, to take). To free from something to 
which others are subjected ; to release, 
acquit, or discharge. 

Exequator, eksy-kway-tur (Latin, 
exequator). An official recognition of a 
person in the character of consul, or com- 
mission agent, authorising him to execute 
his powers in the place to which he is sent. 

Exfoliation, ex-foly-ayshun (Latin, 
ex, out of ; foli^'.m, a leaf). Insiu'gery, the 
act of scaling a bone ; the state of a bone- 
which breaks off in scales. 

Exhale, egz-hale (Latin, ex, out ; halo. 
to breathe). To breathe out ; to send or 
draw out in vapour ; to evaporate. 

Exhaustion, egs-hawst-shun (Latin, 
ex, from ; hav.rio, to draw). The act of 
di'awing out or emptying; the state of 
being deprived of strength or spirits. 

Exhibit, egs-hibbit (Latin, ex, out ; 
habeo, to have). To expose to view ; to 
bring or put forth. In a medical sense, to 
administer. In law, a deed or writing 
proved by a witness or admitted by the 
parties to a suit in chancery, in the equity 
side of the Court of Exchequer or 
bankruptcy. 

Exhilarate, egs-hilly-rate (Latin, ex ; 
hilaris, merry). To gladden ; to enliven j 
to make cheerful or merry. 

Exhume, egs-hiune (Latin, ex; liumus, 
ground). To take out of the earth that 
which has been buried ; to disinter a 
corpse. 



128 



EXI 



Exigence, eksy-gens (Latin, exigo, to 
press severely). Urgency ; pressing? 
necessity ; sudden occasion ; demand ; 
want. 

Exile, eg-zile (Latin, extil, a banished 
person). The state of a person who is 
banished from his native land ; the person 
"banished. 

Exit, eg-zit (Latin, exit, a going out). 
In theatrical parlance, implies that an 
actor has gone out of sight or left the 
Btage. Figuratively, a departure from life ; 
death, or passage out of any place. 

Exodus, ekso-dus (Greek, elc, out; 
odos, a journey). Departure from a place, 
particularly the departure of the Israelites 
from Egypt under the guidance of Moses. 

Ex-officio, eks-of-fish-sheo (Latin). By 
virtue of office, and . without special 
authority. 

Exogenous, eks-ojjy-nus (Greek, exo, 
without; gennao, to briug forth). A terra 
applied io plants which increase by addi- 
tions to the outer wood, in contradistinction 
to endogenous. 

Exonerate, ex-onny-rate (Latin, ex; 
onus, a burden). To unload ; to disburden ; 
to free from blame; to deliver from a 
charge ; to clear the character of impu- 
tation. 

Exorbitant, egs-awrby-tant (Latin, 
ex, out ; orbita, a track). Literally, the 
going or moving out of an oi-hit, or cu'cle ; 
hence, exceeding bounds ; going beyond 
limits ; excessive ; enonnous ; ex- 
travagant. 

Exorcise, eks-orsize (Greek, exorlizo, 
to adjure). To adjure by some holy name ; 
to charge upon oath ; and thus, by the use 
of certain words, and the performance of 
certain ceremonies, to subject evil spii-its to 
command and exact obedience. 

Exordium, egz-ordy-um (Latin, exor- 
dium). Introduction, preamble, or preface. 
In oratory, the introductory part of a dis- 
course which prepares the hearers for the 
main subject. 

Exoteric, ekso-terik (Greek, exo, with- 
out). External ; public ; opposed to 
esoteric, or secret. The exoteric doctrines 
of ancient philosophers were those which 
were openly professed and taught. The 
©Id English equivalent for this word was 
outlandish. 

Exotic, eks-ottik (Greek, exotiJcos, 
foreign). An appellation for the produce 
£)i" foreign countries. Exotic plants are 



EXP 

such as belong to a soil and climate entirely 
different from the place where they ara 
raised, and therefore can be preserved for 
the most part only by means of artificial 
culture. 

_ Ex parte, ex par-te (Latin). A term 
signifying on one side ; a partial statement, 
or that which is made by one side only. 
A commission ex parte, in Chancery, is when 
a commission is taken out and executed by 
one side or party only, upon the other 
party refusing or neglecting to join in the 
same. 

Expatiate, eks-pashy-ate (Latin, ex, 
out ; spatior, to wander). Literally, to 
spread through space ; hence, to enlarge, 
or treat of in a copious manner. 

Expatriate (Latin, ex, out of ; patria, 
our country). To banish from one's home 
or native country ; to renounce citizenship 
and allegiance. 

Expectant, eks-pektant (Latin, ex, 
out ; specto, to look). Waiting in expec- 
tation ; one who waits in expectation, or 
looks for. In law, an expectant estate is one 
which is suspended till the determination 
of some particular estate. 

Expectation, ekspek-tayshun (Latin, 
ex, out ; specto, to look). A looking or 
waiting for. In the doctrine of chances, 
the value of any prospect or prize de- 
pending upon the happening of some 
uncertain event. In the doctrine of life 
annuities, the particular number of years 
which a life of a given age has an equal 
chance of enjoying, or the term which a 
person of a given age may justly expect to 
live. 

Expectorate, eks-pekto-rate (Latin, 
ex, out of ; pectus, the breast). To dis- 
charge from the breast by coughing ; to 
eject by coughing or spitting. 

Expediency, eks-peedy-ensy (Latin, 
ex ; pes, a foot). Fitness ; propriety ; con- 
venience ; suitableness ; adaptability to 
some end or purpose. 

Expedite, ekspe-dite (Latin, ex, out ; 
pes, a foot). To hasten ; to facihtate ; to 
give speed or dispatch to ; to open a speedy 
and ready way. 

Expedition, ekspe-disshun (Latin, ex, 
out ; pes, afoot). Haste ; speed ; activity ; 
a march or voyage; an enterprise by a 
number of persons. 

Expel, eks-pel (Latin, ex, out; pello, 
to drive, or force). To drive out ; to force 
away ; to hold or keep out or away ; to ex- 
clude ; to eject ; to banish. 



EXP 

Expend, eks-pend (Latin, ex, out; 
ff)vdOi to pay). To pay away money; to 
disbvirse ; to defray costs and charges ; to 
employ ; to consume ; to dissipate ; to 
waste. 

Experiment, eks-perry-ment (Latin, 
experior, to attempt). A trial ; an attempt; 
a search or inquiry to learn or ascertain 
by trial ; au act or operation designed to 
discover some unknown truth, principle, 
or effect, or to establish it when discovered. 

Experimental Philosophy. A 

term applied to those branches of science 
the deductions of which are founded on 
experiment or trial, as contrasted with 
the moral, mathematical, and reflective 
branches. 

Exp^ert, eks-purt (Latin, experior, to 
attempt). Skilful ; dexterous ; taught by 
practice. A n expert is one who has singular 
readiness and adroitness ; the term is 
especially applied to a person skilled in 
distinguishing hand-writings, detecting 
erasures, tracing forgeries, &c. 

Expiation, ekspe-ayshun (Latin, ex; 
pio, to worship). The act of atoning for a 
crime ; the means by which atonement is 
made; the atoning for impious acts by 
pious deeds. 

Expiration, ekspe-rayshun (Latin, ex, 
out ; spiro, to breathe). Literally, a 
breathing out, the emission of the last 
breath ; hence, the passing away as a 
breath, applied to circumstances or time. 

Expletive, eks-pletiv (Latin, expleo, 
to fill up ; from 2^lsmis, fuU). Something 
introduced to fill up ; an addition for 
supply or ornament ; words unnecessarily 
introduced either in speaking or writlig— 
for instance : "I^ow Barabbas was a robber." 

Explicit, eks-plissit (Latin, ex; plico, 
to fold). Unfolded; clear; straightforward; 
plain ; manifest ; orders or directions 
given in such a manner as not ta be mis- 
iinderstood. 

Exploit, eks-ployt (Latin, ex; pletum, 
filled). Anything accomplished or achieved 
with some danger or difficulty; also, a 
great act of wickedness. 

Explore, eks-plore (Latin, ex, out ; 
2)loro, to search). To search for ; making- 
discovery ; to try or prove by searching ; 
to piy or examine into. 

Explosion, oks-plozhun (Latin, ex; 
plaudo, to clap the hands). Literally, the 
driving off by clapping the hands ; a burst- 
ingr with noise ; a sudden expansion of 



EXP 



129 



elastic fluid with loud discharge ; the dis- 
charge of fire-arms or gunpowder with a 
loud report. 

Exponent, eks-ponent (Latin, ex, out ; 
pono, to put). In algebra, the number or 
figure which, placed above a root at the 
right hand, denotes how often that root is 
repeated, or how many multiplications are 
necessary to produce the power. In a 
general sense, a person or thing put forth 
to represent certain views, opinions, &c. 

Export, eks-port (Latin, ex, out ; porto, 
to carry). To carry out or send goods in 
traffic, from one country to another. Ex- 
ports are articles of commerce sent out of 
one country or place, to be carried into 
another. 

Exposd, eks-po-zay (French). A dis- 
closure ; a laying open or making public ; 
a formal statement of facts, reasons, &c. 
A denouncing of something disreputable. 

Exposition, ekspo-zisshun (Latin, «r, 
out ; pono, to piit). Explanation ; situa- 
tion for opening to view; an exhibition 
of arts, &c. 

Ex post facto, eks-post-fakto (Latin). 
In law, a phrase used to denote something- 
done after another thing that was com- 
mitted before, and after the time it should 
have been done. An ex post facto laxv is 
one which operates upon a subject not 
liable to it at the time the law wa» 
made. 

Expostulate, eks-postew-late (Latin, 
ex; postulo, to demand or complain). To 
reason earnestly ; to remonstrate ; to 
demand or require as a right. 

Expound, eks-pound (Latin, ex, out: 
pono, to put). To explain ; to interpret ; 
to lay open the meaning; to clear from 
obscurity. 

Expressed oil. An oil obtained by 
pressure from the substance containing it, 
as olive oil from the olive, almond oil from 
the almond, &c. 

Expulsion, eks-pulshun (Latin, ex, 
out ; pello, to drive). The act of expelling^ 
or driving out ; a driving away by -violence ; 
ejecting. 

Expunge, eks-punge (Latin, ex, out ; 
pungo, to prick, o^ oross with a pen). To 
strike out ; to erase as with a pen; to wipe 
out, or efface. 

Expurgation, ekspur-gayshun (Latin, 
ex, out; purgo, to purge). The act of 
cleansing; clearing out, ejecting; ex- 
pelling. 



130 



EXQ 



Exquisite, eks-kwiz-zit (Latin, tx, 
out ; (jucero, to search). Sought out ; 
picked, culled, or chosen ; and thus perfect, 
excellent, exact. An exquisite is a term 
applied in raillery to a dandy or fop. 

Extant, eks-tant (Latin, ex, out; sto, 
to stand). Literally, standing out or 
above any surface ; in being ; now sub- 
sisting. 

Extempore, eks-tempore (liatin, ex, 
out; tempus, time). Without previous 
study ; arising from or out of the time or 
occasion ; quick ; sudden ; prompt. 

Extension, eks-tenshun (Latin, ex, 
out; tendo, to stretch). The act of 
stretching out or spreading ; the state of 
being extended ; enlargement. 

Extensor, eks-ten-sur (Latin, ex, out , 
Undo, to stretch). In anatomy, a muscle 
which serves to extend any part, or to 
strengthen the limb or organ to which its 
movable extremity is attached. 

Extent, eks-tent. Space ; bulk ; com- 
pass; length. In law, a writ of execution, 
commanding a sheriff to value the lands of 
a debtor. Sometimes the term is taken as 
-the act of the sheriff or other commis- 
sioner in making the valuation on the 
writ. 

Extenuate, eks-tennu-ate (Latin, ex; 
Unuis, slender). Literally, to make thin, 
slender, or small ; hence to lessen, diminish, 
weaken, or impair in representation. Ex- 
tenuating circumstances are those that 
diminish a crime. 

Exterior, eks-teery-ur (Latin, exte)\ 
outward). Outward; external; foreign; 
applied to the outer surface of a body. 

Exterminate, eks-tennin-ate (Latin, 
€x ; termino, to end). To drive out or 
expel from the bounds or limits ; to root 
out or eradicate ; to utterly destroy ; to put 
an end to. 

Extinct, eks-tinkt (Latin, extinguo, to 
extinguish). Put out; erased or oblite- 
rated; no longer existing; annihilated; 
destroyed. 

Extinguish, eks-tingwish (Latin, ex- 
tinguo, to exting^iish). To put out; to 
quench ; to suffocate ; to destroy. 

Extirpate, ekster-pate (Latin, ex, 
out; stirps, a root). To root out; to 
remove, or destroy all vestiges of. 
* Extol, eks-tol (Latin, ex; iollo, to lift 
up). To raise up; to exalt; to praise or 
commend highly ; to magnify. 



EXU 

Extort, eks-tawrt (Latin, ex, out; 
torqueo, to twist). To wrest or wring from 
by force ; to draw from by compulsion ; to 
gain by violence. 

Extra, eks-trah. A Latin preposition 
denoting beyond, without, more than, 
further than ; as, extra worJc, extra pay, 
extra-ordinary. 

Extract, ek-strakt (Latin, ex, out; 
tralw, to draw). To di*aw out ; to bring 
from ; to write or copy out ; to take from ; 
to select. 

Extra-judicial, eks - trah - ju - dishal 
{extra, without ; and judicial). Out of the 
proper court, or the ordinary course of 
legal procedure. 

Extra-mundane, eks-trah mvm-dane 
(Latin, extra, without ; mundamcs, belong- 
ing to the world). Beyond the limits or 
out of the laws of the material world. 

Extra-parochial, ex-trah pa-roky-al 
(Latin, ext7-a, without ; parochia, a parish). 
Out of a parish; beyond its limits and 
jurisdiction. 

Extravaganza, eks-travah-gan-zah 
(Italian). In music, a term applied to any 
wild and incoherent composition. The 
term is also used for a species of irregular 
dramatic pieces, generally of the burlesque 
kind. 

Extravasation, eks-trawah-sayshun 
(Latin, extra ; vas, a vessel). In pathology, 
the art of forcing matter, especially blood 
or serum, out of the proper vessels. 

Extremity, eks-tremmy-te (Latin, ex- 
tremus, extreme). The utmost point or 
side ; furthest from a mean ; the point or 
border which terminates anything; ex- 
treme or utmost need ; the utmost rigour 
or violence ; €he most aggravated state. 

Extricate, eks-trekate (Latin, ex, out 
of; tricce, impediments). To free from 
any impediment, stop, let, or hindrance ; 
to disentangle ; to disembarrass ; to un- 
fetter. 

Extrinsic, eks-trinsik (Latin, extra, 
without ; secus, near to). From without ; 
outward ; foreign to ; not contained in or 
belonging to a body ; opposed to intrinsic. 

Extrude, eks-trude (Latin, ex, out; 
irudo, to thrust). To thrust out ; to urge, 
force, or press out ; to expel ; to driv6 
away. 

Exuberance, egs-ewber-ans (Latin, 
ex; uber, plentiful). Abundance ; excess ; 
luxuriance ; overgrowth ; superfluity. 



EXU 

, ' Exudation, eks-u-dayshun (Latin, ex, 
out ; sicdo, to sweat). Dischargwj by 
sweating; a discharge of moisture or 
humours from animal bodies; moisture 
from the earth. 

Exult, egs-ult (Latin, ex, out ; salto, to 
leap). Literally, to leap up, to bound; 
hence, to rejoice greatly, to leap for joy. 

Exuvise, eks-u-ve-e (Latin, exv^vioe). 
Cast skins or shells; something cast off; 
fossil remains. 

Ex Voto, eks vo-to (Latin). A votive 
gift, such as a picture dedicated to a 
temple. 

E"we,yu (Saxon, eoive). A female sheep. 

Ewer, yn-ur (Saxon, hwer). A kind of 
large pitcher to hold water, such as that 
with which wash-stands are furnished. 

Eyas, ias. A young eagle or hawk 
just taken from the nest, and not able to 
seek its own prey. 

Eyesore, i-sore. Something offensive 
to the eye or sight. 

Eyesplice, i-splise. In nautical lan- 
guage, a sort of eye or circle at the end of 
a rope . 

Eyetooth., i-tooth. A tooth imder 
the eye ; a pointed tooth in the upj'er jaw, 
next to the grinders, called also a canine 
tooth. 

Eyre, ayr (old French), A journey or 
•circuit. The justices in eyre were itinerant 
judges, who rode the cii-cuit to hold courts 
in the different counties. 

Eyrie, ay-re. The place where birds 
of prey build their nests and hatch their 
jouns;-. Written also eyry and aerie. 



Pa, fah. In music, one of the syllables, 
serving to mark the fourth note of the 
modern scale, which rises thuswi, re, mi, fa. 

Fabian Policy, faybe-an pol-issy. A 
term synonymous with delay ; dilatoriness ; 
avoiding battle, in imitation of Fabius 
Maximus, a Roman general, who baffled an 
invader by declining to risk a battle in 
the open field, but harassing the enemy 
by marches, counter-marches, and ambus- 
cades. 

Fable, fay-bul (Latin, fabnla, some- 
thing talked about). A feigned tale or 
Btory intended to instruct and amuse ; a 
fictitious story intended to enforce some 
moral precept or wholesome truth; in a 
general sense, anything feigfned ; any 



f'AC 



131 



purely fictitious narrative ; a more delicate 
tenn for falsehood. 

Fabric, fab-rik (Latin, faber, a work- 
man). A building; a structure; the 
manner by which the parts of a thing are 
united by art and labour ; a textm'e : a 
manufactured article, such as cloth, woollen 
stuffs, &c. 

Fabrication, fabrik-ayshun (Latin, 
fabrico, to frame). The act of framing 
and constructing; hence, in a figurative 
sense, the act of devising falsely, forging, 
or inventing with evil intention ; also, tbe 
thing devised, invented, or forged. 

Facade, fa-sade (Latin, fades, the 
form). The face or front of a buiLding; 
front view or elevation of an edifice. 

Facet, fas-et (French, /ace^e). A small 
face or smiace, as of a diamond. 

Facetiae, fa-se-she-e (Latin). A collec- 
tion of humorous writings and witty 
sayings. 

Facetious, fah-se-shus (Latin, facetus, 
witty). Merry ; jocular ; witty ; sprightly 
with wit and good-humour ; playful ; lively 
in company and conversation. 

Facial, fay-shal (Ijdit., fades, a visage). 
Pertaining to the face, as the fadal artery, 
otherwise called the labial or angular 
arteiy. 

Facile, fas-sil (Latin, fadlis, easy). 
Easy to be done or performed; pliant; 
yielding ; easily persuaded to good or bad ; 
easy of access ; ductile to excess. 

Facings, fay-sings. A tei-m applied 
to the cuffs and collars of a tmiform, lively, 
&c. ; these parts of the dress are usually 
of different colour to the rest, for the 
pm'pose of distinction and relief. 

Fac-simile, fak simmy-le (Latin, fado, 
to make; similis, like). An exact copy, as 
handwriting or a likeness. 

Faction, fak-shun (Latin, /acio, to do). 
A party of persons combining to do one 
thing in opposition to those who would do 
another; a political combination for the 
pm-pose of creating dissension and disturb- 
ance, and to embarrass the constituted 
authorities. 

Factitious, fak-tishus (Latin, yacii^itw, 
from fado, to make). Made by art, in 
distinction from what is produced by 
Nature ; artificial ; unnatural. 

Factor, fak-tor. In commerce, an agent 
or correspondent residing in some remote 
J 2 



132 



MO 



FAN 



part, commissioned by merchants to buy 
or sell goods on their account, to negotiate 
bills of exchange, or to transact other 
business for them. 

Factotum, fak-to-tum (Latin). One 
who is employed to do all kinds of work ; a 
Jack-of-aU-trades. 

Faculty, fak-ulty (Latin, facuUas). 
The power of doing anjrthing ; activity of 
either mind or body. A term applied 
collectively to physicians and other medical 
practitioners. 

Fag (Saxon, fegan, to order rightly). 
Literally, to act or do ; to continue to act 
or do ; to compel to drudge ; to work until 
weary. A fag means a hard-worker, a 
laborious drudge, and is especially applied, 
in our public schools, to the younger boys, 
who are compelled to be the drudges of the 
elder boys. 

Fain, fane (Saxon, fagen). Gladly ; 
willingly; joyfully; with pleasure and 
alacrity. 

Fairy, fa -re (Saxon, farth). An 
imaginary being or spirit, supposed to 
appear in a variety of forms, and interest 
theffiselves in the business and pleasiu-e 
of human life. Fairies are represented to 
have been so called either from their 
fairness, or fx'om their fabled power to 
say, to tell, or foretell, and, further, to 
influence the fate, or foredoom. 

Fakir, fa-keer. An Arabic word, signi- 
fying ;poor, and applied to a devotee or 
Indian monk. There are fakirs who live 
in communities, and others who live singly, 
or wander about prophesying and telling 
fortunes. 

Falchion, fawl-shun (Latin, falx, a 
hook). A short sword, arched, or crescent- 
shaped ; a scimitar; a sword generally. 

Faldstool, fawld-stool. A kind of 
stool, placed at the south side of the altar, 
at which the sovereigns of England kneel 
at their coronation ; the chairof a bishop, 
inclosed by the railing of the altar; an 
arm-chair or folding c^ir. 

Palernian, fa-lemy-an. Pertaining to 
Falemus, in Italy; especially used to 
describe the wine made in that country. 

Fallacious, fal-layshus (Latin, fdllo, 
to deceive). Delusive ; deceptive ; applied 
to sophisms in argument, to causes of error 
or mistake. 

Fallo"W, fal-lo (Saxon, fealewe, yellow). 
Anciently, yellow; yellowish; so-called on 
.SKHJOunt of the colour which I»nd n^Wly 



tilled or turned presents. Now used to 
imply a portion of land on which no seed '\A- 
sown, in order that the soil may be left ex- 
posed to the influence of the atmosphere. 

Fallow Deer. A species of deer, 
smaller than the stag, common in parks. 

False Keel. The timber below the 
main keel of a vessel. 

Falsetto, fawl-setto (Italian). In 
music, a term signifying a false voice or 
artificial manner of singling, produced by 
tightening the ligaments of the tongue, 
and thus extending the vocal compass about 
an octave higher. 

Fanatic, fa-nattik (Latin, faoiaticus, a 
priest, or attendant in a fane). Wildly 
enthusiastic, especially in religious matters , 
possessed with a kind of frenzy ; a visionary. 

Fandango, fan-dango (Spanish). A 
dance in 3-^ and sometimes in 5-8 time. 
It is a favourite dance in Spain, and 
supposed to be of Moorish origin. 

Fane (Latin, fanum, a temple). The 
habitation or abode of deified personages ; 
a place consecrated to religion ; poetically 
a church or temple. 

Fanfare, fan-far (French), The name 
given in France to a short warlike i^iece of 
music, composed for trumpets, kettle- 
drums, &c. 

Fanfaronade, fan-faro-nade. A blus- 
tering ; a swaggering ; an ostentatious 
display or trumpeting forth of a person's 
abilities and virtues. 

Fanion, fan-yun (French). In the 
military art, the name given to a small 
flag, carried along with the baggage. 

Fanlight, fan-lite. A window in the 
form of an open fan or semicircle ; usually 
placed over a door. 

Fanon, fan-non (French, fanon), A 
scarf -like ornament worn on the left arm 
of a priest during the celebration of mass ; 
also csilled fannd, a,nd fannom. 

Fantasia, fan-tay-zpah (Italian). In 
music, an instrumental composition, sup- 
posed to be struck off in the heat of the 
imagination, and in which the composer is 
allowed to give free scope to his ideas, 
unshackled by the rules of science. 

Fantastic, fan-tastik (French, fantas- 
tique). Whimsical ; imaginary ; capricious ; 
arising from or exhibiting an excess of 
fancy. 

Fantoccini, fantok-che-ne (Italian, 
fantoccio, a puppet). Dramatic representa- 



FAB 



FAV 



133 



tions, in which puppets are substituted for 
living performers. 

Farce, fars (Latin, /arcio, to stuff). A 
species of drama, the sole aim and tendency 
of which is to excite laughter. This term 
was originally applied to a dish stuffed 
with mingled ingredients. 

Farceur, far-sur (French). Literally, 
an actor of farces ; applied to persons who 
are characterised by levity and trifling, 
and who treat everything as a joke. 

Fardel, fai'-del (Italian, fardello, a 
bundle, or little pack). A package ; a 
bundle ; a pack-saddle. 

Farina, fah-reenah (Latin, far, corn). 
Meal or flour of any species of corn or 
starchy root, as potato, arrow-root, &c. ; 
also the pollen, or fine dust, in the anthers 
of plants. 

Farinaceous, farrin-ayshous (Latin, 
farina, meal). Having the character of 
meal or flour ; yielding farina ; a term 
applied to food, in distinction from ani- 
mal, vegetable, &c. 

Farrago, far-raygo (Latin, farrago, a 
mixture). Literally, a mixture of {far) 
com and other ingredients given to cattle ; 
hence applied to any mixture, medley, or 
confused mass. 

Farrow, far-ro (Saxon, fse,rn, a little 
hog). A litter of pigs; to bear or bring- 
forth pigs. 

Farthingale (French, vertugade). A 
hoop -petticoat surrounding the loins ; 
circles of hoops, formed of whalebone, used 
to extend the petticoat ; answering to the 
crinoline of the present day. 

Fasces, fas-sez (Latin). In Eonian 
antiquity, bundles of rods, with an axe in 
the centre of each bundle, carried before 
the consuls as a badge of their oflSce; 
applied generally to an emblem of autho- 
rity. 

Fascia, fay-sheah (Latin). In archi- 
tecture, a broad list, fillet, or band, used 
in architraves and pedestals ; the projec- 
tion over a modem shop-window is an 
ex:ample of this. 

Fascin ation , f assy - nay shun ( Latin, 
fascinum, witchcraft). The act or power 
of. bewitching ; charming ; enchanting ; 
holding in thraldom by charms or the 
powers of pleasing. 

Fascines, fas-seens (French). In forti- 
fication, long, cylindrical faggots made of 
brushwood or small branches of trees, used 
in constmcting batteries, filling up moats, 



binding ramparts where the earth is un- 
stable, making parapets, &c. 

Fasti, fas-ti (Latin). The ancient 
Eoman calendar, wherein were noted the 
several days of the year, with their feasts, 
games, and other ceremonies. 

Fastidious, fas-tiddy-us (Latin, fo.s- - 
tidio, to disdain). Disdainful ; squeamish; ^ 
despising ordinary or common gratifica- 
tions ; affecting superior taste or discern- 
ment. 

Fastness, fast-ness (Saxon, fa^stiiesse). 
A stronghold ; a place of security ; a 
fortress ; the state of being fast and firm. 

Fatalism, faytal-izzum (Latin, fatalis, 
pertaining to destiny). The doctrine of 
inevitable necessity ; the belief in an 
unchangeable fate, to which everything is 
subject, and which cannot be avoided or 
controlled. 

Fata Morgana, f ay-tah mawr-gay-nah 
(Italian, fata, the fairy ; and onorgana). 
The name given to a remarkable condi- 
tion of the atmosphere, presenting 
images of objects in the water or air, some- 
times doubled and also inverted, even 
when below the horizon. It most fre- 
quently occurs in the Straits of Messina, 
between Sicily and the coast of Calabria. 

Fates. In mythology, the Destinies, 
goddesses supposed to preside over the 
birth, life, and, death of mortals. They 
were three in number : Clothe, Lachesis, 
Atropf J 

Fatuity, fa-tewy-te (Latin, fatiuis, 
silly). Weakness of intellect ; imbecility 
of mind; want of reason or commoi'. 



Faubourg, fo-boorg (French). A 
suburb. 

Faucet, faw-sit (French, faiisset). A 
pipe to be inserted in a cask for drawing 
liquor, and stopped with a peg or spigot, 

Fauteuil, fo-teul (French), An arm- 
chair. 

Faux Jour, fo zhoor (French). False 
light. A term used in the fine arts to 
signify that a picture is placed so that the 
hght falls upon it from a different side 
from that which the painter has repre- 
sented it in the painting. 

Faux-pas, fo-pah (French). A false 
step; a tei-m applied to * a blunder in 
behaviour, or an error in moral conduct. 

Favour, fay-vur. A bow of ribbon, 
sometimes with pendent ribbons attached, 
given by ladies to favourite champions in 



134 



FAY 



FEM 



the tournaments of olden times ; and now 
exclusively worn at elections, public cere- 
monies, weddings, christenings, &c. 

[H'ay (French, fee). A fairy ; an eK. 

Fealty, fe-al-te (Latin, fides, faith). 
Dut}'' to a superior lord ; fidelity ; faith- 
fulness ; loyalty ; homage. 

!Feasible,feezy-bul (Latin,. /aao, to do). 
That may be done ; practicable ; that may 
be used or tilled, as land. 

JPeat, feet (French, fait, done). Lite- 
rally, done as it ought to be ; an exploit ; 
an extraordinary display of skill, strength, 
or daring. 

Febrifuge, febry-fuje (Latin, febris, 
fever ; fago, to drive away). A medicine 
to allay fever ; anything having the power 
of cvu-ing or diiving away fever. 

February, febru-ary (Latin, februo, to 
cleanse by fii-e or hot water). The second 
month of the year, so called because, at 
this season, the annual purification among 
the ancient Eomans took place. 

Fecit, fe-sit (Latin, fecit, he did it). A 
word inscribed by artists on their works, to 
indicate the designer. 

Feeula, fek-u-la (Latin, fceces, dregs). 
Any substance derived, by spontaneous 
subsidence, from a liquor. The term is 
now commonly applied to the pulverulent 
matter extracted from vegetables by grind- 
ing them in water and allo-\ving the fluid to 
settle ; the feeula subsides. Starch is an 
example. 

Feeundity, fe-kundit-te (Latin, fce- 
cundo, to make fruitful). Fruitfulness ; 
productiveness ; applied especially to the 
quahty, in female animals, of producing 
young in great numbers ; figm-atively, 
fulness of imagination ; richness of inven- 
tion. 

Federal, feddy-ral (Latin, fmdus, a 
league). Eelating to a league or inter- 
national contract. A federal government 
is one formed by the union of several 
sovereign states, each surrendering a 
jjortion of its power to the central 
authority, as the United States of America. 

Fee. Primarily, a loan of land, and 
synonymous with fief or feud. Fees are 
absolute or limited; an absolute fee, or 
fee-simple, is land which a man holds to 
himself and his heirs for ever, who are 
called tenants in fee-simple; hence, in 
modem times, the term denotes an estate 
of inheritance. A limited fee is a state 
limited or clogged with certain conditions : 



as a qualified, or last fee, which ceases with 
the existence of certain conditions ; and a 
conditional fee, which is limited to par 
ticular heirs. Fee farm is a kind of tenure 
without homage, fealty, or other service 
except that mentioned in the feoffment, 
which is commonly the full rent or a fourth 
part of it. 

Feed-pipe. In mechanics, a part of 
the apparatus of a steam-engine, for con- 
•^ying a reg-ular supply of water to the 
boiler. 

Feign, fain (French, feindre). To 
pourtray or image; to form an idea or 
conception of something not real ; to relate 
falsely ; to make a false show ; to pretend. 

Feint, faint (French, feinte). A false 
appearance ; a false show : pretence. In 
fencing, a pretended thi'ust at one part of 
the body, to throw an opponent off his 
guard, while the intention is to strike 
another part. 

Felicity, f e-lissy-te (Lat., felix, happy). 
A state of happiness ; prosperity unmixed 
with misfortune ; enjoyment of good. 

Feline, fee-lin (Latin, felis, a cat). 
Pertaining to cats, or to their species ; re- 
sembling a cat. 

Fell (Saxon, felle, cruel). Fierce ; 
cruel ; savage ; inhuman ; also, the hairy 
hides of beasts. 

Felo-de-se, fello-de-se (Latin, a felon 
of himself). In law, one who commits 
felony by suicide, or, being of the years of 
discretion and in his right senses, wilfully 
destroys his own hfe. 

Felony, fel-ony. In law, any crime 
which incurs the forfeitm'e of lands and 
goods, except treason, which is a special 
crime. As all crimes punishable by death 
are felonious, the precise import of the 
word is, in a measm'e, lost. 

Felucca, fe-lukka (Italian, feluca). A 
light, open vessel, propelled by oars, 
common in the Mediterranean. It has 
this peculiarity, that its helm may be used 
either at the head or the stern. 

Feme, Femme, fam (French, femme). 
A woman. A feme-covert is a married 
woman, who is under covert of her 
husband, and therefore cannot sue or be 
sued for debt. A feme-sole, an unmarried 
woman. A feme-sole merchant, a woman 
who carries on trade alone, without her 
husband. 

Femoral, femo-ral (Latin, femvA\ a 
thigh). Belonging to the thigh. 



FEN 

Fen (Saxon, ferm, decayed, withered). 
Low-lying, marshy land ; a bog ; morass ; 
stagnated or corrupted water. 

Fence, fense. That which keeps safe, 
guards, and protects ; also, to parry direct 
questions by giving indirect answers. 

Fenestral, fe-nestral (Latin, fenestra, a 
window). Pertaining to a window. 

Feoffment, fef-ment (Latin, feoffare, 
to give one a fief). The grant of a fee or 
estate ; a grant in fee-simple. 

Ferocity, fe-rossy-te (Latin, ferox, 
fierce). Fierceness ; savageness ; wild 
rage ; cruelty. 

Ferruginous, fer-rujia-®' (Latin, 
ferrum, iron). Partaking of Lon; con- 
taining particles of iron ; of tlie colour of 
the rust or oxide of iron. 

Fertile, fer-til ( Latin, /erii'Zw, fruitful). 
Productive ; capable of producing abun- 
dantly; plenteous; prolific; inventive. 

Fervour, fer-vtu' (Latin, ferveo, to be 
hot). Heat or warmth ; ardoxir ; animated 
by zeal and earnestness. 

Festal, fes-tal (Latin, festus, festive). 
Pertaining to festivity ; joyous ; gay ; 
mirthful. 

Festoon, fes-toon (French, feston). 
Literally, a garland worn at festivals ; 
hence, an ornament in the form of a wreath. 
In architecture and sculpture, an ornament 
in the form of a g-arland of flowers, fruits, 
and leaves intermixed and entwined. 

Fetch. (Saxon, feccan, to bring to). A 
stratagem; artifice; trick. Sometimes ap- 
plied to supernatural or imaginary appear- 
ances. 

Fete, fate (French, file, from Latin, 
festum, a feast). A festival; a holiday; 
the celebration of an anniversary. 

Feticism, fetty-sizm. The worship of 
idols among the negroes of Africa. Fetich 
is their name for an idol, or more generally 
fetich is the name which they give to any 
"object of worship. Every family has a 
fetidi to watch, reward, and punish the 
"members of the household as they deserve. 

Feud, f ude (Latin,, fides, trust). A right 
to land on condition of military service; 
anything granted by one and -held by an- 
other upon oath or pledge of fealty. 

Feud, fude (Saxon, fcehtli). Hatred; 
enmity ; a deadly quarrel. 

Feudal, fu-dal. Pertaining to feuds, 
fiefs, or fees ; consisting of feuds or fiefs ; 
embracing tenures by military service. 



FIE 



135 



Feudal system, in politics, that system of 
government by wMch persons holding in 
feed, fief, or feud, were bound to serve tho 
owner of the fee-simple at home or abroad 
in aU wars and military expeditions when 
reqvured, to which the tenants in fief were 
bound by an oath of fealty. 

Feu-de-j oie, f eu-duzh- waw. A French 
word for a bonfire, a firing of guns, or 
some pyrotechnic display upon an occasion 
of rejoicing. 

Feuilleton, feu-il-tong (French). The 
bottom part of French newspapers, usually 
devoted to light literature, theatrical cri- 
ticism, literary reviews, &c. 

Fiat, fi-at (Latin, fiat, let it be done). 
In law, a short order or warrant signed by 
a judge, for making out and allowing cer- 
tain processes. In a general sense, an 
order, decree, or command. 

Fibre, fi-bur (French, fihre). A slender 
thread ; a filament of animal, mineral, or 
vegetable substances ; the capillary root of 
a plant. 

Fibrine, fi-brin (Latin, filro., a fibre). 
A principle found in vegetables as a con- 
stituent of gluten ; and in the living blood 
of animals, constituting muscular fibre. 

Fictile, fik-til (Latin, fingo, to feign or 
form). Moulded into form ; manufactured 
by the potter. 

Fief, feef. The French name for an 
estate in lands held from a superior. 

Field Day. In military affairs, a term 
used when a regiment is taken out to the 
field for the purpose of going through exer- 
cises and evolutions ; it is applied conven- 
tionally to any day upon which important 
business is about to be transacted. 

Field Officer. A military officer, 
above the rank of a captain, as a major or 
colonel. 

Field of Vision. A technical ex- 
pression for the space or range seen through 
a telescope. It is measured by dividing 
the angle under which it is seen by the 
angle of vision to the naked eye embracing 
the same field within its view. 

Field Pieces. Small cannons, gene- 
rally from three to twelve pounders, car- 
ried along with an army. 

Field Works. In fortification, works 
thrown up by an army whUe engaged in 
besieging a town, or by the besieged in 
defence of a place, or sometimes by an 
army to strengthen a position. 



136 



FIE 



Fieri Facias, fi-o-re fay-shus (Latin, 
feri facias, you may cause it to be done). 
In law, a writ which lies for him who has 
recovered in debt or damans, commanding 
the sheriff to levy upon the goods of him 
from whom the recovery was had. 

Fifth. An interval in music, occurring 
in the natural scale, in the fifth place from 
the fundamental. The false fifth is less than 
the fifth by a lesser semitone. 

Figment, fig-ment (Latin, fingo, to 
feign). An invention ; a fiction ; something 
feigned or imagined. 

Figurante, fig-u-rant (French). One 
who dances on the stage in groups or 
figures ; an accessory actor who has nothing 
to say ; hence one who figures in a scene, 
but takes no prominent part. Masculine, 
figurant. 

Figuratively, figgu-rativ-le (Latin, 
firigo, to form). By a figure ; in a manner 
to exhibit ideas by resemblance ; in a sense 
different from that which words originally 
imply ; opposed to literally. 

Figure Head. The figure, efiigy, or 
bust on the projecting part of a ship's head. 

Filament, fiUa-ment (Latin, filum, a 
thread). A long thread or fibre, a slender, 
thread-like process. In botany, the long 
ttpead-like part which supports the anther. 

Filial, fil-yal {liSiim, filius, a son). Per- 
taining to a son or daughter ; becoming of 
a child in relation to his parents ; having 
the character of a son. 

Filigree, filly- gi'ee (Latin, filum, a 
thread ; granum, a grain). Ornamental 
work in gold, silver, or any other metal, 
ifa the manner of threads or grains. 

Fille de Chambre, fee-yul-deh- 
shambr (French). A chambermaid. 

Fillip, fil-lip (derivation uncertain). To 
strike with the nail of the finger ; a jerk of 
the finger from the thumb ; applied meta- 
phorically to a quick, sudden, helping ac- 
tion or motion. 

Finale, f e-nah-lay (Italian). In music, 
the conclusion ; the final piece in an opera ; 
the last movements of a symphony con- 
certo. In a general sense, the winding up 
or completion of a thing. 

Finance, fin-nans (French). Kevenue ; 
income ; wealth ; substance ; the revenue 
of a state or sovereign ; public resources of 
money. 

Fine Arts. A term applied to those 
arts which depend chiefly on mental labour 
and the imagination, combined with manual 



I'LA 

dexterity : called also, polite arts. They 
include poetry, music, painting, and sculp 
ture. 

Finesse, fe-ness (French). Literally, 
fineiiess or refinement ; nicety, polish, policy 
to an excess; and thus cunning; subtlety 
of coimtenance ; sly, artful, stratagem. 

Finis, fi-nis (Latin). The end ; as finis 
coronat opus, the end crowns the work. 

Finite, fi-nite (Latin, finis, the end). 
Limited ; bounded ; having an end. 

Finny Tribe. A term applied col- 
lectively to fish, as being furnished with 
fins. 

Fire-ship. A vessel filled with com- 
bustibles, and fitted with grapiDling-irons, 
which, with the advantage of a favourable 
wind, hook on to the enemy's vessels, and 
set fire to them. 

Firman, fur-man (Persian, a command). 
A decree issued by the Sultan of Turkey, 
signed with his own cipher or signet, as 
when a pacha or other officer of state is 
appointed. Firman is also the name given 
to a passport which the pachas are in the 
habit of granting to travellers. 

First Fruits. In Church government 
the profits of every spiritual living for one 
year given anciently to the Pope, and after- 
wards to the Sovereign. 

Fiscal, fis-kal (Latin, fi^cus, a money- 
bag). Pertaining to the public treasury or 
revenue ; exchequer ; revenue ; treasury. 

Fissure, fish-ure (Latin, fissura). A 
cleft ; a narrow chasm. 

Fitz (Norman, fils. ) A surname given in 
England generally to the natural children 
of kings or princes of the blood ; as Fitz- 
roy, the son of the king; Fitz- clarence, the 
son of the Duke of Clarence. 

Fixed Stars. Stars which do not ap- 
pear to change their relative situations, as 
distinguished from planets and comets. 

Flaccid, flak- sid (LsAm,fiaccidm). Soft; 
loose; lax; drooping; hanging down by it« 
own weight. 

Flag-officers. Those who command 
the several squadrons of a fleet ; as ad- 
mirals, vice-admirals, rear-admirals. 

Flagellation, flajjel-layshuu (Latin, 
fiagello, to flog). A whipping, beating, or 
scourging. 

^ Flagitious, fla-jish-us (Latin, fiagx- 
tium, a great crime). Atrociously wicked : 
shamefully wrong. 



FLA 



l^^OC 



137 



Flagrant, flay-grant (Latin, jiagroy 
to b»m). Literally, burning ; hence, glar- 
ing, shameless, notorious. •> 

!ET.ag-sllip. A ship commanded by a 
flag-officer, who has a right to carry a flag, 
in distinction from the secondary vessels 
under his command, 

Plake White. In painting, lead cor- 
roded by the pressing of grapes, or cereus© 
prepared by the acid of grapes. It is of 
Italian manufacture, and is characterised 
by the purity of its white. 
_ Flambeau, flam-bo (French). A 
lighted torch, such as used at illuminations, 
processions, &c. 

Flamen, (lay-men. In Eoman anti- 
quity, the name given to the priest devoted 
to the service of any particular deity ; sar- 
castically it is applied to one tvho imffs — a 

Flange, flanj. A raised or projecting 
edge or rib on the rim of a wheel : used in 
machinery, to keep the band from slipping 
oflt ; also fixed on the wheels of railway- 
carriages, to prevent them running off the 
rails. 

Flank. The extreme right and left of 
an army or encampment. To outjianh is 
where a body of troops, by increasing its 
front, outstretches the opposing forces. 
Flank, in fortification, is in general any part 
of a work defending another, by a fire 
along the outside of its parapet. 

Flat. In music, a character which 
lowers a note one semitone. 

Flatting. In gilding, the giving the 
work a light touch in places not furnished 
with size, in which there is sometimes a 
very little -^ovmilion. In house-painting, 
til*" "iithiv ui finishing without leaving a 
^"iuss on the surface, by using a greater 
proportion of turpentine and unboiled oil. 

Flatulence, flattu-lense (Latin, Jlatus, 
wind). Wind generated in a weak sto- 
mach and intestines by imperfect digestion. 

Flatus, flay-tus (Latin). Wind ; a puff 
of air ; a breath. 

Fleur de lis, flur-de-lee (French, flower 
of the lily). A bearing in heraldry in the 
arms of France, representing the lily ; an 
emblem of royalty. 

Flexibility, fleksy-billit-e (Latin,/ecto, 
to bend). The qviality of being easily bent ; 
easiness to be persuaded ; pliancy. 

Flexor, fleks-m\ In anatomy, a name 
applied to certain muscles which serve to 
bend the parts to which they are attached 



in opposition to the extensors, which serve 
to stretch them. 

Flippancy, flippan-se (Welsh, llipanu, 
to make smooth). Readiness of tongue ; 
nimbleness of speech ; talkativeness ; pert- 
ness. 

Floral, flo-ral. Of or belonging to a 
flowtr; from Flora, the heathen goddess 
of flowers. 

Florid, flor-id (Latin, floods, a flower). 
Bright in colour ; flushed with red ; showy ; 
highly ornamented. 

Flotilla, flo-tillah (Spanish, a little 
fleet). A term applied to a fleet of small 
vessels. 

Flotsam, flot-sam. In law, a term for 
goods which are lost by shipwreck, but 
which are found floating in the sea. See 
Jetsam and Lagan. 

Fluctuate, fluktu-ate (Latin, Jluctus, a 
Vv^ave), Literally, to flow or float to and 
fro ; hence, to be wavering, inconstant, un- 
steady, unsettled, uncertain. 

Fluency, fluen-se (Latin, /mo, to flow). 
A ready and constant flow of language; 
copiousness of speech. 

Fluidity, flu-iddy-te (Latin, jiuo, to 
flow). The quality of being capable of 
flowing. 

Fluke, fluke. The broad part of an 
anchor which takes hold of the ground ; 
also, the tail of a whale. In the game of 
billiards, a successful stroke made without 
design ; hence, in the latter sense, a piece 
of good fortune resulting from an accidental 
circumstance is termed a fluke. 

Flush (German, fliessen, to flov/). To 
flow; to come or rush on as a flood; to 
have or give a quick or sudden motion ; tu 
flow as the blood to the surface of the body, 
and thus to cause a flush to the cheeks. 

Fluted, flu-ted. Formed in channels, as 
in a pillar, or column. 

Fly-wheel. A large heavy wheel ap- 
plied to steam-engines and other machines, 
for the purpose of equalising the effect of 
the moving power. 

Fo, fu. The name under which Euddha 
is worshipped in China. 

Foal, f ole (Saxon, folo'). The unweaned 
young of the horse or ass. 

Focus, fo-kus (Latin, focus, fire). A 
term applied in optics to the point whither 
all the rays of light and heat concentrate or 
converge, or whence they diverge; a point 
of concentration. 



138 



EOl) 



roR 



Fodder, fod-dur (Saxon, fodre, food). 
Dry food, stored up for cattle, horses, and 
sheep ; as hay, straw, &c. 

Poetor, fe-tiir (Latin). An effluvia 
arising from the body of animals. 

Fog-Bank. An appearance in hazy 
weather, which frequently resembles land 
at a distance, but which vanishes as it is 
approached. 

Foible, foy-bul (French). A moral in- 
firmity, or weakness ; a failing ; a favdt. 

Foil, foyl (Norman, afolee). To baffle; 
to disable; to render ineffectual; to defeat, 
or cause to fail. 

If 'oil, foyl (Latin, folium, a leaf). Gild- 
ing : a coat of metal on a looking-glass ; 
n^ince metaphorically, that which by com- 
owrison or contrast sets off the superiority 
oi something else. 

Foist, foyst (French, faiisser). To in- 
sert wrongfully, or without warrant ; to 
introduce clandestinely ; to intrude or put 
upon. 

Folio, f oly-o (Latin, folium, a leaf). A 
book of the lai'gest size, formed by once 
doubling the sheet of paper. 

Foment, fo-ment (Latin, foveo, to 
warm). Literally, to cherish with heat; 
thus to apply warm applications to the 
body, and tig-uratively, to promote by ex- 
citement ; to supply heat for a quarrel. 

Font (Latin, fo7is). A fountain or 
spring : especially a stone or marble vessel 
in which the water used in baptism is con- 
tained in the church. 

Forage, for-aje (French, fourrage). 
Food for horses or cattle ; the act of search- 
ing for provisions for horses or cattle ; to 
make an incui-sion. 

Foray, fo- ray. An irregular and sudden 
incm'sion in border warfare ; a sudden act 
of pillage, either in peace or in war. 

Forceps, fawr-seps (Latin). A surgical 
instrument constructed on the principle of 
pliers or pincers. 

Forcing, fawr-sing. In horticultiire, 
a method of obtaining fruits, flowers, vege- 
tables, &c. , before their season, by the appli- 
cation of heat. 

Fore. A nautical term for near the 
stem, as '-fore and aft;" that is, from 
stem to stern. 

Forebode, fore-bode (Saxon, fore^ ho- 
dian). To foretell; to prognosticate, ap- 
plied chiefly to the prognostication of evil 
or misfortune. 



Foreclose, fore-kloze. To shut up ; to 
preclude. In law, to exclude or bar the 
equity of redemption on mortgages, and 
thereby cut off the power of the mortgagor 
to redeem the mortgaged property. 

Forefend, fore-fend. To hinder; to 
avert ; to prevent approach ; to guard ; to 
secure. 

Forego, fore-go. To relinquish claim 
to ; to refrain from possessing ; to commit 
an act of self-denial ; voluntarily to avoid 
the enjoyment of good. 

Foreign Service. In nailitary affairs, 
a term used to denote garrison service in 
any part of the world out of the United 
Kingdom. 

Foremast. The mast of a ship or 
other vessel which is placed in the fore- 
castle, and carries the foresail and foretop- 
sail yards. 

Forensic, fo-rensik (Latin, forum, a 
court of judicature). Relating to or be- 
longing to a court of law. 

Foreshortening, fore-shawrt-ning. A 
term applied in drawing or painting, when 
the limbs of a figure or the entire body 
are shown, so as to be shortened by being 
viewed directly in front, or nearly so, and 
the spectator seeing little more than its 
fore-end, or that which is next to him. 

Forestall, fore-stawl (Saxon, fore- 
stollan, to intercept in its way to its staU, 
or station). To pre-occupy ; to anticipate ; 
to be beforehand ; to buy goods before 
they reach the market. 

Foretop. In a ship, the platform 
erected at the head of the foremast. 

Forlorn-hope. In military affairs, 
a detachment of men appointed to lead in 
an assault, to storm a counterscai-p, enter 
a breach, or perform any other service 
attended with great and imminent peril : 
iiu_a general sense, anything devised or 
undertaken when everything else has 
failed. 

Forma Pauperis, fawr- ma paw-pur-is 
(Latin, in the quality or after the manner 
of a poor person). In law, when a person 
has just cause of a suit, and swea;:s that he 
is not worth five pounds sterhng, he is 
allowed to plead forma paupet-is, that is, 
hsixiag counsel and attorneys assig-ned to 
him without having to pay any fee. 

Formula, for-mu-la (Latin, forma, a 
foi-m). A prescribed form or order. lu 
law, a rule or model established by autho- 
rity for the form and manner of a act. 



FOB 

instrument, proceeding', &c. In ecclesi- 
astical matters, a written profession of 
faith. In medicine, the constitution of 
medicine either simple or compound, both 
with respect to their prescription and con- 
sistence. 

Forte, for-te. In music, an Italian 
term, being a direction to sing with strength 
of voice. 

Forte, f awrt ( French ) . A term applied 
to that kind of performance in which a 
person's ability is most conspicuous, or in 
which his powers come out the strongest. 

Forte Piano, for-te pe-ahno. In music, 
an Italian compound, signifying the art of 
enforcing or enfeebling the sounds in imi- 
tative melody, as is done in speech. 

Fortification,fawi'ty-fe-kayshun(Lat., 
fortis, strong ; jacio, to make). That spe- 
cies of architecture, called military, used 
for defence against the attack of an enemy, 
showing how to streng-then a place with 
yampai-ts, parapets, moats, and other bul- 
warks. 

Fortissimo, fawr-tissy-mo. In music, 
a dii-ection denoting that the part is to be 
played very loud, also marked by F F. 

Fortiter in re, forty-tur in re (Latin). 
Finnness in doing anything ; vigorous dis- 
charge of duties. Contrasted with suaviter 
i'li Tiiodo, that is, pleasantness or mildness 
of manner. 

Fortuitous, fawr-tewy-tus (Latin,/ors, 
accident). Happening by chance ; coming 
unexpectedly, or without a known cause. 

Forum, fo-inmi. In Koman antiquity, 
any pubhc place used as a market, coui't of 
law, or place where causes were judicially 
tried, and where orations were delivered to 
the people. 

Fossil, fos-sil (LaA.in^fossilis, irornxfodio, 
to dig). Dug out of the eai-th. The tenoi 
is now commonly used substantively to ex- 
jjress the remains of animal or vegetable 
substances found buried in the strata of the 
earth's cnist. 

Foster, fos-tur (Saxon, fostrian). To 
iurse ; to feed ; to cherish ; to sustain. 
Foster-hr other, a male nui'sed at the same 
breast or fed by the same nurse. Foster- 
child, a child nursed by a woman not the 
mothei', or brought up by a man not the 
father. 

Founding. The mechanical art which 
comprises all the operations of reducing 
ores, and of smelting and casting 
• metals. 



FEA 



139 



Fracas, frak-ah (French). A noisy 
quarrel ; a disturbance ; a breach of tho 
peace. 

Fraction, frak-shun (Latin, frango, to 
break). A part of a whole ; a broken part ; 
the act of violating any obligation or treaty. 
In arithmetic and algebra, a combination 
of numbers representing one or more parts 
of a unit or integer •, thus three-fourths is 
a fraction, formed by dividing a unit into 
four equal parts, and taking one part three 
times. Fractions are divided into vulgar 
and decimal. Vulgar fractions are expressed 
by two numbers with a line between them. 
Decimal fractions include every fraction, 
the denominator of which is ten, or a T)ower 
of it. 

Fracture, frak-ture (Latin, frango, -.tj 
break). A breach ; a ruptux*e ; a discon- 
tinuity. A breaking in any body, especisj r/ 
when caused by AT.olence. In surgery, tne- 
breaking of any bone by an external act of 
violence. It is simple, when the bone only 
is divided ; com2:>ound, when the bone is 
broken, with a laceration • of the integu- 
ments. 

Fragile, fraj-ii (Latin, frango, to, 
break). Easily broken ; brittle ; weaki 
readily destroyed. 

Franc, frank. A French coin worth 
twenty sous, or about tenpence sterling. 

Franchise, fran-chiz (French, franc, 
free). A particular privilege or right 
granted by a sovereign to an individual or 
body of individuals. A franchise is any 
especial political privilege, giving a power 
to do something, and may be vested either 
in bodies pohtic in borough towns, or in 
individuals. 

Franciscans, fran-siskans. The mem- 
bers of the monastic order of St. Francis , 
established in the year 1208. 

Frank (French, franc, free). Candid ; 
ingenuous ; undisguised ; disposed to de- 
clare one's views freely; without conditions 
or compensation. 

Frank, a name given by the Turks, 
Arabs, and Greeks, to any of the inha- 
bitants of the western part of Europe. 

Frankincense, frankin-sense (frank 
and incense, from its giving out a diffusive, 
agreeable odour when bm-ned or heated). 
An odoriferous gum, supposed to be the 
olibanum of commerce. 

Fraternal, frah-temal (Latin, frater, 
brother). Brotherly ; pertaining to, or 
becoming brothers. 



140 



PRA 



FEU 



Fratricide, fratry-side (Latin, fraterj 
brother; ccedo, to kiU). The murder of 
a brother ; one who kills his brother. 

Fraught, fi-awt (Dutch, ^•3•a_(7<, freight). 
Laden ; burdened ; charged ; completely 
filled with. 

Freebooters, free-boot-urz (German, 
fi-eiheuters). A set of adventurers of all 
nations, who displayed gi-eat courage in 
executing the most hazardous plundering 
enterprises. In a general sense, the term 
is applied to any one who regards the 
universe as his property, and appropriates, 
either by stealth or force, the possessions 
of others. 

Freehold, free-hold. Land or tene- 
ments held in fee-simple, fee-tail, or for 
life. Freehold in deed is real possession. 
Freehold in law is the right of a person to 
lands, &c., but does not imply possession. 
The term freehold is sometimes taken in 
opposition to viUenage. 

Freestone. A durable and hard kind 
of grit-stone, but somewhat finer and 
smoother. It is called free, because it cuts 
freely in any direction : Portland stone is 
of this kind. 

Freethinker, free-think-er. A name 
given genei'ally by way of reproach to a 
person who rejects the authority of Divine 
revelation. It is used in the same sense 
as Deist. 

Freezing-point. The point in the 
thermometer, 32'* above zero (Fahrenheit), 
where it begins to freeze. 

Freight, frate (Dutch, vragt). The 
cargo or lading of a ship ; the amount 
charged for the transportation of goods. 

Fresco, fres-ko (Italian). Coolness; 
freshness of aii'. In painting, a picture not 
drawn in glaring light, but in dusk. A 
fresco painting is a picture in water-colours 
on a wall of fresh or recent moi'tar. 

Freshman, fresh-man. A novice; one 
of the youngest class in a college. 

Fretwork, fret-wurk. Eaised work ; 
work adorned with frets or architectural 
ornaments. It is sometimes used to fill up 
and enrich flat, empty spaces ; but is mostly 
practised on roofs, which are fretted over 
with plaster- work. 

Friable, friah-bul (Latin, frialili^, that 
may bo crumbled). Easily crumbled or 
pulverised ; readily reduced to powder. 

Friar, fi-i-ar (French, /rere, a brother). 
A term common to monks of all ordei*s ; 
^evQ being a kind of fraternity or brother- 



hood between the several religious persona 
of the same monastery. Friars are gene- 
rally distinguished into four principal 
j branches :— 1. Minors, grey friarsj or Fran- 
ciscans ; 2. Augustines ; 3. Dominicans, or 
black friars ; 4. White friars, or Carmelites. 

Fricasee, frikah-see (Fi-ench). A dish 
prepared by cutting chickens, rabbits, or 
other small animals into pieces, and dress- 
ing them in strong sauce. 

Frieze, freez (FreTich., /riser, to curl or 
crisp). In architecture, that part of the 
entablature between the architrave and cor- 
nice ; usually enriched with figures and or- 
naments ; also, a coarse kind of woollen 
stufif. 

Frigate, frig-gate (French, frecjaie). A 
ship of war, larger than a sloop or brig, 
and smaller than a ship of the line, usuallj'^ 
having two decks, and fm'nished with from 
30 to 44 guns. Frigate-built is when the 
quarter-deck and forecastle are raised above 
the main deck. 

Frigid, frij-id (Leitin, frigeo, to be cold). 
Chill or cold ; wanting warmth, zeal, or 
aflrection ; without vivacity or liveliness ; 
dull; heavy; torpid. 

Friseur, free-zur (French, /riser, to 
curl). A hair- dresser. 

Frith (Latin, /return'). In geography, a 
narrow inlet of the sea at the mouth of a 
river, as the Frith of Forth, Galway Frith, 
&c. It is generally written and jDronounced 
/rth in Scotland and the North of England. 

Frontier, front-yer. The border, con- 
fine, or extreme part of a kingdom or pro- 
vince, bordering on another country. 

Frontispiece, fiimtis-peece. In archi- 
tecture, an old tei'm for the front of a 
building. In engraving, it means that page 
which faces the title of a book, whatever 
the subject may be, although formerly it 
meant the engraved title-page itself. 

Froward, fro-waurd (Saxon, /ram- 
weard). Averse or perverse ; peevish ; re- 
fx'actory ; ungovernable. 

Firactification, f rukty - f e - kayshun 
(ltsAiLn,/ructus, fruit ; /ero, to bear). The 
bearing of fruit ; bringing forth ; pro- 
ducing ; the making or rendering profit- 
able and useful. j 

Frugivorous, froo-jiwo-rus (Latin,! 
/ruges, corn ; voro, to eat). Feeding on 1 
corn, fruits, or seeds, as birds. 

Fruition, froo-isshun. (Latin, /•u.or, 
to use or enjoy). Enjoyment; possession ; 
pleasiu-e derived from use or possession. 



FRU 



GAL 



141 



IVutescent, froo-tes-sent(Latin,yrtt<t- 
cescOy to grow shrubby). Shrubby ; grow- 
ing like a shrub. 

Fucated, fu-kayted (Latin, fiicatus, 
painted). Coloured; varnished; disguised 
with paint. 

Fugacious, fu-gayshus (Latin, fugio, 
to flee). Flying or fleeicig away; volatile. 

Fugleman, fugel-man (German, .^wgrei!- 
-niann). In military tactics, a well-drilled 
soldier, appointed to stand in front of the 
line, and give the time in the manual and 
platoon exercises ; called also fiugelman. 

Fugue, fewg (Latin, fiiga, flight). A 
composition in music, in which the parts 
foHow each other, repeating the subject at 
intervals above and below. 

Fulcrum, ful-krum (Latin). Tic prop 
or support on which a lever is sustained, 
and about which it moves. In raising a 
stone, the body on which the lever rests is 
the fulcrum. 

Fulling, ful-ling. The art or practice 
of thickening cloth, and making it compact 
and firm in a mill. 

Fulminate, fulmin-ate (JLQMn,fidmen, 
a thunderbolt). To thunder; to throw 
forth light or lightning ; to menace or de- 
nounce loudly; to issue denunciation or 
Papal censm'e. 

Fulsome, ful-sum {^a,xon,fulle). Liter- 
sXiyJ^oulsome; nauseous; offensive in smell; 
rank; gross. 

Fumigation, fewmy-gayshun (Latin, 
fumus, smoke). The diffusion of certain 
vapours through the aii', for the purpose of 
destroying contagion and infection ; vapour 
raised by smoke. 

Funambulist, fu-nam-bu-list (Latm, 
fimis, a rope ; ambulo, to walk). A rope 
dancer ; a performer on a rope. 

Function, funk-shun (Latin, fungor, 
to discharge). In a general sense, per- 
formance of an object, of an office, or duty; 
an office, faculty, or power ; employment ; 
charge. 

Functionary, funkshun-ary (Latin, 
fungoT, to discharge). One who holds an 
office of trust. 

Fundamental, funda-mental (Latin, 
fuTidus, ground). Pertaining to the foun- 
dation'; that upon which anything may 
stand or rest, be set, raised, or established ; 
a source whence anything may rise or 
spring. 

Funds (i^im, fundus, ground). Stock; 
capital; irvestment. The piMic funds con- 



sist of money lent to Government on the 
national securities, at a certain rate of in- 
terest. Sinking fund, money appropriated 
by the Government towai-ds the liquidation 
of the National Debt. 

Fungus, fun-gus (Latin, fungus, a 
mushroom). A mushroom, toadstool, or 
similar excrescence. In surgery, a spongy 
inflammation or cancer, of a softer texture 
than that which is natural to the part 
where it grows. Plural, fungi. 

Furlough, f ur-lo (Dutch, verlof, leave). 
Leave of absence from military service. 

Furtive, fur-tiv (Latin, fur, a thief). 
Obtained by theft ; stolen ; especially ap- 
plied to a movement of the eye, commonly 
termed a stolen glance. 

Fusee, fu-zeo (Latin, fums, a spindle). 
In clock-work, the conical part, around 
which is wound the chain or cord of a 
watch or clock, thus constructed to equalise 
the power of the main-spring. In gunnery, 
the tube fixed into a bomb or grenade shell. 
It is usually a wooden pipe, filled' with com- 
bustible matter, to fire the contents of the 
sheU. 

Fusiform, fewzy-form (Latin, fmus, 
a spindle ; forma, a shape). Spindle-shaped, 
like the root of a carrot. 

Fusileer, fewzy-leer. A soldier be- 
longing to the light infantry : fusileers 
were formerly armed with a small kind of 
musket called a. fusil ; but they are now 
armed the same as other infantry soldiers. 

Fusion, fu-zhun (Latin, fusum, from 
fundo, to pour out). The process of con- 
verting a solid into a liquid by heat ; figu- 
ratively, union, as of parties, companies,. 
&c. 

Fustian, fust-yan (French, futaine). 
A description of cotton stuff, ribbed on one 
side : applied metaphorically to a style of 
speaking or writing affectedly fine or in- 
flated. See. Bombast. 

Futile, f u-til (Latin, futilis). Trifling ; 
worthless ; answering no valuable purpose ; 
iheffectual. 

G. 

Gable, gay-btd (German, giehel). In 
architecture, the triangular or sloping end 
of a house, &c., usually called the gable- 
end. 

Gaelic, ) gay-lik (from Gael, Gaul, GaU 

Galic, ) lid). An epithet used to denote 
whatever pertains to the Gaels ; Celtic 
tribes in the North of Scotland ; the laui' 
giuge of the Highlanders of Scotland. 



142 



GAP 



GAZ 



Gaffer, gaf-fur (Saxon, gefere, a com- 
pcanion) , Formerly an appellation of respect, 
but now used as a term of banter and fami- 
liarity for father, old father, old fellow. 

Gala, gay-lah (Spanish), Festivity; 
show. Gala day, a day of show and fes- 
tivity, on which persons appear in their 
best apparel. 

Galaxy, gal-aksy (Latin, gala, milk). 
In astronomy, the milky way; hence ap- 
plied to an assemblage of handsome and 
witty persons, as a cluster of stars. 

Gallic, gal-lik. Pertaining to France, 
formerly called Gaul. 

Galliinaii£?y, gally-mawfry (French, 
galimafree). A hodge-podge; a hash; a 
medley ; any inconsistent or ridiculous 
mixture. 

Galloway, gallo-way. A horse of a 
•small species, first bred in Galloway, Scot- 
land. 

Galvanism, galvan-izzum. A branch 
of physical science, by which electricity is 
produced by connecting dissimilar metals, 
and an intervening oxidating fluid. So 
called from Galvani, the discoverer. 

Gammer, gam-mur. A term applied 
to an old woman, answering to gaffer, as 
characteristic of an old man. 

Gam."U.t, gam-ut (Greek, gamr/ia). A 
scale on which musical notes are written 
or printed, consisting of lines and spaces, 
which are named after the first seven letters 
of the alphabet. 

Garbled, gar-buld (Italian, garhellare). 
Anything picked or sifted out to serve a 
particular purpose, and thus destroy and 
mutilate the fair character of the whole ; 
especially applied to statements, repre- 
sentations, &c. 

Garcon, gar-song (French). Waiter; 
attendant; 

Garish, gay-rish (Saxon, gearwiari). 
Gaudy ; showy ; ostentatious ; fine, or gay. 

Garnisliee, gar-nish-ee (Saxon, ge- 
warian, to take heed). In law, a third 
party in whose hands money is attached 
within the liberties of the City of London, 
by process out of the Sheriffs' Court. So 
called because he has received ^anwsAme?if, 
or warning, not to pay the money to the 
defendant, but to appear and answer to the 
suit. 

Garrison, garry-sun (French, garnison, 
provision). The force provided for the de- 
fence of a place prepared or fortified against 
attack ; the place itself. 



Garrote, gar-rot. A mode of inflicting 
capital punishment in Spain, by means of a 
collar which is tightly screwed round the 
neck of the criminal, while seated with his 
back to an upright board to which the ap- 
paratus is affixed ; also a mode of assaulting 
a person by attacking him from behind, and 
pressing the hands around his throat until 
suffocation or unconsciousness is produced. 

Garrulity, gar-ruly-te (Latin, garrulus, 
chattering). Talkativeness ; loquacity ; a 
propensity to prattling or babbling. 

Garter. The higbest order of knight- 
hood in Great Britain. It was instituted 
by Edward the Third. The knights are 32 
in number, and rank in personal digTiity 
after the peerage. 

Gasconade, gas-ko-nade. An idle 
boast; bragging; bravado. So called from 
Gascon, an inhabitant of Gascony, to whom 
the vice of idle boasting was attributed. 

Gastric, gas-trik (Greek, gaster, the 
stomach). Pertaining to the stomach or ' 
abdomen. Gastric juice is the liquor 
which digests the food in the stomach 
of animals. 

Gastronomy, gas-tronno-me (Greek, 
gaster, the stomach ; nomos, a rule). The 
science of good eating ; the art of selecting 
delicate and well-prepared food. 

Gaucherie, go-sher-e (French). Awk- 
wardness ; clumsiness ; untowardness. 

Gauntlet, gahnt-let (French, gantelet). 
A glove or cove, mg for the protection of 
the hand : it was customary to throw down 
one of these by t /ay of challenge ; hence the 
term of " throwing; down the gauntlet." 

Gavel-kind, gav-el-kind (Saxon, ^ri/hn, 
given ; eall, to all ; cyn, the next of kin). 
A tenure in England by which land descends 
from a father to all his sons in equal por- 
tions; and the land of a brother dying 
without issue is inherited equally by all his 
brothers. This custom particularly prevails 
in the county of Kent. 

Gazelle, ga-zell. An animal partaking 
of the nature of deer and goat, remarkable 
for the prominence and soft expression of 
its eyes. 

Gazette. A newspaper. The Gazette is 
a record of impoi-tant passing events pub- 
lished by authority, as Government appoint- 
ments ; promotions in the army and navy ; 
bankruptcies ; dissolutions of partnership, 
&c. The name is derived from gazetta, a 
Venetian coin, which was the usual price of 
the first paper printed in Venice. 



GEL 

Gelatinous, je-laty-nus (Latin, gelti, 
frost). Resembling jelly; sticky; adhe- 
sive ; viscous. 

Gendarme, zhon-darm. A kind of 
armed policeman employed in France, and 
other places on the Continent. 

Genealogy, jeeny-allo-je (Greek, genos, 
a generation ; logos, a discourse). History 
of the descent of a person or family from 
an ancestor; enumeration of ancestors; 
pedigree. 

Generalissimo, jenerah-lissy-mo (Ita- 
lian). The commander-in-chief of an army 
or military force. The supreme commander. 

Generate, jenny-rate (Latin, genero, to 
beget). To beget ; to breed or bring forth ; 
to propagate ; to produce ; to form. 

Generic, je-nerik (Latin, genus, a kind). 
Pertaining to a genus or kind ; compre- 
bending a genus ; distinguishing one genus 
from another. 

Genial, jeeny-al (Latin, genialis). Caus- 
ing production ; supporting life ; producing 
cheerfulness; agreeable to nature; kind; 
lively. 

Genii, jeeny-i (Latin). An imaginary 
race of beings created from fire, between 
..man and angels, and having bodies which 
they can metamorphise at pleasure. 

Genital, jenny-tal (Latin, genitalis). 
Pertaining to generation. 

Genitive, jenny-tiv (Latin, genitivus). 
In grammar, an epithet for a case in the 
declension of nouns, expressing primarily 
the thing from which something also pro- 
ceeds. The genitive case is the second of 
the Latin and Greek nouns, and answers to 
the possessive of the English. 

Genius, jeeny-us (Latin). The natural 
bent or disposition of the mind ; the powers 
■ or faculties with which man is bom ; a per- 
son of great mental power. The good genius 
and the evil genius were, among the an- 
cients, supposed presiding spirits that exer- 
cised a controlUng influence in the affairs 
of individuals, and regulated their destiny. 

Gentoo, jen-too. A word employed by 
i Europeans in the East Indies to designate 
; the language and people of that country ; a 
j follower of the religion of the Brahmins. 

I Genuflection, jennu-flekshun (Latin, 
\genu, the knee ; fiectio, a bending). The 
j act of bending .the knee, or kneeling, par- 
\ ticularly in religious worship. Written also, 
\^enujiexion. 

Genus, je-nus (Greek, genos, a family), 
tin natural history, a sub-division of any class 



GIR 



143 



or order of natural beings, whether of the 
animal, vegetable, or mineral kingdoms, all 
agreeing in certain common characters ; a 
collection of species. In logic, a universal, 
which is predicated of many things as the 
material or common part of their essence. 

Geocentric, je-o-sentrik (Greek, ge, the 
earth ; Jcentron, a centre). In astronomy, 
applied to an orbit having the earth for its 
centre; having the same centre as the 
earth. 

Geognosy, je-ogno-se (Greek, ge, the 
earth; gnosis, knowledge). That part of 
natural history which treats of the struc- 
ture of the earth; a term nearly synony- 
mous with geology. 

Geology, 3e-ollo-je(Greek, ge, the earth ; 
logos, a discourse). The science of the 
structure of the earth ; its component parts, 
nature, mutations, &c. 

Geometry, je-ommy-tree (Greek, ge, 
the earth; ?H.eiro72,, ameasiire). The science 
which treats of the dimensions of lines, 
solids, and surfaces. 

Georgic, jawr-jik (Greek, ge, the earth ; 
ergon, work). A rural poem ; a poetical 
composition relating to the tillage or culti- 
vation of the earth. 

Germination, jermy-nayshun (Latin, 
germen, a shoot). In botany, the first act 
of sprouting or shooting into life ; the time 
in which seeds vegetate. 

Gerund, jer-und (Latin, gerundiunrt). 
In the Latin grammar, a kind of verbal 
noun, partaking of the nature of a par- 
ticiple. 

Gesticulation, j es - tikku - layshun 
(Lat, , gestus, a gesture). The general action 
or motion of the body ; the exhibition of 
certain postures or motions ; antic tricks. 

Gewga'W, gu-gaw (Saxon, ge-gaf, a 
plaything). A showy trifle; a bauble; a 
toy. 

Ghaut, gawt. Properly, a pass through 
a mountain ; but in the East Indies used to 
denote any extensive chain of hills. 

Ghoul, gowl. A demon supposed to 
feed on the dead. 

Gibbous, gib-bus (La.im,gibhus). Con- 
vex ; projecting ; prominent ; standing or 
rising out. 

Gigantic, ji-gantik. Of giant-like pro- 
portions ; immense size or stature ; enor- 
mous ; huge. 

Girondists, zhe-rondists. A repub- 
lican party in France, whose name was do- 



144 



GIS 



GRA 



rived from Gironde, the department whence 
most of the distinguished members came. 

Gist, jist (French, gesir). In lavr, the 
point of a question ; applied generally to 
that upon which an argument rests.. 

Given. In Tnatkematics, a term syno- 
nymous \nth hnov>ru. If a quantity be 
known, it is caJled a glvco, quantity. 

Glacier, glas-a-ur (Latin, glacio, to con- 
ceal). A name given to a field or immense 
mass of ice formed in deep but elevated 
valleys, or on the sides of the Alps or other 
mountains. 

Gladiator,gladdy-aytui*(Latin,5rZa.c?{M^, 
a sword). Literally, a sword-fighter ; ex- 
tended in its application to fighters or 
combatants with weapons of various 
sorts. 

Gland (Latin, glandis, an acorn). A 
small substance in the animal frame com- 
posed of various tissues, blood-vessels, 
nerves, &:c. ; and enveloped in a coat, bear- 
ing some resemblance to a kernel. 

Glebe, gleeb (Latin, glela, turf). The 
unbroken mass, the closely pressed surface 
uf the soil or ground ; generally, the soil or 
ground; especially land belonging to a 
parish church or benefice. 

Glib (Dutch, glippen). Smooth ; slip- 
pery; voluble; smooth-tong-ued. 

Gloamin, glo-min (Saxon, glomung). 
The evening twilight. 

Globular, glob-ular. Shaped like a 
globe ; spherical ; ha^'ing the f onn of a 
small ball or sphere. 

Globule, glob-ule. A little globe; a 
small particle of matter of spherical form ; 
the vehicle by which homoeopathic medi- 
cine is chiefly administered. 

Glossary, glossar-e (Latin, glossa, a 
dialect). An explanation ; an interpreta- 
tion ; a dictionary or vocabulary, explain- 
ing obscure or obsolete words. 

Gluten, glu-ten (Latin). A viscid elastic 
substance of a greyish colour, produced by 
the decomposition of flour, or other vege- 
table substances. 

Glycerine, glisser-een (Greek, glyheros, 
sweet). The sweet principle contained in 
the different oils, as formed in the process 
of saponification. 

Gnome, nome (Greek, gnomon, an in- 
terpreter). A name given to certain ima- 
ginary people, supposed to inhabit the 
inner narts of the earth . 



Goal, gole (French, gaule, a pole or 
stake). The point set to bound a race, and 
towards which the racers nin ; in a general 
sense, that point to which our course is 
directed, and at which it ends ; also, from 
whichit commences, and towhichit returns. 

Gondola, gon-do-lah (Italian). A flat, 
long, and narrow boat, chiefly used on the 
canals at Venice. Gondolier, a man who 
rows a gondola. 

Grood by. A familiar phrase in bidding 
farewell; a contraction of ''Grod be with 
you." 

Gordian knot, gawrdy-an not. Very 
intricate ; difficult of unravelling ; to cut 
the gordian knot is to remove a difficulty 
by bold or unusual measures. This ex- 
pression takes its rise from Gordius, King 
of Phrygia, who tied a knot of an intricate 
nature on the harness of his chariot ; and 
he who undid this knot was, according to 
prophecj^, to be lord of all Asia. Alexander 
the Great, -with a determination either to 
fulfil or elude the prophecy, cut the knot 
asunder with his sword ; and thus termi- 
nated the difficulty. 

Gorgon, gawi'-gun. A term poetically 
applied to anything very ladeous or fright- 
ful ; so called after the Gorgons, certain 
monsters in the heathen mythology. 

GrOth. One of an ancient and distin- 
guished tribe or nation which inhabited 
Scandinavia, now known as Sweden and 
Norway; applied to a rude, uncivilised 
person, or one wanting intelligence and 
manners. 

Gothic Architecture. A style of 
architectm'e in which pointed arches of 
greater height than breadth, and a pro- 
fusion of ornaments, in imitation of leaves 
and flovv'ers, are the principal character- 
istics. 

Gourmand, goor-mond (French). A 
glutton ; one who constitutes eating his 
chief pleasure and delight. 

Gourmet, goor-may (French). A wine- 
bibber ; a wine-taster ; a connoisseur of 
wine. 

Gout, goo (French). Taste ; relish. 

Gradation, gray-dayshun (Latin, gra- 
dics, a step). Regular progress from one 
degree to another ; progressing step by 
step ; a degree in any order or series. 

Gradient, gi-ady-ent (Latin, gradus, 
step). A term denoting the degree 
ascent or descent on any portion of a 
of railway. Thus, an inclined plan 



CllA 

miles long-, with a total fall of thirty-six 
feet, is described as having a gradient of 
nine feet per mile. The term is also used 
to designate an inclined plane, having a 
small inclination. 

Graduate, grad-u-ate (Latin, gradus, 
a step). To advance by degrees ; to honour 
with academical degrees. A graduate of 
the Umvefsity is one who has received a 
degree. 

Gram, )Gram. The unity of weight 
Gramme, S in the French system, about 
fifteen and four-ninths grains troy. 

Graminivorous, grammy-niwo-rus 
(Latin, gravien, grass ; voro, to eat). 
Subsisting wholly on grass or vegetable 
food. Animals thus subsisting are termed 
ijramimvorous. 

Grand Jury. In law, the jury which 
finds bills of indictment against offenders. 
These, when a true bill is found, are after- 
wards tried before a peirty jury. 

Grandiloquence, gran-dillo-kwens 
(Latin, grandis, great; loquor, to speak). 
liOfty speaking ; pompousness of style. 

Granivorous, gran-iwo-rus (Latin, 
granum, grain ; voro, to eat). Subsisting 
on grains or com. 

Granulated (Latin, granum, a 
grain). Consisting of grains; resembling 
grains. 

Grapesliot. In artillery, a combina- 
tion of small shot put into a thick canvas 
bag, and corded so as to form a kind of 
cylinder. 

Graphic, graf-ik (Greek, grapho, to 
write). Skilfully expresssed ; described 
vividly and with accuracy ; pourtrayed in 
a masterly manner. 

Gratis, graytis (Latin). Free of charge ; 
without pay ; gratuitously. 

Gravitation, grawy-tayshun (Latin, 
gravitas, gravity). The act of tending to 
the centre of attraction ; the force by which 
bodies are attracted. 

Gregarious, gre-gary-us (Latin, grex, 
a flock). Having the habit of flocking or 
herding together ; living in common ; not 
solitary. 

Gregorian, gre-gory-an. Pertaining 
to Pope Gregory, as the Gregorian calendar, 
the Gregorian epoch, &c. A species of 
chaunt is also so called. 

Grenadier, grenna-deer. Originally a 
soldier armed with a sword, musket, and 
bayonet, and a pouchful oi grenades. 



GYH 



liS 



Griifin. A fabulous animal, part lion 
and part eagle. It is the symbol of strength, 
swiftness, courage, prudence, and vigilance. 

Grist. Com to be gi-ound, or that 
which is crushed at one time ; provender. 

Groined, groynd (Swedish, grena, to 
divide). . Having an angular curve caused 
by the intersection of two semi-cylinders or 
arches. Groined ceiling is one formed by 
three or more curved surfaces, so that 
every two may form a groin, all the groins 
terminating at one extremity in a common 
point. 

Grotesque, gro-tesk (French). Whim- 
sical; fantastic; ludicrous; wildly formed; 
singular looking ; odd. 

Guerdon, ger-dun (French). A re- 
ward; requital; recompense. 

Guerilla, ge-rillah (Spanish, guerilla, 
a little war). A term applied to an irre- 
gular mode of carrying on war against an 
enemy by the constant attacks of inde- 
pendent bands. 

Guild, gild (Saxon, geld). A society cr 
fraternity ; a corporation ; an association 
especially for carrying on commerce. 

Gulf. In geography, a broad, capacious 
bay, which, when very extensive, takes the 
name of a sea: as the Gulf of Venice, 
called also the Adriatic Sea. 

Gusto, gus-to (Italian). Eelish ; taste ; 
the power by which anjrthing excites sen- 
sation on the palate ; intellectual taste. 

Gutta, gut-tah (Latin). A drop: as 
gutta percha ; gutta serena^ &c. 

Guttural, gut-tural (French). Per- 
taining to the throat ; formed in the throat ; 
more especially applied to a certain kind 
of pronunciation, as in the German and 
Welsh languages. 

Gymnastic, jim-nastik (Greek, gymna- 
sion, a place of exercise). Pertaining to 
athletic exercises for health. 

Gynarchy, jin-arky (Greek, gyne, a 
female; arche, rule). Government by a 
female. 

Gypsum, jip-sum (Latin). A mineral 
used as a manure ; sulphate of lime ; 
plaster of Paris. 

Gjrration, ji-rayshun (Latin, gyro, to 
turn round). The act of turning roxind ; a 
circular motion. 

Gyromaney, jero-mansy (Greek, jjyro*, 
a circle ; manteia, divination). A species of 
divination, performed by drawir^g a circle 
and walking round it. 



146 



HAB 



HAT 



H. 

Habeas Corpus, haybe-as kor-pus 
(Latin, haheo, to have ; corpus, body). A 
writ of various uses and of different im- 
portance ; but the most celebrated is the 
habeas corpus ad suhjicie7idum, which a man 
who is aggrieved, or supposes himself to be 
so, may have out of the Queen's Bench, 
directed to the person detaining him, and 
commanding him to produce the prisoner 
and bring the prosecution to open trial, 
instead of prolonging his imprisonment. 

Habendum, hab-endum. In law, a 
word of form in a deed or conveyance, 
which must consist of two parts, namely, 
the premises, and the halendum, that is, 
'*to have and to hold." 

Habitat, habby-tat (contraction of ha- 
bitation). A term used by naturalists to 
denote the natural abode or locality of an 
animal; and by botanists, the nature of 
the situation in which a plant grows. 

Habitude, habby-tude (Latin, Jmheo, 
what we have). Internal state exhibited 
in acts ; customary mode of life. 

Habitue, hab-bittu-ay (French). A 
frequenter ; an habitual visitor. 

Hsemorrhage, hemmo-rage (Greek, 
Juema, blood ; regnyo, to burst). In patho- 
logy, a flux of blood from any part of the 
body. 

Halberd, hal-burd (French, liallebarde). 
A military weapon, consisting of a pole or 
shaft of wood, having a head armed with a 
steel point, with a cross-piece of steel, flat 
and pointed at both ends. 

Halcyon Days, halsh-yun daze. A 
name anciently given to the seven days 
which preceded and followed the winter 
solstice, when the weather was very calm. 
The expression now signifies a time of 
calmness and tranquillity. 

Halliards, hal-yards (from hale, or 
haul, and yards). Eopes or tackle usually 
employed in hoisting and lowering sails, 
flags, &c., to their respective places. 

Hallucination, hal-lewsy-nayshun 
(Lat., hallucinor, to blunder). An offence 
against the light of reason; error; blunder; 
delusion ; mistake. 

Halo, hay-lo (Greek, halos, an area). 
A meteor in the form of a luminous ring, 
appearing round the sun, moon, or stars. 

Hamlet, ham-let (Saxon, ham, a house 
or village). A village or small cluster of 
Jiouses. 



Hammer cloth, ham-mur kloth. The 
cloth which covers a coach-box, so called 
from the old practice of carrying a hammer, 
nails, &c., to execute repairs, and which 
were placed in a pocket hidden by this 
cloth. 

Hanaper, hanah-pur (Norman, hanap, 
a cup or hamper). An office in Chancery 
under the direction of a master, whose clerk 
receives the fees due to the Crown for 
charters, patents, commissions, and writs. 
The hanap was a kind of basket, used by 
the ancient kings of England for holding 
and carrying with them their money as 
they travelled from place to place. 

Handicraft, handy-lo-aft (Saxon, hand- 
crceft). Work performed by the hands ; a 
trade carried on by manual laboiu*. 

Handsel, han-sel (Danish). The first 
act of using an3rthing ; to try experiment- 
ally ; to make experiments ; an earnest ; 
money for the first sale. 

Hanker, hangk-ur (Dutch, hunkeren). 
Literally, to hang about ; to loiter or linger, 
as unwiUing to quit ; to long after or for ; 
to keep or continue in a state of longing ; 
a strong and restless desire to possess any- 
thing. 

Haply,hap-le. Perhaps; peradventm'e ; 
it may be ; by chance or mere accident. 

Harangue, ha- rang (French). To speak 
aloud ; to addi'ess an audience or multitude ; 
a popular oration ; declamation ; a noisy, 
pompous, or ii-regxilar address. 

Harbinger, harbin-jur (Dutch, herben- 
ger, one who looks out for a harbour for 
another). A forerunner; that which comes 
before, to prepare for and announce the 
approach of something else. 

Hardihood, hardy-hood. Boldness, 
united with firmness and constancy of 
mind. 

Haricot, harry-ko (French). A kind 
of ragout of vegetables and meat; the 
kidney-bean. 

Harpy, har-pe (Latin, harpyia). A 
poetical monster of the bird kind, fabled 
to have had the face of a woman, the claws 
and wings of a bird ; remarkable for rapa- 
ciousness, and on that account used to 
signify a ravenous or exceedingly covetou? 
person ; an extortioner ; a plunderer. 

Hatchment, hatsh-iaent (corrupted, 
from achievement). In heraldry, the arms 
of a deceased person, painted on a square 
board, and suspended on the front of a 
mansion, or on the wall of a church. 



HAT 



HEP 



147 



Hatchway. An opening- in the deck 
of a ship, to afford an entrance into the 
hold, or to allow of a passage from one 
deck to another. 

Hautboy, ho-boy (French, Jiaut, high ; 
lois, wood). A nausical instrument, so 
called on account of its producing pecu- 
liarly high notes ; especially as contrasted 
with the bassoon. 

Hauteur, ho-tur (French), Pride ; in- 
solence ; haughty manner or spirit, 

Hautgout, ho-goo (French). Anything 
having a strong relish, taste, or scent. 

Haversack, hav-er-sak (French, avoir, 
CO have ; sac, a bag), A coarse linen bag 
issued to every soldier, proceeding on ser- 
vice, for the purpose of carrying provisions. 

Haw-haw, haw-haw (duplication of 
haiv). A fence or bank sunk between 
slopes, and not perceived till approached ; 
also, called Ha-ha, 

Hawser, haw-sur, A small cable, or 
a large rope, in size between a cable and a 
tow-line. 

Head wind. A wind which blows in 
an opposite direction from the ship's course. 

Heathen, he-thn (Saxon, liceflm). One 
who worships false gods, and is not ac- 
qixainted either with the doctrines of the 
Old Testament or the Christian dispensa- 
tion ; a Pagan ; a GentiJe ; also applied to 
a rude, illiterate, barbarous person. 

Hebdomadal, heb-domah-dal (Greek, 
7iebdo7nas, se-ven days. ) Weekly ; consisting of 
seven days, or occurring every seventh day. 

Hebraic, he-brayik. Eelating to the 
Hebrews ; designating the language of the 
Hebrews. 

Hecatomb, hekka-toom(Greek,/ieZ:a!!o?2-, 
a hundred). A great sacrifice ; a sacrifice 
consisting of a hundi'ed oxen. 

Hectic, hek-tik (Greek, lieUiJMS, from 
Tiexos, a quality which cannot be easily 
separated from its subject). Habitual, or 
constitutional ; morbidly hot ; noting a 
slow, continued fever. 

Hector, hek-tur (from Hector, the son 
of Priam). A vain-glorious blusterer ; a 
braggart ; a threatener. 

Hegira, he-ji-ra (Arabic, from Hebrew, 
Idgirah, flight). The flight of Mahomet 
from Mecca, July 16, 622, from which the 
Mohammedans reckon years. 

Heinous, hay-nus (French, liaine, hate). 
Hateful ; atrocious ; wicked in a high 
degree. 



Heir Apparent. One whose right of 
inheritance is beyond doubt, provided ho 
outlive the ancestor ; as the eldest son or 
his issue, who, by the course of common 
law, must ^be heir to the father whenever 
the latter happens to die. 

Heirloom, air-loom. Any fumitiire or 
movable which descends by inheritance. 

Heir Presumptive. One who, if the 
ancestor should die immediately, would, in 
the present circumstances of things, become 
inheritor ; but whose right of inheritance 
may be defeated by some nearer heir being- 
born. 

Helicon, helly-kon. A mountain in 
Bceotia, in Greece, from which flowed a 
fountain, and where resided the Muses. 

Heliotrope, heely-o-trope (Greek, lie- 
lios, the sun ; trepo, to turn). The sun- 
flower ; also a mineral of the quartz kind ; 
blood-stone. 

Hellenic, hel-lenik. Eelating to the 
Hellenes, or inhabitants of Greece. 

Helm (Saxon, helma). The instrument 
by which a ship is steered ; metaphorically, 
station of government ; the place of direc- 
tion or management. 

Helots, he-lots. The name given to 
certain slaves in Sparta, who were origin- 
ally inhabitants of the town of Helos. 
They differed from other Greek slaves in 
not belonging individually to separate mas- 
ters, being the property of the State, which 
alone had the disposal of their lives and 
freedom. 

Hemi. A Greek word used in the com- 
position of several terms borrowed from 
that language; it signifies half, the same 
as semi and demi. ■ 

Hemisphere, hemmis-feer (Greek, 
hemisys, half; sphaira, a ball). Half a 
sphere, or globe ; in geometry, when such 
a sphere is divided by a plane passing- 
through its centre. 

Hemistich, he-mistik (Greek, hemisys, 
half ; stichos, a verse). Half a poetical 
verse, or a verse not completed. 

Hepatic, he-pat-ik (Latin, Jiepar, the 
liver). In medicine and anatomy, connected 
with or belonging to the liver. 

Heptagon, heptah-gon (Greek, Jiepta, 
seven ; yonia, an angle). A fig-ure with 
seven angles and sides. 

Heptarchy, hep-tarky, (Greek, hepta, 
seven ; arche, government), A government 
by seven persons, or the country governed 
K 2 



148 



HEP 



HIE 



by seven persons. The word is usually 
applied to England, when it was under the 
government of seven kings, or divided into 
seven kingdoms ; as the Saxon lieptarchy. 

Heptateuclijheptah-tuke (Greek, hep- 
ta, seven ; teuchos, a roll). The first seven 
books of the Old Testament. 

Heraldry, heral-dre. The art, prac- 
tice, or science of recording genealogies, 
and blazoning arms or ensigns armorial ; 
it also teaches whatever relates to the mar- 
shalling of cavalcades, processions, and 
other public ceremonies. 

Herbaceous, her-bayshus (Lat., Tier-la, 
a herb). Relating to herbs ; soft ; perish- 
ing annually. 

Herbivorous, her-biworus ( Latin, 
7ie7-ha, a herb). Eating herbs ; subsisting 
on herbaceous plants, 

Herculean, herkeu-le-an. Eesembling 
Hercules ; possessing qualities similar to 
those of Hercules ; extraordinary strength, 
power, or force. Herculean labour, any 
labour attended with great effort, danger, 
or difficulty. 

Hereditary, he-reddy-tary (Latin, 
hcereditas, an inheritance). Descending to 
any one as heir ; that has descended from 
an ancestor; transmittable to an heir-at- 
law, or from a parent to a child. 

Heresy, herry-se (Greek, hairesis). An 
opinion taken in opposition, or a dogma 
opposed to the principles of the Christian 
Church, of the Established Church, or of 
established doctrines in general. 

Heriot, herry-ot (Saxon, Jiere, an army ; 
ffeat, tribute). In law, a fine paid to the 
lord of the fee at the death of his tenant, 
originally consisting of military furniture, 
&c., but latterly of goods and chattels. 

Hermetic, her-mettik. A designation 
formerly applied to chemistry, under the 
supposition that it owed its origin, or its 
improvement, to Hermes Trismegistus. Her- 
metically sealed, is when anything is che- 
mically or closely stopped, so that no 
exhalation can escape. 

Hero, he-ro (Latin, heros). A man emi- 
nent for bravery ; a distinguished warrior ; 
a great, Ulustrious, or extraordinary person. 

Heroic, he-ro-ik. Becoming a hero; 
relating to the qualities which constitute a 
hero ; noble ; brave ; magnanimous. Heroic 
age, the age fabled by poets, when the 
heroes, or those who called themselves the 
children of the gods, are supposed to have 
lived. Heroic verse, the name given to 



Latin and Greek hexameters, and to the 
ten-syllable couplet of English versification. 

Heterarcby, het-errah-ke (Greek, het- 
eros, another ; arche, rule). The govern- 
ment of an alien. 

Heteroclite, het-erro-klite (Greek, Jiet- 
er OS, variable; Hiios, inclined). In grammar, 
an irregular or anomalous word, either in 
declension or conjugation ; any thing or 
person deviating from common forms. 

Heterodox, het-erro-dox (Greek, Jiet- 
eros, different ; doxa, opinion). Contrary to 
established opinion ; opposed to the estab- 
lished religion of a country. 

Heterogeneous, het-erro-jeny-us 
(Greek, heteros, variable ; genos, a kind). 
Of another kind ; of a different nature ; 
dissimilar. 

Hexagon, heksah-gon (Greek, 7iex, six ; 
.gonia, an angle). A figure with six sides 
and angles. 

Hexameter, hegz-ametur (Greek, Jiex, 
six ; metron, a measure). A verse of six 
metrical feet, either dactyls, or spondees, 
with no limit as to their arrangement, ex- 
cept the fifth, which is usually a dactyl, 
and the last a spondee. 

Hiatus, hi-aitus (Latin, hiatus'). A gap ; 
a chasm ; something wanting ; a defect. 

Hibernation, hi-ber-nayshun (Latin, 
Jdbermts, winter). The act of pas sing through 
the winter ; especially with some animals, 
who pass the winter season in a state of 
lethargy. 

Hibernian, hi-berny-an (Latin, Hi- 
hernia). Belonging to Ireland ; a native 
of Ireland. 

Hidalgo, hi-dalgo (Spanish), In Spain, 
a man belonging' to the lowest class of the 
nobility; the word means literally, "the 
son of somebody," 

Hierarchy, hi-e-rarky (Greek, liieros, 
sacred; ajrAe, government). Ecclesiastical 
government; order or rank of celestial 
beings ; constitution and government of the 
Christian Church, or ecclesiastical polity, 
comprehending different orders of the 
clergy. 

Hieroglyphic, hi-ero-gli£6k (Greek, 
Jiieros, sacred; glypJio, to carve). Emble* 
matical ; expressing by pictures ; a sacred 
character or symbol in ancient writings, 
used especially by the Egyptians as signs 
of sacred, divine, or supernatural things. 

Hierophant, hi-erro-phant (Greek, 
hieros, sacred; phaino, to show). A priesV 
one who teaches religion. 



HIG 



HO] 



149 



High. Cliurcli. A term applied to the 
opinions and practices of that party Avhich 
seeks to exalt the ecclesiastical power ; in 
opposition to Low Church. 

Hindoo, hin-doo. An aboriginal of 
Hindostan. 

Hippodrome, hippo-drome (Greek, 
hipjpos, a horse; dromos, a race-course). 
Anciently a course for chariot and horse- 
races. 

Hirsute, her-sute (Latin, hirsutus). 
Hairy ; rough with hair ; shaggy ; set with 
bristles. 

Histrioilic,his-tre-onnik (Latin, histrio, 
an actor). Relating to the stage ; suitable 
to a theatrical performer; belonging to 
dramatic representations, 

Hitlie (Saxon, hT/th). A port or small 
haven to land goods out of vessels, as 
Eotherhithe, Greenhithe. 

H.M.S. An abbreviation of His or Her 
Majesty's ship or service. 

Hoar, hore (Saxon, hor). To whiten or 
become grey ; grey with age ; white with 
frost. 

Hoarfrost, hore-frost. The white par- 
■ tides of ice formed by the congelation of 
dew or watery vapours. 

Hobby. A strong, active horse ; a child's 
horse ; hobhy, or hohby-horse, is also applied 
to a favourite pursuit or amusement. 

Holocaust, hollo-kawst (Greek, holos, 
whole ; kaio, to bum). A burnt offering, 
in which the whole of the victim was con- 
sumed. 

Holograph, hollo-graf (Greek, holos, 
all; grapho, to write). Something wholly 
written by a person's own hand, and not 
copied. 

Holy Alliance. In politics, an alli- 
ance formed after the fall of Napoleon 
Buonaparte by the European Sovereigns, 
"in accordance with the precepts of the 
gospel of Jesus Christ, and for the happi- 
ness and religious welfare of all subjects," 
It was virtually an alliance for securing 
the royal personages interested against the 
encroachments of their subjects, and for 
mutual support, should the stability of 
their thrones be threatened by any outburst 
of popular opinion. 

Homage, hom-age (Latin, homo, a man). 
Service; fealty; duty; respect. The oath 
of submission and loyalty, which the tenant 
xmder the feudal system used to take to his 
superior, when first admitted to the land, 
which he held of him in fee. 



Homeopathy, homy-oppah-the (Gr., 
homoios, similar; pathos, disease). In 
medical practice, a method of curing dis- 
ease which consists in the employment of 
various medicinal agents in exceedingly 
minute doses; an art of curing based on 
resemblances, as when a disease is cured 
by remedies which produce upon a healthy 
jjerson effects similar to the symptoms of the 
complaint under which the patient suffers. 

Homeric, ho-merik. Relating to Ho- 
mer, or to his poetry; resembling Homer'a 
verse. 

Homicide, hommy-side (Latin, homo, 
a man ; ccedo, to kill). The act of one man 
kilhng another ; a slayer or destroyer of a 
man. In law, homicide is held to be justi- 
fiable, when it proceeds from unavoidable 
necessity, without an intention to kill, and 
without negligence ; excusable, when it pro- 
ceeds from misadventure, or in self-defence ; 
felonious, when it proceeds from malice, oris 
done in the prosecution of some unlawful act. 

Homily, hom-illy (Greek, homilia, fa- 
miliar discourse). A familiar discourse on 
some subject of rehgion, such as an in- 
structor would deliver to his pupils. 

Homogeneous, homo-jeny-us (Greek, 
homos, like ; genos, kind). Having the 
same nature ; sameness of kind. 

Homonym, hom-o-nim (Greek, homos^ 
like ; onoma, a name). A word of the sama 
sound as some other, but differing in signi- 
fication. 

Honorarium, honno-rary-um (Latin, 
honos, honour). A counsellor's ' or physi- 
cian's fee ; a free gift. 

Honorary, onnur-ary. Conferring hon- 
our ; possessing a title or place without per- 
forming services or receiving a reward. 

Honours of "War. A term applied 
to favourable conditions granted to a capi- 
tulating enemy when evacuating a fortress. 

Horary, ho-rary (Greek, horct,, an hour). 
Pertaining to an hour ; lasting or continu- 
ing for an hour. 

Horde, hord (Dutch, horde). A multi- 
tude or collection of people ; a migratory 
band, occasionally dwelling in tents, wag- 
gons, &c., and seldom locating themselves 
in any one spot ; a clan ; tribe. 

Horizon, ho-ri-zun (Greek, horizo, to 
bound). The line which bounds or termi- 
nates the sight, called the sensible horizon ; 
or an imaginary line equally distant from 
the zenith and the nadir, which divides th© 
globe into two hemispheres. 



150 



HOE 



ILYD 



Horizontal, liorry-zontal. Parallel to 
the horizon ; level. 

Horn Book, hawm-book. Th* book 
used in teacMng children their letters, so 
called from the ancient custom of covering 
it with horn. 

Horology, ho-roUo-jy (Greek, hora, an 
hour ; logos, a discourse). The art of con- 
structing machinesused for measuring time. 

Horoscope, horo-skope (Greek, Jwra, 
an hour ; skopeo, to observe). Aspect of 
the planets at the hour of a person's bu-th, 
by which astrologers pretend to foretell the 
future. 

Hors de Combat, hawr-de-kombah 
(French), Disabled from fighting; in a 
condition to fight no more. 

Horticulture, hawrty-kulture (Latin, 
Jiortus, a garden ; cultura, culture). The 
art of cultivating gardens, or of tending 
such plants as are usually gTown in gardens. 

Hortus Siccus, hawr-tus sik-kus (Lat., 
Jiortus, garden ; siccus, dry). The term ap- 
plied to a collection of specimens of plants, 
carefully dried and prepared. 

Hosanna, ho-zanna (Hebrew, Save, I 
beseech you). An exclamation of praise to 
God, or an invocation of blessings. 

Host, hoste (Latin, kostia, a sacrifice). 
In the Eoman Cathohc Church, the sacrifice 
of the mass or the consecrated wafer, re- 
presenting the body of Christ. 

Hostage, hos-taje (Fi-ench, Otaffe). One 
given as a pledge for the performance of 
conditions. 

Hostelry, hos-tel-re (Latin, hospes, a 
guest). An inn ; an hotel ; a lodging-house, 

Houri, how-re. A name given by Mo- 
hammedans to a nymph of Paradise, 

Houseliold Troops. This name is 
given to the regiments of life-guards and 
horse-guards, together with the foot-guards. 
They have the care of Her Majesty's per- 
son, and they enjoy many privileges and 
immimities, 

Ho"wadji, how-ad- jee. An Arabic word 
meaning trader, much used in the East. 

Hoy. A small vessel usually rigged as 
a sloop, and employed for conveying pas- 
sengers and goods, from place to place on 
the sea-coast, or to or from a ship in a road 
or bay. 

Hoyden, hoy-den ("Welsh, hoeclen, a 
flirt, a coquette), A rude, bold girl; a romp. 

Hudibrastic, hu-de-brastik. Pertain- 
ing to Hudibras, or doggerel verse. 



Huguenots (German, Eidgenossen, 
sworn-fellows). A nan* formerly given to 
the Protestants in France. 

Humanities, hu-manny-tiz. A term 
used in schools and colleges, to signify 
polite literature, or grammar, rhetoric, and 
poetry, including the study of the ancient 
classics, in distinction from philosophy and 
science. 

Humid, hu-mid (Latin, humidus). 
Lloist ; damp ; watery. 

Hiisbandry, husban-dre (Saxon, Mis- 
honda, from litis, a house ; huend, a cultiva- 
tor or inhabitant). The business of a far- 
mer, comprehending agriculture, the raising 
and managing of cattle and other domestic 
animals, the management of the dairy, and 
whatever the land produces, ' 

Hussar, hoo-zar, A mounted soldier. 
The term is of Hungarian origin, from 
husz, twenty, and ar, pay ; every twenty 
houses being obliged, by order of Mathias 
the First, in 1-158, to furnish and support 
one horseman. 

Hybrid, hi-brid (Greek, hylris, a mule). 
A mongrel or mule ; mongrel produced by 
the mixtm'e of two species. 

Hydra, hi-drah (Greek). A fabulous 
monster, with many heads ; hence, meta- 
phorically, the multitude, the mob ; a nu- 
merous concourse of evils. 

Hydrate, hi-drate. In chemistry, a 
solid which contains water in a fixed state, 
as slaked lime, soda, &c. 

Hydraulic, hi-drawlik (Greek, hydov, 
water ; aidos, a pipe). Kelating to the con- 
veyance of waterthrough pipes. Hydratdics, 
the science of the motion of fluids, and the 
construction of all kinds of machines relat- 
ing thereto. 

Hydrogen, hi-dro-jen (Greek, hydor, 
water ; gennao, to produce). A gas, one of 
the elements of water, of which it forms 
ll'l parts in a hundred, and oxygen 88"9. 

Hydrography, hi-droggrah-fe (Gr., 
hydor, water ; grapho, to describe). The 
art of measuring and describing seas, lakes, 
rivers, and other waters. 

Hydrometer, hi-drommy-tur (Greek, 
hydor, water ; metron, a measure). An in- 
strument employed in the measurement of 
fluids. 

Hydropbobia, hi-dro-fobeah (Greek, 
hydor, water ; phohos, fear). Dread of 
water ; canine madness. 

Hydrostatics, hi-dro-statiks (Greek, 
hydor, water ; stao, to stand). The science 



HYB 



IDE 



151 



wliich treats of the weight of fluids, or their 
properties when at rest. 

Hyemal, hi-emal (Latin, Jdems, win- 
ter). Pertaining to winter, done in winter. 

Hygiene, hi-ji-eny (Greek, Eygeia 
the goddess of health). That department 
of uiedicine which treats of the science of 
health. 

Eygrometer, hi-grommy-tur (Greek, 
hydor, water; metron, a measure). An in- 
strument used for measuring the degrees of 
moisture or dryness of the atmosphere. 

Hymeneal, hi-me-neal (Greek, Hymen, 
the god of marriage). Pertaining to mar- 
riage ; a nuptial hymn. 

Hyp, hip (contracted from hypochon- 
dria). A depression of spirits ; a state of 
melancholy. 

Hyper, hi-pur. A Greek preposition 
frequently used in composition, where it 
denotes excess ; its literal signification 
being above or heyond. 

Hjrperbole, hi-purbo-le (Greek, hyper, 
beyond ; hallo, to throw). Exaggeration ; 
a figure of speech which represents things 
as much greater or less than they really 
are. 

Hyperborean, hi-pur-bo-rean (Gr., 
loiper, bej^ond ; horeas, the north). North- 
erly ; in the remotest north ; very cold. 

Hyper-eritic, hi-per-krittik (Greek, 
hpper, above ; kritihos, critical). A critic 
exact beyond reason ; a captious censor. 

Hyphen, hi-fen (Greek). In composi- 
tion, the mark (-) between words forming 
compounds, &c. 

Hypnology, hip-nollo-je (Gr., hypnos, 
sleep ; logos, a discourse). The doctrine 
of sleep. 

Hypo, hi-po. A Greek particle, retained 
in the composition of different words bor- 
rowed from that language, and literally 
denoting under, beneat/i, &c. 

Hypochondria, hippo-kondreah (Gr., 
hypo, under; chondros, a cartilage). Pro- 
perly, the region below the short ribs ; 
hence a disease of that region, producing 
melancholy ; depression of spirits ; melan- 
choly. 

Hypothecate, hip-othy-kate (Latin, 
hypotheca, a pledge). To pawn ; to give in 
pledge. 

Hypothesis, hip-othy-sis (Greek, hy- 
potithemi, to suppose). A supposition ; a 
.system or theory formed iipon some prin- 
ciple not proved. 



Iambic, i-am-bik (Latin, iamhicus). In 
poetry, a foot consisting of two syllables, 
the first short and the last long, as dSlTght ; 
this word is sometimes figiu-atively used to 
signify satire. 

Ibis, i-bis. A bird with long legs, bill, 
and broad wings ; a sacred bird in Egypt. 

Ic, ik. In chemistry, a termination of 
the names of those acids which combine 
the highest quantity of the acidifying prin- 
ciple. 

Icarian, i-kary-an (from Icarus), Soar- 
ing high ; adventurous in flight. 

Ich Dien (German, 1 serve). The motto 
of the Prince of Wales. It was first used 
by John, king of Bohemia, slain at the 
battle of Cressy, when it was adopted by 
Edward the Black Prince, as a mark of 
subjection to his father, Edward the Third. 

Ichnography, ikno-graffy (Gr., ichnos, 
a trace ; grapho, to write). A ground-plan 
or horizontal section of a building. In 
perspective, the view of anything cut off 
by a plane parallel to the hoi'izon, just at 
the base of an object. The term is also 
used to designate a description of ancient 
works of art, as statuary, paintings, &c. 

Ichor, ik-or (Greek). A thin, watery 
humour, with which the veins of the gods 
were fabled to be filled, instead of blood. 

Ichthyology, ik-thee-oUo-je (Greek, 
icMhys, a fish ; logos, a discourse). That 
department of natural history which treats 
of the sti-ucture, habits, and classification 
of fishes. 

Iconoclasm, i-kono-klazm (Gr., eiJcon, 
an image). The act of breaking or destroy- 
ing images. 

Ideal, i-de-al (Greek, idea). Mental; 
not perceived by the senses ; existing in the 
imagination or fancy. 

Idem, i-dem (Latin), The same. 

Identify, i-denty-fi (Latin, idem, the 
same ; facio, to make). To make or prove 
the same ; to combine or unite in such a 
manner as to produce one interest, purpose, 
or intention. 

Identity, i-denty-te (Latin, idem, the 
same). Sameness ; the laeing almost the 
same ; the being exactly the same. 

Ides, idze (Latin, idus). A term in the 
Roman calendar, denoting the 13th day of 
each month, except March, May, July, and 
October, in which it was the J 5th. 



152 



IDE 



IMM 



Id Est (Latin). That is; contracted I 
into i. e. I 

Idiom, iddy-um (Greek, idios, peculiar). 
A mode of expression peculiar to a language, 
not reduced within the general rales of the 
grammar of that language. 

Idiopathy, iddy-oppah-the (Gr., idios, 
peculiar ; patJios, disease). A primary- 
disease ; a disorder not to be traced to any 
preceding disease ; peculiar affection. 

Idiosyncrasy, iddyo-sinkrah-se (Gr., 
idios, peculiar; in, with; Jcrasis, a min- 
gling). A peculiarity of constitution or 
temperament ; a disposition or temper cha- 
racteristic of a person. 

Idyl, i-dil (Greek, eidyllion, a little 
figure or representation). A short pastoral 
poem. 

Igneous, ig-ne-us (Latin, ignis, fire). 
Consisting of fire ; containing fire : in geo- 
logy, proceeding from the action of fire. 

Ignis Fatuus, ig-nis fat-u-us (Latin). 
A meteor of light which appears in the 
night over marshy grounds, occasioned by 
the liberation and ascent of phosphvu-etted 
hydrogen gas. It is popularly known as 
Will-d-the- Wis}:) and Jack-d -Lantern. 

Ignoramus, igno-raymus (Lat., igno- 
ramus, we do not know). A term applied 
to one who is ignorant of everything. In 
]aw, a word used by the grand jury, as the 
term of indorsation, when they ignore, or 
throw out a bill of indictment for want of 
sufiicient evidence. 

Iliad, illy-ad. The name of an ancient 
epic poem composed by Homer, recording 
the siege of Troy, or Iliiim. 

Ilk (Saxon, ylc). The same ; each or 
every one ; chiefly used in Scotland and the 
north of England, to denote the same name, 
as Macleod of that ilJc, meaning a gentle- 
man whose surname and title of his estate 
are the same, as "Macleod of Macleod." 

Illimitable, il-immitah-bul (Latin, in ; 
limes, a boundary). That cannot be bounded 
or confined, terminated or determined. 

Illuminati, il-lewmy-najrfce (Latin). 
Literally, those who have been enhghtened ; 
a name appropriated by persons assuming a 
superior knowledge on some subject ; par- 
ticularly by a secret association in Ger- 
many, and other countries of Europe, who, 
by misrepresentation, sought to subvert 
Christianity. 

Illusion, il-luzhun (Latin, in, with; 
Indo, to sport). False show ; mockery ; 
error ; deception by false appearances. 



lm.agery, imaj-erry (Latin, imago, an 
image). Ideas formed wholly by the ima- 
gination, and which have no real existence; 
pictures ; statues ; figures of speech ; sen- 
sible representations. 

Imbecile, imby-sil (Latin, imlecilis). 
Weak; feeble; wanting support; leaning 
or relying upon ; destitute of physical or 
mental strengtii. 

Imbibe, im-bTbe (Latin, in, in ; hiJiO, to 
drink). To drink or dtaw in ; to absorb ; 
to admit into the mind. 

Imbricate, imbrik-ate (Gr., imhricio, 
to cover with tiles). Laid under one an- 
other, as tiles. In botany, lapping over, 
as the leaves in a bud. 

Imbroglio, im-brol-yo (Italian). In 
literature, an intricate, complicated plot ; 
in a general sense, intricacy. 

Imbrue, im-bru (Greek, en, in ; hrechn, 
to moisten). To steep; to soak; to moisten. 

Imbue, im-bu (Latin, imhuo). To 
tincture or tinge deeply ; to cause to 
imbibe. 

Immaculate, im-makku-late (Latin, in; 
mactda, a spot). Without spot or blemish; 
pure ; undefiled. 

Immaterial, immah-teery-al (Latin, in; 
materia^ matter). Distinct from matter ; 
spiritual ; of no importance or weight. 

Immature, immah-ture (Latin, in; 
maturiLS, ripe). Unripe ; imperfect in 
growth ; unfinished ; not arrived at fulness 
or completion ; come to pass before the 
natmral time. 

Immemoria-l, imem-ory-al (Latin, in; 
memoria, memory). Past the time of me- 
mory ; so ancient that the b(>ginning can- 
not be traced. 

Immerse, im-mers (Latin, in; mergo, 
to plung-e). Buried ; covered ; sunken under 
water ; overwhelmed ; deeply engaged. 

Imminent, immy-nent (Latin, in; 
minor, to threaten). Threatening ; hanging 
over one's head ; impending ; at hand. 

Immobility, immo-billy-te (Latin, in; 
mohilis, movable). Resistance to motion ; 
fixedness of place ; unchangeableness of 
state. 

Immolate, immo-late (Latin, i-n; mola, 
flour mingled with salt, sprinkled on sacri- 
fices). To offer as a sacrifice ; to kill in 
sacrifice ; to make or become a victim. 

Immunity, im-mewny-te (Latin, in ; 
munus, a duty or tax). Exemption ; free- 
dom from certain duties ; privilege ; liberty. 



IMM 

Immure, im-mure (Latin, in ; murus, 
a wall). Literally, to inclose within walls; 
to confine ; to shut up closely ; to imprison. 

Im.m.utable, im-mewtah-bul (Latin, in; 
muto, to change). Unchangeable ; invari- 
able ; stedfast ; without alteration. 

Im.pacable, im-payka-bul (Latin, in; 
■pax, peace). Not to be appeased or quieted; 
irreconcileable. 

Im.pact, im-pakt (Latin, in; pango, to 
drive). To drive close together ; to make 
tight. 

Imipale. In heraldry, to conjoin two 
coats of arms pale- ways, as is the case with 
those of a husband and wife, and so to 
impale them. 

Im.pale, im-pale (French, empaler). To 
fix on a stake ; to inclose with stakes ; to 
shut in. 

Im.palpable, im-palpah-bul (Latin, in; 
palpo, to touch). That cannot be perceived 
by the touch ; not to be felt. 

Imipartial, im-parshal (Latin, in; pars, 
part). Not favouring either party ; not 
leaning to one party more than the other ; 
not biassed by party prejudices ; equitable ; 
just; even-handed. 

Impassive, im-passiv (Latin, in ; 
passus, suffered). Not susceptible of pain 
or suffering. 

Impeacll, em-peetsh (French, empecher, 
to hinder). To accuse by public authority; 
to charge ; to bring into question. 

Im.peccability, im - pekkah - bility 
(Lat., in; pecco, to sin). Exemption from 
sin ; that state in which it is impossible to 
do wrong or transgress. 

Im.pend.ing, im-pending (Latin, in; 
pendeo, to hang). Hanging over one ; 
threatening ; likely to happen. 

Imperialist, im-peery-alist (Latin, im- 
pero, to command). One who belongs to an 
emperor; a subject or soldier of an emperor. 

Im.permeable, im-permy-abul (Latin, 
in ; jJermeo, to go through). Not to be 
passed through the pores by a fluid. 

Impersonal Verb. In grammar, a 
verb which is used only with the termina- 
tion of the third person singular, with it 
for a nominative in English, and without a 
nominative in Latin ; as it rains. 

Impersonation, im - perso - nayshun 
(Latin, in; persona, person). The act of 
personifying, or representing things with- 
out life as persons ; the representation of 
an assumed character. 



IMP 



153 



Imperturbable, imper - turba - bul 
(Latin, in; ^3er, by; turha, confusion). 
That cannot be . disturbed or agitated ; 
quietude ; tranquillity ; calmness. 

Impervious, im-pervy-us (Latin, in; 
per, by ; via, a way). That cannot be passed 
through ; not to be penetrated or pierced ; 
not to be affected by external influences. 

Impinge, im-pinj (Latin, in; pango, 
to strike). To strike against; to fall against; 
to dash upon. 

Implacable, im-plakkah-bul (Latin, in; 
placo, to pacify). Not to be appeased or 
pacified ; stubborn, or constant in ill-will. 

Implicate, implee-kate (Latin, in; 
jolico, to fold). To entangle ; to embarrass ; 
to involve ; to show or prove to be connected 
or concerned. 

Implicit, im-plissit (Latin, iii; plico,to 
fold). Literally, wrappqd up in ; hence, 
trusting to the word or authority of an- 
other ; resting wholly on another. 

Import, im-port (Latin, in; porta, to 
carry). That which is borne or conveyed 
by words ;, signification ; meaning ; ten- 
dency ; of great consequence or moment ; 
that which is brought from one country to 
another, usually expressed in the plural, 
imports. 

Importunate, im-poi-tu-nate (Latin, 
in; porto, to cai'ry). Incessant in solicita- 
tion ; making constant requests ; pressing j 
urgent. 

Imposition of Hands (Latin, impono^ 
to place upon). In ecclesiastical affairs, 
the sign and seal of confirmation and ordi- 
nation to the ministry and to deaconship. 

Impost, im-poste (French, impost). 
Any tax or tribute levied by authority ; a 
toll; custom. 

Impotence, impo-tens (Latin, i^i; 
potens, powerful). Want of strength or 
power ; inability ; weakness ; imbecility. 

ImpOLind, im-pound (Saxon, in pyn- 
dan, to pen in). To inclose as in a pound ; 
to confine ; to restrain within limits. 

Imprecation, impree-kayshun (Lat., 
in; precor, to pray). The act of invoking 
evil on any one ; curse ; execration. 

Impregnable, im-pregnah-bul (Latin, 
in; preliendo, to take). Not to be taken 
by assault ; not to be forced ; invincible ; 
unconquerable ; inaccessible. 

Impregnate, im-pregnate (French, 
impregner). To communicate the qualities 
or virtues of one thing to another. 



154 



IMP 



INC 



impressible, im-pressy-bul (Latin, 
impressuvi, stamped). That may receive 
impressions ; easily receiving or yielding 
to an impression. 

Impriraatur, impree-maytur (Latin, 
ivqjrimatur, let it be printed). The term 
applied to the privilege or license to print 
a book ; used also to express approval by 
a critic, &c. 

Imprimis, im-pri-mis (Latin) . Firstly ; 
in the first place ; first in order. 

Im.print, im-print (Latin, in; premo, 
to press). The designation of the place 
where, by whom, and when a book is pub- 
lished. 

Im.promptU, im-promtu (French). 
Without previous study; an extempora- 
neous composition. 

Im.pr opriator, im - propree - p.ytur 
(Latin, in; 2)rop7~itis, belonging to). One 
who ap2:)ropriates ; a layman having church 
lands, or an ecclesiastical living. 

Im.provisator e, impro - vizzah - tory 
(Italian). A man who makes rhymes and 
.short poems extemporaneously ; feminine, 
imj^'rovisairice. 

Iraprovise, impro-vize (Latin, in; pro, 
lorvv'ard; video, to see). To speak extem- 
poraneously ; to contrive on the spur of the 
moment ; to substitute on an emergency. 

Impugn, im-pune (Latin, in, against ; 
purjno, to contend). To resist ; to contra- 
dict ; to assail ; to attack ; to question the 
truth of a statement or the honesty of a 
purpose. 

Im.p"Qmty, im-puny-te (Latin, in ; 
imnio' to punish). Exemption from 
punishment ; freedom from penalty ; secu- 
rity from chastisement. 

Impute, im-pute (Latin, in, upon ; 
indo, to consider). To charge with ; to 
attribute ; to set to the account of ; to 
reckon as belonging to. 

•Inadvertence, inad-vertens (Latin, 
in; advertens, turning to). Literally, not 
turning the mind to ; want of caution or 
consideration ; inattentive ; careless. 

Inamorato, inam-o-rahto (Italian). A 
lover ; a man in love. 

Inane, in-aue (Latin, inanis, empty). 
Void ; empty ; wanting in intelligence and 
understanding. 

Inanition, innah-nishun (Latin, inanis, 
empty). Emptiness ; exhaustion ; want 
of sustenance. 

Inaugurate, in-awgu-rate (Latin, in; 
augur, a Roman soothsayer). To invest 



with office ; to admit to ; to consecrate ; to 
induct by solemn rites ; to enter upon or 
commence. 

Incandescence, inkan-dessens (Latin, 
incandesco, to become white hot). The 
glowing or shining appearance of heated 
bodies ; properly, the acquisition of a whit® 
heat. 

Incantation, incan-tayshun (Latin, 
in ; canto, to sing). A magical charm ; 
the act of enchanting ; ceremonies of witch- 
craft. 

Incapacitate, inkah-passy-tate (Lat., 
in; capio, to take). To render or make 
incapable ; to deprive of competent power 
or ability- 
Incarcerate, in-karsy-rate (Latin, in; 
career, a prison). To imprison ; to confine ; 
to shut up or inclose. 

Incendiary, in-sendy-ary (Latin, in- 
cendo, to set on fire). One who sets on 
fire; generally, to the dwelling or property 
of another ; metaphorically, one who fo- 
ments strife and inflames the passions ; a 
promoter of quarrels. 

Tncense, in-sense (Latin, incendo, to 
set on fire). Perfume exhaled by fire ; the 
odours of spices and gums burnt in religious 
rites ; acceptable prayers and praises ; 
figuratively, anything grateful to the feel- 
ings, as flattery. 

Incentive, in-sentiv (Latin, incendo, t? 
kindle). That which incites or encourages ; 
kindling ; provoking ; that which operates 
on the mind or passions, and prompts to 
good or ill. 

Inception, in-sepshun (Latin, incipio, 
to begin). A beginning ; a commencement. 

Incertitude, in-serty-tude (Latin, in; 
certus, certain). Doubt ; uncertainty. 

Inclioate, inko-ate (Latin, inchoo,to be- 
gin). Begun; commenced; entered upon. 

Incidence, insy-dens (Latin, incido, to 
fall on). The direction in which one body 
falls or strikes on another. The angle which 
the direction of the falling or moving body 
makes with the plane struck is called the 
angle of incidence. 

Incidental, insy-dental (Latin, zncido, 
to fall on). Casual ; happening by chance ; 
secondary to somethmg else ; connected 
with some main object ; occasional. 

Incipient, in-sippy-ent (Latin, inci- 
2nens). Beginning; commencing, as in- 
cipient insanity. 

Incision, in-sizzhun (Latin, incido, to 
cut). A cut ; a gash ; a wound ; the sepa- 



li 



INC 



IND 



155 



ration of the surface of any substance by a 
shai-p instrument. 

Incisor, insi-sor (Latin, incido, to cut). 
A cutting tooth ; the four front teeth of 
both jaws are called incisors. 

Incite, in-site (Latin, tn; cito, to move). 
To urge on ; to push forward in a design ; 
to animate by persuasion or promises. 

Incivism, in-civizm (Latin, m ; civis, a 
citizen). Want of patriotism ; want of love 
for one's country. 

Inclined Plane. In mechanics, a 
plane which forms with a horizontal plane 
some angle less than a right angle. 

Incognito, in-kogne-to (Italian, un- 
known). Concealed or disguised ; especially 
applied to the assumption of a meaner rank 
by royal and noble personages ; also con- 
tracted to incoff. 

In commendam, in-kom-mendam 
(Latin). In ecclesiastical law, to hold a 
vacant Church living by favour of the 
Crown, till a proper pastor is provided. 

Incompatible, incom - patty - bul 
(French). Inconsistent with something- 
else ; such as cannot subsist, or cannot be 
])ossessed together with something else ; 
irreconcilably different, or disagreeing; 
incongruous. 

Incongruous, in-kong-groo-us (Latin, 
i>i; congruns, suitability). Unsuitable; 
not fitting ; ill adapted for ; inconsistent ; 
absurd. 

Inconsequent, in-konsy-kwent (Latin, 
in ; consecpcens, following). Without regular 
inference ; want of relation to, or connec- 
tion with ; not following in order or suc- 
cession ; not ensuing as an effect. 

Incorporate, in-kawrpo-rate (Latin, 
in; corpus, a body). To embody ; to mingle, 
or blend one body or substance into an- 
other ; to mix intimately ; to join as 
one. 

Incorporeal, in-kawr-po-real (Latin, 
in; corpiis, a body). Immaterial; not con- 
sisting of matter; not having a material 
body. 

Incorrigible, in-corijah-bul (French, 
incorrigihie). Bad ; beyond the power of 
being made better by correction ; hope- 
lessly depraved ; eiToneous beyond hope of 
instruction. 

Increment, inkre-ment (Latin, incresco, 
to increase). Growth or increase in quantity 
or number ; produce ; matter added. 

Incubation, inku-bayshun (Latin, in, 
on; aibo, t5 lie). The act of sitting on 



eggs to hatch them ; figuratively, brooding 
over anything. 

Incubus, inku-bus (Latin, in, upon ; 
culo, to lie). The visitation known as 
nightmare, and which is usually accom- 
panied by a sensation of great weight upon 
the chest. 

Inculcate, in-kulkate (Latin, in; calco, 
to tread). To impress by frequent admoni- 
tion and repetition ; to impress upon the 
mind by forcible instruction. 

Incumbent, in-kum-bent (Latin, in, 
upon ; cumho, to lie). Lying, leaning, rest- 
ing, or reposing upon ; resting upon, as a 
duty that must be borne or supported. In 
ecclesiastical law, an incumbent is a clerk 
in holy orders, who is resident on his bene- 
fice with cure. 

Incur, in-kur (Latin, m/ curro, to run). 
Literally, to run into ; hence, to encounter ; 
to meet ; to become subject to, or liable 
for. 

Incursion, (Latin, in ; curro, to run). 
An inroad ; an invasion ; an attack upon 
the province of another, and usually with- 
out conquest. 

Indefatigable, indy-f attiga-bul (Latin, 
in; de; fatigo, to weary). Unwearied; 
not to be worn out or exhausted ; never 
fatigued. 

Indefeasible, indy-feeza-bul (Latin^ 
in; de ; facio). Incapable of being de- 
feated or made void ; not to be annulled 
or abrogated. 

Indelible, in-delly-bul (Latin, in ; . 
deleo, to blot out). Not to be blotted ; 
not to be effaced ; fixed beyond the power 
of erasure. 

Indem.ni:fy, in-demny-fi (Latin, in; 
damnum, loss). To secure against loss, or 
penalty ; to compensate for loss sustained. 

Indemnity, in-demny-te (Latin, in; 
damnum, loss). Exemption from punish- 
ment ; security against loss, or penalty. 

Indenture, in-denture. A writing 
containing a contract, as of apprenticeship. 
It takes its name from the circumstance 
that formerly indentures were duplicates 
laid together and indented, so that the two 
papers, or parchments, corresponded to 
each other. 

Independents. A sect of Protestant 
Dissenters, who maintain that every con- 
gregation of Christians is a complete 
church, subject to no superior authority, 
and competent to perform eveiy act of 
government in ecclesiastical affairs. 



156 



1^T> 



INP 



Index, in-deks (Latin, iiidico, to show). 
Tliat which points out ; a hand to show 
the way, or the hour ; a table of the con- 
tents of a book. 

Indicative, in-dikkah -tiv (Latin, indico, 
to show). Showing ; gi\'ing intimation or 
knowledge of something not visible, or 
obvious. In grammar, a term apjalied to 
the mood of a verb, which affirms or denies 
a thing. 

Indict, in-dite (Latin, indico, to show). 
In law, to accuse or charge with a crime or 
misdemeanor in writing, by a grand jmy 
under oath. 

Indigence, indy-gens (Latin, indigeo, 
to want). Xeed ; want ; necessity ; po- 
verty. 

Indigenous, in-dijin-us (Latin, indu, 
within; geno, to beget). JSFative to a 
country ; belonging to the soil ; not 
exotic. 

Indissoluble, in-disso-lubl (Latin, hi; 
dissolvo, to loosen). Not to be melted or 
dissolved; .nseparable ; indestructible; 
firm ; stable ; binding. 

Indite, in-dite (Latin, indico, to show). 
To compose ; to write ; to dictate what is 
to be written. 

Indoctrinate, in-doktre-nate (Latin, 
ill ; doctrina, learning). To instruct ; to 
tincture with any opinion ; to teach rudi- 
ments and principles. 

Indomitable, in-dommy-ta-bul (Latin, 
in; domo, to tame). Not to be subdued; 
not discouraged by obstacles ; unimpres- 
sible; untameable. 

Indubitable, In-dewbit-a-bul (Latin, 
tn; duhito, to doubt). Not admitting of 
doubt or distrust; certain ; assured. 

Induce, in-duse (Latin, induco, to in- 
troduce). To prevail upon ; to lead by 
persuasion ; to influence by argument. 

Induct, in-dukt (Latin, induco, to intro- 
duce). To bring in ; to introduce ; to put 
in possession, as an office or benefice. 

Inductive, in-duktiv (Latin, inchico, 
to introduce). Pertaining to induction ; 
introduction ; a mode of reasoning from 
particulars to generals ; deduced from ex- 
periment, as opposed to hypothesis. 

Indulgence. In the Eomish Church, 
remission of the punishment due to sins, 
granted by the Pope or Church, and sup- 
posed to save the sinner from purgatory. 

Indurate, indu-rate (Latin, durus, 
hard). To harden; to grow or become 



hard; figuratively, to deprive of sensi 
bility ; to render obdurate. 1 1 

Industrial, in-dustre-al (French, II 
industriel). Pertaining to manufacture or " 
produce of industry. 

Inebriety,in-e-briety (Latin, in; ebrius, 
drunken). A state of drunkenness ; intoxi- 
cation. 

Ineffable, in-effah-bul (Latin, in; effor, 
to speak). Unspeakable ; unutterable '; 
not to be expressed. 

Inept, in-ept (Latin, ineptus). Trifling ; 
foolish ; unflt for any pui-pose ; unready ; 
awkward ; useless. 

Inert, in-ert (Latin, iners). Dull ; 
sluggish ; motionless ; destitute of the 
power of moving itself, or of active r-e- 
sistance. 

Inertia, in-ersheah (Latin, iners). The 
passive property of bodies, by which they 
persist in a state of rest or motion, and 
receive motion in proportion to the force 
impressed upon them, and resist a,s much 
as they are resisted ; called also in the 
language of philosophy, vis inertia. 

In Esse, in es-se. A Latin phrase, 
signifying in being ; an actual existence, as 
distinguished from in posse. 

Inevitable, in-ewit-a-bul (Latin, in ; 
evito, to avoid). That may not be shunned 
or escaped ; unavoidable. 

Inexorable, in-egzur-a-bul (Latin, in ; 
exoro, to entreat). Not to be moved 
by prayer or entreaty ; neither to be per- 
suaded nor dissuaded ; deaf to entreaty ; 
relentless. 

Inexplicable, in-eksphkka-bul (Fr., 
inexplicable). Not to be explained ; in- 
capable of being, made clear or manifest ; 
involved. 

InExtenso,in ex-t»nso (Latin). Fully; 
at length ; without abridgement ; word for 
word. 

Inextricable, ineks-trikka-bul (Latin, 
m; extrico, to extricate). That cannot be 
extricated or disentangled. 

Infancy. The period, physically con- 
sidered, from birih to seven years, and 
legally, till the age of twenty-one, previ- 
ous to which no on« can inherit property, 
execute any obligation, or incur any re- 
sponsibility, except for necessaries. 

Infanta, in-fantah. In Spain and 
Portugal, any princess of the roj'^al blood, 
except the eldest daughter when heiress 
apparent. 



INF 



INJ 



157 



rniantry, inf an-tre. The foot soldiers 
of an army. 

Infatuated, in-f attu-ated (Lat. , faViius, 
foolish). Bereft of reason or common sense ; 
affected with folly ; inspired with a foohsh, 
extravagant passion. 

Inference, infer-ens (Latin, in; fero, to 
bring). A deduction from premises ; a 
conclusion drawn from previous argu- 
ments; a result arrived at by what has 
been suggested, not as an absolutely 
necessary consequence, but as a probable 
truth. 

Infinite, in fin-it (Latin, in; finitus, 
terminated). Without end, bound, or limit ; 
countless ; measureless ; immense. Ap- 
plied hyperbolicaUy to anything of very 
great or indefinite dimensions. 

Infinitesimal, in-finny-tessy-mal. In- 
finitely small ; divided into the minutest 
portions. 

Infinitive, in-finny-tiv (Latin, in; 
finitus, terminated). Undefined, or not 
defining ; applied especially, in grammar, 
to that mood of the verb which affirms, 
without limiting its number or person. 

Inflated, in-flayted (Latin, hi; flo, to 
blow). SwoUen or distended with air ; 
puffed or blown out. Figuratively applied 
to a person puffed up with vanity ; or to 
a literary style opposed to simplicity and 
perspicuity. 

Inflection, in-flekshun (Latin, in; 
flecto, to bend). The act of bending or 
turning from a right line or course ; vari- 
ation of terminations; modulation of the 
voice in speaking. 

Inflexible, in-fleksy-bul (Latin, inflex- 
ihilis). Unbending ; not to be induced or 
persuaded ; firm ; constant ; steady ; fixed. 

Influx, in-fluks (Latin, in; fluo, flow). 
The act of flowing in ; a sudden rush ; 
infusion ; intermixture. 

Informal, in-formal. Not in the 
usual form ; irregular. 

Infra. A Latin preposition used in 
compound words, signifying beneath. 

Infraction, in-frakshun (Latin, in; 
francjo, to break). The act of breaking ; 
violation. 

Infrangible, in-franjy-bul (Latin, 
frango, to break). Not to be broken, or 
■ separated into parts ; not to be violated. 

Infusion, in-f ewshun (Latin, in; fundo, 
to pour) . Mixing by pouring in ; instilling ; 
steeping or soaking ; liquor made by in- 
fusion. 



Ingenious, iu-jeeny-us (Latin, inge- 
?ii%m,. capacity). Possessed of genius; 
inventive; skilful; witty. 

Ingenuous, in-jennu-us (Latin, in- 
gemius). Frank ; candid ; straight-for- 
ward ; free from reserve, disguise, oi- equ.i- 
vocation. 

Ingestion, in-jestshun (Latin, in; gero, 
to carry). The act of throwing into the 
stomach. 

Ingot. A small bar of metal, made 
of a certain form and size, by casting it in 
moulds. The term is chiefly applied to 
the small bars of gold and silver, intended 
either for coining or for exportation to 
foreign countries. 

Ingrain, in-grain. To dye in the grain, 
or before manufacture. 

Ingrate, in-grate (French, ingrat). An 
ungrateful person. 

Ingratiate, in-grashy-ate (Latin, in; 
gratia, favour). To commend one's self to 
another's good-will, confidence, or kind- 
ness ; to gain or secure the favour of a 
person. 

Ingress, in-gi-ess (Latin, ingressns). 
Entrance ; power of entrance ; means of 
entering. 

I. H. S. An abbreviation for Jesus 
Hominnm Salvator ; that is, Jesus, the 
Saviour of mankind. 

Inhale, in-hale (Latin, in; halo, to 
breathe). To draw into the lungs ; to 
inspire. 

Inherent, in-herent (Latin, in; hcereo^ 
to adhere). Existing inseparably in some- 
thing else ; naturally pertaining to ; 
inborn ; inbred. 

Inhibit, in-hibbit (Latin, in; habeo, to 
have). To forbid ; . to restrain ; to hinder ; 
to interdict. 

Inhume, in-hume (Latin, in; hwno, 
to bury). To bury ; to inter as a dead 
body ; to digest in a vessel surrounded by 
warm eai-th. 

Inimical, in-immy-kal(Lat., i»; aviiais, 
a friend). Unfriendly ; averse ; hostile. 

Initiate, in-isshy-ate (Latin, inititau, a 
beginning). To begin ; to enter upon ; to 
lay the foundation ; to instruct in rudi- 
ments or principles ; to introduce. 

Inject, in-jekt (Latin, injectus, thrown). 
To throw in ; to dart into ; to introduce 
quickly, suddenly. 

Injunction, in-junkshun (Latin, in- 
jungo, to enjoin). A command ; order ; 
precept ; the direction of a superior vested 



158 



INL 



INS 



with autliority ; -urgent advice. In law, 
a wiit of the Court of Chancery, forbidding 
or requiring some specified act to be done. 
In limine, in-Ummy-ne. A Latin 
term, signifying at the threshold ; at the 
beginning or outset' 

Innate, in-nate (Latin, innaUis). In- 
born ; native ; natural. 

Innocuous, in-nokku-us (Latin, iano- 
cvMs). Safe; haiToless ; nothm-tful; inno- 
cent ; producing no ill effect. 

Innovation, inno-vayshun (Latin, in ; 
novas, new). Introduction of novelties ; 
change in established laws, customs, rites, 
or practices. 

Innoxious, in-nokshus (Latin, innox- 
ius). Free from mischievous qualities; 
hai-mless ; innocent ; pure. 

Innuendo, innu-endo (Latin, imiuo, 
to nod). A hint or intimation ; an 
insinuation ; a remote reference to a person 
or thing not named. 

Inoculate, in-okku-late (Latin, in; oai- 
his, the eye). To insert or introduce an 
eye, a bud, or graft ; to communicate a 
disease, particiilarly the smaU-pos, by 
inserting matter into the flesh. 

Inordinate, in-awrdy-nate (Latin, 
viiordinoMs). Irregular ; beyond all 
bounds or limits ; excessive ; immoderate. 

Inorganic, inor-gannik (Latin, in. 
Greek, organon, an organ). Void of 
organs; not possessing the organs pe- 
culiar to animal and vegetable existence. 

In petto (Itahan, in petto, within the 
breast). Held in reseiwe ; kept back; 
performed, but not proclaimed to the world. 

In posse, in pos-se (Latin). In possible 
existence ; likely, but not certain to become. 

In prospeetu, in pro-spektu (Latin). 
Contemplating the commission of some act ; 
intending to perform at some futui'e time ; 
on the verge of. 

In puissant, am-pwees-song^French). 
"Weak ; powerless. 

Inquisition, inkwe-zisshun (Latin, 
inquisitio). Judicial inquiry ; examination; 
an ecclesiastical tribunal for the detection 
and punishment of heresy. 

Insatiable, in-sayshea-bl (Latin, in; 
satis, sufficient). Greedy beyond measure ; 
that cannot be satisfied. 

Inscrutable, in-skroota-bul (Latin, 
inscrutalilis). Not to be searched or 
inquii-ed into ; that cannot be traced or 
followed; unsearchable?; undiscoverable. 



Insensate, in-sensate (French, insense). 
Without thought or sensibility of present 
or approaching danger ; stupid ; devoid of 
feehng. 

Insidious, in-siddy-us (Latin, in; sedeo, 
to sit). Sly ; crafty ; holding out false 
pretences ; watching to ensnare. 

Insignia, in-signy-ah (Latin). Marks; 
signs ; badges of distinction, or of ofl&ce. 

In situ, in se-tu (Latin). In its original 
situation. 

Insoluble, in-sollu-bul (Latin, insolu- 
hilis). That cannot be dissolved, particu- 
larly by a liquid; not to be solved or 
explained. 

Inspire, in-spire (Latin, in; spiro, to 
breathe). To draw in the breath ; to 
breathe into ; hence, to infuse into the 
mind ; to animate ; to infuse the spirit ; 
to du-ect by the spirit. 

Inspissate, in-spis-sate (La,tin, in; 
sj^issus, thick). To thicken ; to make 
thick ; to bring to greater consistence 
by evaporating the thinner parts. 

Installation, in-stall-ayshun (Itahan, 
installare, to place). The putting in 
possession of an ofl&ce, rank, or order, with 
the customary ceremonies. To install a 
clergyman is to place over a particular 
church one who has been akeady or- 
dained. 

Instant, contracted inst., used in 
coiTespondence, kc. for the cm-rent month. 
The distinction between instant and current 
is this : inst. denotes that the day of the 
month is past, and curt, that it has not yet 
arrived. 

Instant er, in-stanter (Latin). In 
law, instantly ; without loss of time. 

In statu quo (Latin). A term 
signifying that condition in which things 
were left at a certain period ; as when 
belligerent parties agree that their mutual 
relations should be in statu cfo.o, or as they 
were before the commencement of hos- 
tUities. 

Instigate, inste-gate (Latin, in; stigo, 
to push on). To incite ; to provoke ; to 
set on ; to encourage to do either right or 
wrong. 

Instinctively, in-stinktiv-le (Latin, 
in; stinguo, to put out hght). By force of 
instinct ; by the call of nature. 

Insular, insu-lar (Latin, insula, an 
island). Pertaining to an island; sur- 
rounded by water; separated ; discca- 
nected- 



ms 



INT 



159 



Insuperable, in-supera-bul (Latin, 
in; sufer, above). Not to be overcome; 
insurmountable ; that cannot be passed 
over. 

Insurance. A contract by which one 
or more persons engage to make good any 
jOSS which another may sustain by fire, 
shipwreck, or other cause specified. When 
the insurance is made against risk at sea, 
it is distinguished by the name of marine 
insurance. Life insurance is where a person, 
by the payment of a yearly premmm, 
insures to his heirs a certain sum, payable 
at his death. Insurances of this kind are 
also made for a specified number of years, 
and instead of an annual premium, a single 
sum may be paid, depending in amount 
upon the age of the party upon whose life 
the insurance is made. There is also acci- 
dent insurance, railway insurance^! &c. 

Insurgent, in-surjent (Latin, in; surgo, 
to rise). One who rises against established 
authority ; a rebel. 

Intaglio, in-talyo (Italian, intagliare, 
to carve). In sculpture, and gem-engrav- 
ing, a stone in which the subject is hollowed 
out, so that an impression from it would 
present the appearance of bas-relief. An 
intaglio is the opposite of a cameo. 

Integer, inte-jur (Latin). The whole 
of a thing. In arithmetic, the whole num- 
ber, as distinguished from a fraction. 

Integral, in-tegi-al (Latin, integer, the 
Avhole). Whole ; coiaplete ; entire ; not 
fractional. 

Integument, in-teggu-ment (Latin, in- 
tego, to cover). That which naturally invests 
or covers anything. 

Intendant, in-tendant (French). An 
officer who superintends ; one who has the 
direction and management of some public 
business. 

Inter. A Latin prefix, signifying among 
or between. 

Inter Alia, inter-aleya (Latin). Among 
other things or matters. 

Intercalary, inter-kalary (Latin, inter, 
between ; calo, to call). Inserted. An 
intercalary verse, a verse said or repeated 
between others : an intercalary day, a day 
declared to be between others, as the 29th 
of Februarj- in leap-year. 

Inter-communication, inter - com - 
muny-kayshun (Latin, inter, between ; con, 
together ; munus, a gift). Reciprocal com- 
munication ; imparting information or 
knowledge one to the other 



Interdict, inter -dikt (Latin, inter; 
dico, to speak). To prohibit ; to forbid • a 
prohibition; a Popish prohibition, restrain- 
ing the clergy from performing religious 
duties. 

Interest. In commerce, the allowance 
made for the loan or forbearance of a sum 
of money which is lent for, or becomes due, 
at a certain time. It is always, in regular 
transactions, so much per cent., and is either 
simple or compound. Simjjle interest is tbat 
which arises upon the principal only, for 
the whole time of the loan : compou/ul 
interest is that which becomes due on the 
principal and interest added together, and 
are perpetually accumulating. 

Interim, inter-im (Latin). The time be- 
tween ; the meantime ; intervening period. 

Interlard, inter-lard (French, entrelar- 
der). In cookery, to mix lean meat with 
fat or lard ; hence, to lay in between ; to 
interpose ; to mix ; to diversify by mixture. 

Interlinear, inter-lin-eer (Latin, inter, 
between; linea, a line). Inserted between 
the lines of the original composition or 
writing. 

Interlocution, inter-lo-kew shun (Lat., 
inter, between ; loquor, to speak). Dialogue, 
or the act of speaking by turns ; speaking 
between or among different persons. In 
law, an intermediate act or decree before 
final decision. 

Interlope, inter-lope (Latin, inter, be- 
tween ; Dutch, loo-pen, to run). To'" come 
or go in between ; to intercept advantage ; 
to prevent right ; to forestall. 

Interlude, inter-lude (Latin, inter, be- 
tween ; ludo, to play). A piece performed 
during the intervals of a play, or between 
other pieces. 

_ Inter-marriage, inter-mar-rij. Mar- 
riage between families where each takes 
one and gives another. 

Intermediate, inter-meedy-ate (Lat., 
inter, between ; medius, middle). Lying 
between two extremes ; intervening. 

Interminable, in-termina-bul (Latin, 
in ; terminus, a boundary). Boundless ; 
endless ; without limit. 

Intermittent, inter-mit-tent (Latir>, 
inter, between ; initio, to send). Ceasing 
at intervals ; occurring fitfully or at inter- 
vals. In medical pra'ctice, applied to a 
fever or other disease, the paroxysms of 
which recur at fixed or uncertain periods ; 
also, to a pulse which, after some vibration, 
ceases to beat for a short time. 



160 



INT 



INT 



International, inter-nasshun-al (Lat., 
•irier, between; natio, a nation). Eelating 
to the intercourse between different; 
nations. 

Internecine, inter-ne-sin (Latin, inter; 
nex, death). Compassing mutual destruc- 
tion ; tending to kill one another. 

Inter nos, inter noz (Latin). Between 
ourselves; in strict confidence; same as 
entre nous. 

Interpellation, in - terpel - layshun 
(Latin, inter, between ; 2^6llo, to call). An 
interruption ; an Interference ; interces- 
sion ; a summons ; an earnest address. 

Interpleader, inter-plee-dur. In law, 
a hill of interpleader, in Chancery, or where 
a person owes rent or a debt to one of the 
parties in suit ; but till the determination 
of such suit, he knows not who is the legal 
claimant, and he desires that they may 
interplead or settle their claims between 
themselves, so that he may pay with secu- 
rity to himself. 

Interpolate, in-terpo-late (Lat., inter, 
between; polio, to polish). To introduce 
or insert any^thing new ; to foist a thing 
into a place wliere it does not belong. 

InterregnuTQ, inter-regnum (Latin). 
The time during which a throne is vacant 
between the death of one prince and the 
accession of another. 

Inter rex, in-ter reks (Latin, inter, 
^between; rex, king). A regent; a person 
appointed to discharge the royal functions 
during a vacancy of the throne. 

Interior, in-teery-ur (Latin). Inner; 
not outward; towards the middle or centre; 
inland country. 

Interrogative, inter-roggah-tiv (Lat., 
inter ; rogo, to ask). Denoting a question ; 
expressed in the form of a question. 

In terrorem, inter-ro-rem (Latin). 
For a terror or warning; something held 
over a person to intimidate him. 

Inter se, in-ter se (Latin). Among 
themselves. 

Intersect, inter-sekt (Latin, inter, be- 
tween ; seco, to cut). To divide ; to cross 
each other ; to cut between one by another. 

Intersperse, inter-spers (Latin, inte)', 
between; sparsus, scattered). To scatter 
or sprinkle between or among; to place 
here and there aimong other things. 

Interstice, inter- stis (Latin, inter, be- 
tween ; sto, to stand). Space standing or 
situated between ; time between acts. 



Interval, Musical. A term applied 
to a certain relation between musical notes, 
which depends on the number of their 
vibrations. The simplest or most consonant 
interval is that of the octave. Compound 
intervals are those which exceed an octave, 
and they are named according to the distance 
of the two boundary notes. 

Intervene, inter-veen (Latin, inter, 
between ; renio, to come). To come be- 
tween or among ; to interrupt ; to fall be- 
tween points of time or events. 

Intestate, in-testate (Latin, in ; testis, 
a witness). Dying without a will ; without 
having made a will, or testifying the will ; a 
person who dies without having made a will. 

Intestine, in-testin (Latin, intiis, 
within). Inward; internal; within a king- 
dom or state; domestic ; the interior passage 
of the body ; a bowel. 

Intolerant, in-toUy-rant (Latin, in; 
tolero, to endure). Impatient; unable to 
bear ; refusing to tolerate others. 

Intonation, into-nayshun (Latin, in; 
tono, to thunder, or sound). The modula- 
tion of the human voice in speaking or 
singing ; the act or manner of sounding. 

In toto, in to-to. A Latin phraso; 
signifying wholly ; entirely. 

Intra. A Latin preposition and adverb, 
signifying vnikin. 

Intractable, in-tractah-bul (Latin, 
intractabilis). Ungovernable ; not to be 
managed or guided ; obstinate ; perverse ; 
stubborn. 

Intransitive, in-transy-tiv (Latin, 
intransitivus, not passed over). That cannot 
or may not go or pass over. In grammar, an 
intransitive verb, or verb neuter, expresses 
an action, or state limited to the agent, as 
/ walk, I sleep. 

Intransitn, in-trans.y-tu (Latin). In 
the act of passing from one place to another. 

Intrench, in-trensh (Latin, in; and 
French, trencher). To dig or cut trenches 
around a place, as in fortification ; figura- 
tively, to invade or encroach upon what 
belongs to another. 

Intricate, in-trikkat (Latin, in; trtcce, 
hairs or threads used to ensnare birds). 
Entangled; perplexed; involved; compli* 
cated ; obscure or difficult. 

Intrigue, in-treog (Latin, in; tricce). 
A plot ; a stratagem ; an amour carried on 
with great artifice by lovers ; a scheme to 
subvert government. 



INT 



lOD 



161 



Intrinsic, in-trinsik , (Latin, intra, 
withia; secus, near). True iu its own 
nature; actually existing qualities; belong- 
ing' to the essence of a thing; not accidental 
or apparent. 

Intro. A Latin adverb, signifying into, 
within. 

Introeession, intro-seshun (Latin, 
intro, into ; cedo, to fall back). A sinking 
or depression of parts inward. 

Introit, in-troyt (Latin, introitus, an 
entrance). In the Roman Catholic Chiirch, 
a chant when the priest enters within the 
rails of the altar. 

Intromission, intro-misshun (Latin, 
intro, into ; mitto, to send). A sending in; 
an intermeddling with the effectsof another ; 
Buffering to enter. 

Introspection, intro-spekshim (Latin, 
intro, within ; specio, to look). A view of 
the inside or interior; an examination of 
the heart or mind. 

Introvert, intro-vert (Latin, intro, 
within; verto, to turn). To turn in- 
wards. 

Intuition, intu-isshun( Latin, wiy tueor, 
to look mentally). Insight ; immediate 
perception without the intervention of 
reasoning, argument, or testimony. 

Inundation, innun-dayshun (Latin, 
in; unda, a wave). A flood; a deluge; an 
overflow of water. 

Inure, in-ure {in; and Norman, ure, 
use or practice). To habituate ; to accus- 
tom ; to apply or expose in use or practice 
till a habit is formed, and inconvenience is 
no longer felt. 

In vacuo, in vaku-o (Latin). In a 
vacuum ; a void or empty space. 

Invalid, invah-leed (Latin, invalidus, 
weak). A weak or infii-m person; one 
disabled by sickness, or worn out in war- 
fare. 

Invalidate, in-vally-date (Latin, in- 
validus, weak). To weaken ; to make 
void ; to render of no effect ; to desti'oy 
the force of. 

Invaluable, in-valua-bul. _ Highly 
prized ; precious ; above estimation ; 
deemed of exceeding worth. 

Invective, in- vektiv (Latin, in, against ; 
veho, to carry). Harsh censui-e ; angry 
abuse ; railing speech, containing reproach- 
ful expressions. 

Inveigh., in-vay (Latin, in, against ; 
Kdw, to carry). To rail against ; k) re- 
proach ; to upbraid. 



Inveigle, in-veegul (Norman, inveogler, 
to blind) . To wheedle ; to ensnare ; to 
entice ; to persuade to something evil ; to 
bring a person into our wishes. 

Inverse, in-verse (Latin, in, against ; 
verto, to turn). Opposed to direct ; turned 
in a contrary way; inside out; upside down. 

Invest, in- vest (Latin, in; vestis, a gar- 
ment). To clothe or dress ; hence to clothe 
figuratively, with an office or dignity ; to 
put into the hands or possession ; to put 
into the funds. 

Inveterate, in-vetter-ate (Latin, in; 
vetus, old). Deep-rooted ; old ; firmly 
fixed ; settled by long custom or continu- 
ance ; obstinate by long usage. 

Invidious, in-viddy-us(Latin, in; video, 
to look upon). Viewing with envy ; re- 
garding with evU eyes; grieving at the 
good fortune of others ; likely to incur ill- 
will or hatred, or to provoke envy. 

Invigorate, in-viggo-rate (Latin, in; 
vigor, vigour). To give vigour toj to 
strengthen ; to animate. 

Invincible, in-vinsy-bul (Latin, in; 
vinco, to conquer). - Not to be conquered ; 
not to be overcome ; that may not or can- 
not be beaten. 

Inviolable, in- viola -bul (Latin, in; 
violo, to violate). Not to be broken or 
infringed ; not to be profaned ; sacred. 

Inviseate, in-viskate (Latin, in; viscus, 
glue). To daub with glue ; to apply gum ; 
to entangle in glutinous matter. 

Invocation, invo-kayshun (Latin, in; 
voco, to call). The act of addressing 
prayer ; the form used in addressing any 
being for aid and assistance. 

Invoice, in-voise (French, envoyez, to 
send). The accoant of the freight of a ship, 
or of the articles and price of goods sent by 
a factor ; an account of goods sold or con- 
signed, with their prices. 

Involuntary, in- voUun-tary ( Latin, i7i; 
volo, to fly). Not willing ; not having will 
or choice ; not wishing or desiring ; inde- 
pendent of, or against the will. 

Involution, iavo-lewshun (Latin, in; 
Volvo, to roU). The act of involving or en- 
folding ; the state of being entangled ; 
comphcation. 

Involve, in-volv( Latin, in;volo, to roU), 
To envelop or enwrap in surrounding 
matter ; to entangle ; to complicate. 

Iodine, i-o-din (Greek, iodes, resembling 
a violet, or violet-coloured). A substance 

L 



163 



ION 



ITA 



obtained from certain marine plants, which 
give forth a violet-coloured vapour. 

Ionic, i-onik. Pertaining to Ionia, in 
Greece ; applied to a dialect in the Greek 
language. In architecture, the Ionic order, 
the third order of architecture, intermediate 
between the strong Doric and the delicate 
Corinthian. 

Iota, i-otah. Primarily, the Greek 
letter i, which, iu contractions, is often 
signified by a sort of dot imder another 
letter; hence, a tittle, the least assign- 
able quantity. 

Ipse Dixit, ip-sy dik-sit. A Latin 
phrase, signifying " he himself said it." 
It is commonly used substantively to imply 
mere assertion, as, " You have only his ipse 
dixit. ' ' Ipse facto, by the fact itself ; in the 
very act. Ipse jure, by the law itself. 

Ir. A prefix used generally instead of 
in; it sometimes signifies negation or priva- 
tion, being in such cases equivalent to not 
or un, sometimes also, on or upon. 

Irascible, e-rassy-bul (Latin, irascw, 
to be angry). Prone to anger ; hasty in 
temper ; irritable ; easily provoked. 

Ire (Latin, ira, anger). Wrath ; rage ; 
keen resentment, 

Irenical, i-renny-kal (Greek, eirene, 
peace). Pacific ; desii'ous of peace. 

Iris, i-ris (Greek). The rainbow ; any 
coloured circle surrounding another body ; 
the circle round the pupil of the eye. 

Irksome, urk-sum (Saxon, ivarc, grief, 
pain). Wearisome ; troublesome ; toil- 
some ; tedious and harassing in perform- 
ance. 

Ironical, i-ronik-al (Greek, eiron, a 
dissembler). Expressing one thing and 
meaning another ; sarcasm. 

Irradiate,ir-raddy-ate(Latin, in; radio, 
to shine). To dart rays into ; to illumine ; 
to shine ; to adorn with light ; to brighten ; 
to cheer ; to animate. 

Irrational, ir-rashun-al (Latin, in; 
ratio, reason). Not rational; opposed to 
reason ; absxird ; destitute of understand- 
ing ; foolish. 

Irreclaimable,irry-klayma-bul(Latin, 
in; re, back; damo, to cry out). Past 
redemption ; not to be reformed ; untam- 
able. 

Irrefragable, irry-fraja-bul (Latin, in; 
re ; frango, to break) . Not to be resisted ; 
that cannot be refuted or ovei-thrown ; 
incontestible ; undeniable. 



Irrelevant, ir-relly-vant (Latin, in, 
levo, to raise). Not to the purpose ; not 
applicable ; having no connection or rela- 
tion with. 

Irremediable, irree-media-bul (Latin, 
in; re; medeor, to cure). Admitting of no 
cure ; not to be remedied ; not to be cor- 
rected or redressed. 

Irreparable, ir-reppera-bul (Latin, i7i; 
re; paro, to prepare) . Not to be repaired ; 
not to be recovered ; not to be compen- 
sated for. 

Irrevocable, ir-revoka-bul (Latin, in,; 
re, back ; voce, to call). That cannot be 
recalled or repealed. 

Isagon, i-sa-gon (Greek, isos, equal • 
gonia, an angle). A figure whose angles 
are equal. 

Islamism, is-lam-ism (Arabic, salama, 
to be free, safe, or devoted to God). The 
true faith, according to the Mohammedans. 

Iso, i-so. A prefix shortened from isos, 
a Greek adjective, signifying equal. 

Isolated, i-so-layted (Latin, insula, an 
island). Detached ; separate ; standing- 
alone. 

Isomeric, i-som-erik (Greek, isos, 
equal ; meros, a part). Possessing the 
same proportions, but dififerent proper- 
ties. 

Isonomy, i-sono-me (Greek, isos, equal; 
nomos,lsiw). Equal law; equal distribution 
of rights and privileges. 

Issue, ish-u (Latin, ex, out ; eo, to go). 
To go out ; to pass out ; to proceed ; to 
send forth or emit ; to spring from ; to 
flow from. Exit ; egress or passage ; 
event ; consequence ; conclusion ; progeny ; 
offspring. In law, the disputed point or 
question to which two parties in an action 
have narrowed their several allegations, 
and upon which they are desirous of obtain- 
ing a decision ; parties thus circumstanced 
are said to be at issue ; the question so set 
apart is called the issue. 

Isthmian Games, ist-me-an games. 
Among the ancients, certain sports and 
games celebrated on the Isthmus of Co- 
rinth. 

Isthmus, ist-mus. In geography, a 
neck of land joining two continents, or by 
which a peninsula is connected with the 
main land. 

Italic, i-talik. Relating to Italy or its 
letters ; applied to distinguish a kind of 
type used by letter-press printers. 



ITE 

Ite, ite. A termination used in chemical 
lerms, to indicate that a saline compound is 
formed by an acid ending in o%s— thus, 
sulphurises are formed by sulphuro«5 acids, 
with, bases. 

Item, i-tem (Latin). An article ; a 
separate particular ; a hint ; a word used 
when something is to be added. 

Iteration, iter-ayshun (Latin, iteratio). 
Bepetition. 

Itinerant, i-tinny-rant (Latin, iter, a 
going). Going or passing from one place 
to another ; one who travels from place to 
place; joumeyiug; travelling. 

Itis, i-tis. A termination in pathological 
words to the Greek name of the organ or 
part affected, implying a state of inflam- 
mation. 

Ive, ive. A termination signifying 
strength, power; as act-ive, who has the 
power of acting. Mot-ive, that can or may 
move. 

J. 

Jack, jak. The diminutive of the 
proper name John ; commonly applied to 
anything small. Jack was formerly a com- 
mon name for little boys ; and hence the 
terms bootjack, jachspit, which, from having 
been originally applied to the little boy 
whose business was to pull off the boots and 
turn the spit, were natiirally given to the 
instruments substituted for the purpose. 

Jacobin, jakko-bin. A name given 
during the Kevolution in France, to the 
more violent advocates for republican 
government. The appellation originated 
in the circumstance that the secret meet- 
ings of that party were held in a building 
anciently belonging to the Jacobin monks. 
The term Jacobin has been subsequently 
applied to any turbulent demagogue who 
opposes the Government in a secret and 
unlawf 111 manner. 

Jacobite, jakko-bite. In English his- 
tory, one who asserted the rights of King 
James and his family, disavowing the Revo- 
lution of 168&, and -vindicating the doctrines 
of passive obedience and non-resistance 
with respect to the arbitrary proceedings 
>f princes. 

Jacquard Loom. An ingenious in- 
vention of M. Jacquard, of Lyons, adapted 
to a silk or muslin loom, to supersede the 
employment of draw-boys in weaving 
flgured goods. 

Jactitation, jakty-tayshun (Latin, 
jactatio). A tossing of the body ; restless- 
ness ; throwing ; casting ; heaving. 



JAU 



163 



Jaculate, jakku-late (Latin, jaculor). 
To dart ; to throw. 

Jag (Saxon, saga-, a saw). To cut inta 
notches or teeth ; a notch ; denticulation. 

Jaghire, jag-hire. An East Indian 
word, denoting an assignment of the Go- 
vernment share of the produce of a portion 
of land to an individual, either personal or 
for the support of a public establishment, 
particularly of a military nature. The 
holder of a jaghire is styled &jagJiire dar. 

Jagury, jag-ury. In commerce, a 
Bengalese name for a species of coarse 
sugar in an impure state. 

Jab., ja (Hebrew). Jehovah. 

Jalamus, jal-amus. In antiquity, a 
kind of mournful song, used upon the occa- 
sion of death or any other affecting occur- 
rence. 

Jalousie, jal-owsy (French). A screen 
or blind for windows, used in warm climates. 

Jamb, jam {French, jambe, a leg). The 
side-piece of a chimney or door ; a support 
or prop. 

Janitor, jannit-ur (Latm, janua, door, 
or gate). A door-keeper ; a porter ; a jaUor. 

Janizary, janny-eary (Turkish, yengi 
cheri, new soldiers). Formerly, a soldier of 
the Turkish foot-guards ; now abolished. 

Jansenists, jansen-ists. A sect of 
Christians, who followed the opinions of 
Jansenius, bishop of Ypres, in France. 

January, jannu-ary. The first month 
of the year, named after Janus, a heathen 
deity, originally the same as the sun. 

Japanese, jappan-eez. Pertaining to 
Japan, or its inhabitants; a native of 
Japan ; the language of Japan. 

Jargon, jar-gun (Saxon, ganire, to 
chatter). Unintelligible talk ; language 
which is not understood, either by the 
speaker or his hearers. 

Jarring, jar-ring (Saxon, ?/?-re, to clash). 
Discordant ; harsh ; disagreeable ; quarrel- 
ling ; disputing ; shaking ; clashing. 

Jasper, jas-pur. A silicious mineral of 
various colours, and capable of being highly 
polished ; the colours are generally owing 
to the presence of oxide of iron, &c. It is 
commonly found in rocks of volcanic origin. 

Jaundice, jahn-dis (French, jaune, yel- 
low). A disease, of which the distinguish- 
ing peculiarity is, that the whole skiu 
becomes yellow. It proceeds from an 
affection of the liver and gall-bladder, and 
L 2 



164 



JAU 



JOU 



is often superinduced by long continuance 
of melancholy and painful emotions ; hence, 
a person whq talks in a gloomy strain of 
anything, is said to take a jaimdiced view 
of it. 

Jaunt, jahnt (French, janier). A 
ramble; an excursion; a short journey; a 
trip ; a tour. 

Jaunty, jahn-ty. Airy ; gay ; finical ; 
showy. 

Javanese, jawan-eez. Pertaining to 
Java ; a native of Java. 

Jehovah. (Hebrew). The Scriptm-e 
name of the Supreme Being. 

Jejune, je-joon (Latin, jejumis, dry). 
Fasting ; hungry ; empty ; dry ; barren ; 
wanting in substance or interest. 

Jemidar, jemmy-dar. In military 
affairs, a native officer, who has the same 
rank as a lieutenant in the East India Com- 
pany's service. 

Jennet, j en-nit. A small Spanish horse . 

Jeopardy, jeppur-de(French, faiperdii, 
I have lost ; or jeu partly a hazardous game). 
Exposiire to death; danger, loss, orinjmy; 
hazard; peril. 

Jereed, jer-eed. A short club or blunt 
javelin, darted by Tm'ks in sport. 

Jeremiad, jeree-me-ad. Lamentation ; 
a tale of giief ; a wail of sorrow or lament, 
so named from Jeremiah, the prophet. 

Jerkin, jer-kin (Saxon, cyrtelldn, a 
tunic). A jacket ; a short coat. 

Jesting, jes-tiag' (Italian, gesture, to 
mock by gestures). Joking ; sarcasm ; 
acting or speaking with a want of serious- 
ness. 

Jesuits, jezzu-its. The Society of Jesus, 
an order in the Komish Church, political 
and rehgious, corresponding with a chief 
at Kome, and possessing great influence in 
all countries where they are tolerated. The 
term is applied by way of reproach to any 
crafty person ; or one who acts untruth- 
fully, artfuUy, insincerely. 

Jet d'Eau, zhay-do. A French term, 
Tised to signify a fountain which casts up 
water to a considerable height in the air. 

Jetsam, jet-sam. In maritime law, the 
throwing overboard any portion of a ship's 
freight, with a view to save the remainder, 
by enabling the vessel to weather the 
gtorm or get off a shallow. When such an 
occurrence takes place, the parties in- 
terested divide the loss among them. 



Jetty. A projection of stone or wood, 
affording a convenient place for landing 
from, and discharging vessels or boats ; or 
simply intended as a breakwater, in form- 
ing an entrance into a harbour. 

Jeu d'Esprit, zhud-spre (French). A 
witticism ; a play of wit. 

Jezebel, jezzy-bel. An impudent, dar- 
ing, vicious woman ; from a woman of 
this name and character mentioned in 
Scripture. 

Jib-boom. In nautical language, a 
spar run out from the end* of the bowsprit 
of a vessel continuing it. 

Jockey, jok-e. The diminutive of 
Jack; hence a little boy, also a horse-rider, 
because boys or small persons are usually 
employed in that capacity. Hence, also, 
jockey, to trick, to cheat ; because the 
success of a jockey depends, in a great 
measure, upon artifice and cunning. 

Jocose, jo-kose (Loim, jocosus). Given 
to jest ; mirtliful ; humorous ; facetious ; 
pleasant ; waggish. 

Jocund, jok-und (Latin, jocundus). 
Merry ; gay ; sportive ; full of animatior. 
and enjoyment. 

Jogging, jog-ing (Dutch, sliocJcen, to 
shake). To move, as it were, by a succession 
of shakes or shocks ; to proceed at the 
slow space of a shaking trot. 

Joint Stock. In commerce, a stock or 
fund formed by the union of several shares 
from different i^ersons. 

Jointure, jojTi-ture. A settlement on 
a woman in consideration of marriage, and 
which she is to enjoy after her husband's 
death. 

Joist, joyst (French, ajusier, to adjust). 
One of the cross or secondary timbers on 
which the boards of a floor rest. 

Jolly Boat (a corruption of yatcl boat) . 
A small boat belonging to a vessel. 

Jour Maigre, joor may-gr (French). 
The day of abstinence from flesh-meat, 
appointed by the Romish Church, usually 
the Friday in ever}'- week, together with 
other special occasions. 

Journalist, jurnal-ist (French, joiir^ 
day). A name given to a person employed in 
a hterary capacity on the public journals or 
newspapers. 

Journeyman, jurny-man (French, 
jouniee, a day or day's work). Strictly, a 
man employed to work by the day ; but 



JOU 



JUV 



165 



commonly applied to any mechanic who is 
hired to work for another. 

Joust, just (French, joute). Tilt; 
tournament; mock fight. 

Jovial, jove-yal (French). Gay ; merry ; 
joyous ; bom under the influence of the 
planet Jupiter (or Jove). 

Jubilant, juby-lant (Latin, juhilo, to 
shout for joy). Uttering songs of triumph ; 
rejoicing ; shouting for joy. This word is 
supposed to be primarily derived from 
Jnlal, the name of the originator of musi- 
cal instruments. 

Jubilee, juby-le (Latin, jiibilum). A 
grand festival celebrated every fiftieth year, 
by the Jews, in commemoration of their 
deliverance from Egypt ; also, a festival 
celebrated among us upon the occasion of a 
monarch reigning fifty years ; an institu- 
tion having reached the fiftieth year of its 
existence, &c. 

Judaism, ju-dayizm. The religion of 
the Jews ; the laws of the Jews ; Jewish 
rites and ceremonies. 

Judaize, juda-ize. To conform to the 
doctrines, rites, and manners of the Jews. 

Judicial, ju-dishal (Latin, judex, a 
judge). Pertaining to courts of justice ; 
proceeding from a court ; inflicted as a 
penalty. 

Jugular, ju-gular (Latin, jugulum, the 
neck). Belonging to the neck or throat. 
Jugular veins, the veins wh'ich bring the 
blood from the head, descending upon the 
sides of the neck. 

Julian, jool-yan. Noting the old ac- 
count of the year, as regulated by Julius 
Caesar. 

July, ju-li. The seventh month of the 
year ; so named from Julius Csesar, who 
was bom in it. 

Jumble, jum-bul (French, conible}"). A 
confused mixture ; a mass thrown together 
in disorder. 

Junction, junk-shun (Latin, jungo, to 
join). The act of joining ; union ; coali- 
tion ; combination. 

Juncture, junkt-yur (Latin, jungo, to 
join). A joining ; time or point where two 
things are joined together ; union ; a criti- 
cal point of time. 

June. The sixth month' in the year ; 
so named from the festivals given in honour 
of Juno. 

Jungle, jung-gul (Hindoo). In Asia, a 
thick wood of small trees or shrubs. 



Junior, joon-yur (Latin), Yormgor; 
later bom ; not so old as another. 

Junk. A Chinese boat or ship ; pieces 
of old rope or cordage ; a sea term for hard 
salt beef. 

Junket, jun-ket (Italian, giuncata). A 
sweetmeat ; a delicacy ; a festive enter- 
tainment. 

Junta, jun-tah ) A select council in 

Junto, jun-to j Spain, for taking cog- 
nisance of important matters in politics, 
commerce, &c. Applied in a general sense 
to a band or knot of people ; a combination 
or confederacy. 

Jurat, ju-rat (Latin, jurahim, a person 
sworn). The name given to magistrates 
resembling aldermen, appointed for the 
government of some corporations. 

Jure Divino, ju-re de-vino (Latin). 
By Divine right. 

Juridical, ju-riddy-kal (Lat. ,juridicus). 
Pertaining to the administration of the law; 
belonging to courts of law or justice ; relat- 
ing to a judge. 

Jurisdiction, jewris-dikshun (Latin, 
jurisdictio). Legal authority; extent of 
power; district to which authority extends. 

Jurisprudence, jewris-prudens ( Lat. , 
jus, right ; prudens, prudent). The science 
of law ; knowledge of law. 

Jurist, ju-rist (French, juriste). One 
versed in civil law ; one versed m the law 
of nations, or who writes on the subject. . 

Jurymast, jury-mast. A temporary 
mast put up in the place of one which has 
been carried away by accident, or erected 
in a new vessel for the purpose of navigat- 
ing her to the place where she is to be pro- 
perly fitted out. 

Jus Gentium, jus jenshy-um (Latin). 
The law of nations. 

Juste Milieu, zhoost mil-yoo (French). 
Intermediate course ; midway ; happy 
medium. 

Justiciary, jus-tishy-e-ary (Latin, 
Justus, just). One who administers justice. 

Justifiable, justy-fiah-bl (Lsit., Justus, 
just). Defensible by law or reason; that 
can be justified. 

Juvenescent, juvy-nessent (Latin, 
juvenis, youth). Becoming young; growing 
youthful. 

Juvenile, juven-ile (Latin, juvenis, 
youth). Young ; youthful ; pertaining to 
or suitable for youth. 



166 



JUX 



KER 



Juxtaposition, juk - stah - po - sishun 
(Latin, juxta, even ; position, placed). A 
placing, or being placed near. 

K. 

Kafifer, kaf-fur (Arabic). An unbeliever; 
a name given to the Hottentots, wbo reject 
the Mohammedan faith. 

Kaland, kal-and (GeiTQan). The name 
of a lay fraternity instituted in the thir- 
teenth century, for the purpose of doing 
honour to deceased relatives and friends. 

Kale, kale (German, I:ohl). An esculent 
plant ; a kind of cabbage, with a curly and 
wrinkled leaf. 

Kaleidoscope, ka-lydo-skope (Gi-eek, 
Jcalos, beautiful ; eiclos, resemblance ; slcopeo, 
to view). An optical instnmient which ex- 
hibits to the eye symmetrical and beautiful 
combinations of images, by a particular 
arrangement of mirrors adjusted to a tube. 

Kali, kay-le. The name given by the 
Arabians to an annual plant, which grows 
near the sea-shore, and from the ashes of 
which they obtain their alkali for making 
soap ; the ashes of this plant are also used 
in the manufacture of glass. 

Kalotype, kay-lo-tipe (Greek, lalos, 
beautiful ; typos, an impression). The art 
of fixing photographic images upon surfaces 
of silver. 

Kami, kay-me. The name given in 
Japan to certain spirits, the belief in which 
is the foundation of the Japanese religion. 

Kamsin, kam-sin. A hot and dry 
southerly wind, which prevails in Egypt 
and the deserts of Africa at certain seasons 
of the year ; named also simoon and samiel. 

Kantian, kan-te-an. Eelating to Kant, 
the German metaphysician, or his system 
of philosophy. 

K.C.B. An abbreviation fcr Knight 
Commander of the Bath. 

Keblah, keb-lah. The name given 
by the Mohammedans to that point of the 
compass, the direction of which is towards 
the temple of Mecca. 

Keckle, kek-ul. To wind old rope 
around a cable, to preserve it from being 
fretted. 

Kedge, kej. A small anchor, used to 
keep a ship steady when riding in a har- 
bour or river, especially at the turn of the 
tide, to keep her clenr of her bower anchor, 
also to remove her fiuin one part of a har- 



bour to another ; to warp as a ship ; t« 
move off by kedging. 

Keel. The main and lowest timber in a 
vessel, extending at the bottom from stem 
to stern, and forming the basis of the whole 
stnicture. The vessels employed iii col- 
lieries are also called keels. 

Keelhaul. To haul under the keel of a 
ship. Keelhauling is a punishment inflicted 
in the Dutch navy for certain offences. The 
offender is suspended hj a rope from one 
yard-arm, with weights to his legs, and a 
rope fastened to him, which passes under 
the ship's bottom to the opposite yard-arm, 
and being let fall into the water, he is 
drawn under the ship's bottom and raised 
on the other side. 

Keeve, keev. A large vessel for 
fermenting liquor ; a mashing tub. 

Kelp. The calcined ashes of sea-weed, 
producing carbonate of soda. 

Kelpie, kel-pe. A supposed spirit of 
the waters in Scotland, having the form of a 
horse. 

Ken (Saxon, cennan). The primary 
meaning is probably to see; thus, to view at 
a distance ; to know ; to understand ; 
limit of view ; reach of sight. 

Keosk, ke-osk (Turkish). A kind of 
open pavUion or summer-house, supported 
by pillars. 

Kepler's Law^s. In astronomy, cer- 
tain analogies between the distances of 
planetary bodies and their times of periodic 
revolution ; as also between the rate of 
motion of any revolving body, whether 
primary or secondary, and its distance from 
the central body about which it revolves ; 
first discovered by John Kepler, of Wir- 
temberg. Kepler's Problem, the determin- 
ing of the true from the mean anomaly of 
a planet, or the determining its place in 
the elliptic orbit, answering to any given 
time ; first proposed by Kepler. 

Kerchief, ker-chif (French, couvre- 
chef) . Literally, a cover for the head ; 
a head-dress ; any loose cloth used in 



Keri-chetib (Hebrew, what is read 
or written). In Biblical literature, a term 
used to denote various readings — ken, 
signifying that which is read, and chetih, 
that which is written. "When any such 
wrong readings occur, the wrong reading 
is written in the text, and that is called 
the chetih; and the correct reading is 
written in the margin, with ^ under it, and 
called the keri. 



KER 



KIT 



167 



Kern (Dutch, l-erne). That which is 
surrounded or inclosed in a shell or other 
envelope; that which has a resemblance in 
form or taste, or in other qualities, to those 
of the kernels of fruit. 

Ketch., ketsh (Italian, caiccliio, a chest 
or tub). An old English term, nearly 
synonymous with the modern name of 
yacht It is stiU applied to a small ship of 
burden. 

Kettledrum. An instrument of 
martial music, composed of copper or brass, 
and covered with vellum or goat- skin ; 
shaped like a kettle. 

Key. In music, the particular diatonic 
scale in which a composition begins and 
ends, and which prevails more or less in a 
given piece of music. There are twelve 
major and twelve minor keys. 

K.G. An abbreviation for Knight of the 
Garter. 

Klian, kan. An Asiatic governor. In 
the north of Asia this title expresses the 
fuU regal dignity ; but there are also kltans 
of provinces, cities, &c. ; and in Persia, the 
title is also conferred on all ofi&cers of a 
certain rank. 

Kidnap, kid-nap (German, hinderdieb). 
To rob or steal children, or others ; to 
forcibly take or steal any person from his 
own country to another. 

Kidney Bean. A tough kind of bean, 
so called from its kidney shape. 

BZilderkin, kilder-kin. A cask of six- 
teen or eighteen gallons ; the eighth pai-t of 
a hogshead. The derivation of this word is 
said to be, because the quantity of fluid so 
contained bears the same proportion to a 
whole cask as a child bears to the grown 
man. 

Kilogramme, killo-gram. A French 
measure of weight of 1000 grammes, or 
about 2| pounds. 

Kilolitre, killo - leetur. A French 
measure of 1000 litres, or 264 gallons; 
about 4 hogsheads. 

Kilometre, kiUo-meetur. A French 
measure of 1000 metres, or about five-eighths 
of a mile. 

Kimbo, kim-bo (Saxon, cam, crooked). 
Bent ; arched ; crooked. To set the arms 
a-Jcimbo, is to place the hands on the hips, 
with the elbows projecting outwards. 

Kin (Saxon, cyn). Bom of the same 
parents, immediate or remote ; belonging 
to the sam.3 ancestors ; descended or i^ro- 



duced from the same stock or race ; rela^ 
tionship by blood, or by inter-marriage^ 
having the same or similar natural qualities^ 

Kindred, kin-dred (Saxon, cyn). Rela- 
tion by birth ; afiinity ; the connection or 
relation of persons descended from the same 
stock or common ancestors. In a general 
sense, congenial ; of the like nature ; 
possessing similar properties. 

Eone, kine (Dutch, loeyen). Plural of 
cow, now superseded by the regular plural, 
cows. 

King-at-Arms. An officer in England 
of great antiquity, and formerly of great 
authority, whose business is to direct the 
heralds, preside at their chapters, and have 
the jurisdiction of armoury. There are 
three kings -at- arms ; namely. Garter, 
Clarencieux, and Norroy. 

Kingcraft, king-kraft. The art of 
governing, usually in a bad sense. 

King's EviL A scrofulous disease, in 
which the glands are ulcerated. The gift 
of curing this disease was formerly attri- 
buted to the kings and queens of England, 
and had its origin in the time of Edward 
the Confessor. 

Kipper, kip-per (Scotch). A salmon 
that has recently been spawned, and there- 
fore vmfit to be taken. Kippered salmon 
are those which have been salted and dried, 
as not fit to use wMle fresh, because just 
from spawning. 

Kipskin, kip-skin. Leather prepared 
from the skin of young cattle, between calf- 
skin and cow-hide. 

Kirk, kurk (German, lirche). The 
Church of Scotland. 

EJirtle, kir-tel (Saxon, cyrtel). An upper 
garment ; a name applied generally to any 
article of dress which is adjusted by a 
girdle. 

Kit. A term among soldiers^ to express 
the complement of regimental necessaries, 
which they are obliged to keep in constant 
repair. 

Kit-Cat. A name given to a club to 
which Addison, Steele, and other eminent 
persons belonged, for the purpose of uniting 
their zeal in favour of the Protestant suc- 
cession of the House of Hanover. The 
same name is given to a three-quarter 
length portrait, of which many were taken 
for the club in question. The name of kit- 
cat was derived from Christopher Kat, a 
pastry-cookj "^>'^ supplied the club with, 
tarts. 



168 



KIT 



'K.ithiSa.x.orijCT/ththe). Kindred; alliance; 
acquaintance, as distingnished from kin. 

Knag, nag (Danish). A knot in wood, 
or a protuberant knot ; the shoot of a deer's 
horn. 

Knell, nel (Saxon, oiyllan). The sound 
of a funeral bell ; a tolling for the dead. 

Knight, nite (Saxon, cniht). Originally, 
a young man after he had been admitted to 
the privilege of bearing arms. This privi- 
lege was conferred on youths of family and 
fortune, and hence sprang the honourable 
title of knight, in modem usage, which 
ranks next to baronet, and entitles the 
person on whom it is conferred to be styled 
iSir, and his wife Lady. The hiight of a 
shire is a representative of a county in 
Parliament, originally a knight, but now 
any private gentleman. 

Knight Service. A tenure of lands, 
originally consisting in investiture of lands, 
upon express condition that the person so 
invested shall serve in the wars of his lord. 

Knout, nowt. An instrument of torture 
used in Russia for inflicting punishment on 
criminals ; it consists chiefly of a strip of 
leather narrowing to a point, and about two 
feet in length. 

Kobold, ko-bold (German, Jcohold, 
spirit). The name given to a supposed 
spirit, answering to the English goblin, 
imagined, in Germany, to preside over all 
domestic operations. From this word the 
name of the metal cobalt is derived. 

Kopek, ko-pek. A Russian copper coin, 
about the value of a halfpenny. 

Koran. See Alcoran. 

Kotbah., kot-bah (Arabic). A parti- 
cular kind of prayer used in Mohammedan 
countries, at the commencement of public 
worship in the great mosques on Friday, at 
noon. It consists chiefly of a confession 
of faith, and a petition for the prosperity 
of the Mohammedan religion. 

Kraal, kray-al. A South African village 
or hamlet, being a collection of huts ranged 
in a circular form, so named by the early 
Dutch settlers, from kraal or coral, a string 
of beads. 

Kraken, kray-ken. A supposed sea- 
animal of vast bulk, said to be seen occa- 
sionally on the coasfc of Norway, and of late 
years on the North American coasts. 

Kremlin, krem-lin. The imperial 
palace at Moscow, containing several 
churches, two convents, an arsenal, &c. 



LAC 

It is of a triangular form, and about two 
miles in circumference. 

Kreosote, kreeo-sote (Greek, kreas, 
flesh ; sozo, to presei-ve). The antiseptic 
principle of wood-smoke. 

Kufic, kew-fik (from Kufa, a town on 
the Euphrates). An epithet applied to the 
ancient Ai'abic characters. 

Kurd. A native of Kurdistan, a 
country comprehending the larger portion 
of that mountainous region which divides 
the elevated table-land of Persia from the 
low plains of Mesopotamia. 

Kyloe, ki-lo (Scotch). The designation 
given to the small black cattle brought 
from the Isle of Skye. The word is also 
applied to Highland black cattle of any 
district, 

Kyrie, ke-re-ay (Greek, Kyrios, 
Lord). A word used in the celebration of 
the mass of the Roman Catholic Church, 
in connection with another Greek word, 
eleison, which sig-nifies, " Lord, have 
mercy upon us." 

Kyriologieal, keereo-lojjy-kal (Greek, 
k7jros, proper; logos, a discourse). An 
epithet applied to that class of Egyptian 
hieroglyphics in which a part is put to re- 
present a whole, as a pair of armed hands 
for a battle, a scaling-ladder for a siege, &c. 



Labefaction, labby-fakshun (Latin, 
lalef actio). A weakening or loosening; 
failing; downfall; decay; ruin. 

Labial, laby-al (Latin, lahium, a lip). 
Pertaining to the lips ; formed by the lips ; 
a letter or character representing an arti- 
culation of the lips, as h, f, m, p, v. 

Laboratory, lab-orrah-turry (French, 
laboratoire). The room or place where a 
chemist performs his operations. 

Labjrrinth, labby-rinth (Greek, lahy- 
rinthos). A place full of windings and 
turnings ; a maze ; something extremely 
difficult; intricacy; perplexity. 

Lac, lak. In commerce, an East Indiaa 
term denoting 100,000 rupees, or £12,50C 
sterling. 

Lacerate, lassy-rate (Latin, lacer, 
torn). To tear or rend asunder ; to sepa- 
rate by violence or tearing ; figuratively, 
to rend the heart, or wound the feelings. 

Lacbe, lash. ) (Latin, laxus, loose). 
Laches, lash-iz. ) A failure ; a defect ; 
negligence ; sluggishness ; remissness. 



LAC 

Lachrymal, lakry-mal (Latin, lacJi- 
ryma, a tear). Generating or secreting 
tears ; conveying tears. 

LacliryTaose, lakry-moze (Latin, 
lachryma, a tear). Shedding tears ; be- 
traying a tearful aspect. 

Lack, lak (Dutch, leeg). Want ; need ; 
destitute ; failure ; deficiency. 

Lacker.— See Lacquer. 
Lack-lustre, lak-lus-tur. A want of 
lustre or brightness ; dimness of the eyes. 

Laconic, la-konnik (from Lacones, the 
Spartans, who used few words). Sparing 
of speech; brief; apathetic; expressing 
much in a few words. 

Lacquer, lak-ur. To varnish ; to apply 
a solution of shell-lac in alcohol. 

Lactation, lak-tayshun (Ijatin, lac, 
milk). The act of giving milk; the time 
of suckling. 

Lacteals, lak-te-als (Latin, lac, milk). 
In the animal economy, minute vessels 
which absorb or take up the chyle, or 
milk-like fluid, from the alimentary canal. 

Lactometer, lak-tommy-tur (Latin, 
lac, milk ; Greek, metron, a measure). A 
graduated glass table for ascertaining the 
relative quantity of cream afforded by milk. 

Ladavee, ladah-vee. In commerce, a 
release or acquittance of any kind in India. 

Lady Chapel. The name given to a 
small chapel, generally found in ancient 
cathedrals, behind the screen of the high 
altar. It is usually dedicated to the Virgin 
Mary, called by Roman Catholics our Lady. 

Lady Day. The day of annunciation 
of the holy Virgin ; March 25th. 

Lagan, lay-gan (Saxon, lygan, to lie). 
In law, goods sunk in the sea, and the 
right which the chief lord of the fee has to 
take such goods. 

Laggard, lag-gurd (Saxon, lagg). 
Backward ; sluggish ; slow. 

Lagoon, lay-goon (Italian, lagone). A 
fen, marsh, or shallow pond ; a sheet of 
water formed either by the encroachments 
of rivers or seas upon the land, or by the 
separation of a portion of the sea by the 
intervention of a bank. 

Laic, lay-ik ) (Greek, laos, the 

Laical, layik-alj people). Belonging 
to the people, as distinct from the clergy. 

Lair, lare (German, lager). The couch 
of a wild beast ; a place of rest for animals , 
the land or pasture where animals lie. 



LAM 



169 



Laird, lajrd. In Scotland, a land- 
holder or owner of a manor, under the de- 
gree of a knight ; the proprietor of a house 
or of houses. 

Laity, lay-e-te (Greek, laos, the people). 
The people as distinguished from the 
clergy ; the body of the people not in 
orders ; the state of a layman. 

Lake (Swedish, leka). A large expanse 
of water s\irrounded by land, or having no 
immediate connection with the sea. 

Lallation, lal-layshun. That species 
of imperfect or affected pronunciation in 
which the letter I is rendered unduly 
liquid, or substituted for an r. 

Lam.a, lam-ah. The object of worship 
in Thibet and Mongolia, called more com- 
monly the Grand Lama; the title of a 
kind of priesthood or sacred order in those 
countries. 

Lambent, lam-bent (Latin, lamlo, to 
lick). Playing about; licking; touching 
lightly, as with the tongue ; playing over 
the surface. 

Lambkin, lam-kin. A young or small 
lamb. 

Lamellated, lammel-layted (Latin, 
lamella, a thin plate). Covered with thin 
scales ; formed in thin plates or flakes. 

Lamia, lam-ya (Latin, lamia, a hag). 
In antiquity, an imaginary being, repre- 
sented as a monstrous animal, a spectre, 
or vampire. 

Laminated, lammin-ay ted (Latin, lam- 
ina, a plate) . Consisting of plates or scales ; 
lying in plates. 

Lammas Day. The first day of 
August. The term is derived from the 
Saxon loaf-mass, because probably on that 
day' an offering was made of bread baked 
from new corn. 

Lampadary, lampah-dary. An officer 
in the ancient church of Constantinople, so 
called from his employment, which was to' 
take care of the lamps, and carry a taper 
before the emperor or patriarch when the\" 
went to chixrch or walked in procession. 

Lampass, lam-pass (French, lampas). 
A disease in the palate of a horse's mouth, 
consisting of a fleshy lump situated behind 
the fore teeth. 

Lamp-black, a colour procured from 
the soot of a lamp ; or more properly 
speaking, a fine soot formed by the con- 
densation of the smoke of burning pitch, or 
some resinous substance, in a chimney 
terminating in a cone of cloth. 



170 



LAM 



LAP 



Lampoon, lam-poon. A personal 
Batire ; abuse ; generally directed to a 
person's peculiarities, or failings. The 
word is supposed to be derived from the 
French lampons, a drunken song. 

Lancer, lan-ser. A soldier who carries 
a lance ; originally a Polish soldier, but 
now introduced in England. 

Lanciforni,lansy-fawrm. Having the 
form of a lance. 

Lancinate, lansy-nate (Latin, lancino). 
To tear ; to cut ; to lacerate. 

Landamman, land -am -man. The 
name given in Switzerland to the president 
of the Helvetian republic ; also the highest 
magistrate of the ten cantons. 

Landau, lan-dau. A four-wheeled 
carriage, the top of which may be thrown 
back. It is so called from having been 
first made at Landmi, a town in Ger- 
many. 

Land-breeze. A cm'reufc of air setting 
from the land towards the sea. 

Land-fall. Among seamen, the first 
sight of, or the making of land, after being 
out at sea. 

Land-force. A military force ; an 
army serving on land, as disting-uished 
from a naval force. 

Land-grave (German, land, earth; 
graf, judge or count). A title in Germany 
corresponding to earl in England, and 
count in France. It is now a title of 
certain princes who possess estates or 
territories, called landgraviates. 

Landreeve, land-reev. An assistant 
to the steward of an estate. 

Landscape, land-skape (Swedish, 
landskap). A portion of country which 
the eye can comprehend in a single view. 
Landsca'pe gardening, that particular art 
■which succeeds, by due study of natural 
beauties in landscape, to combine the best 
of their peculiarities in an artificial way. 
Landscape painting, the art of deline- 
ating purely natural scenes, and their 
proper atmospheric effects. 

Landslip, land-slip. A sliding down 
of a considerable portion of land from a 
mountain, cliff, or other elevated place. 

Landsman. A nautical term for one 
who lives or serves on land. 

Landwehr, land-wer (German, land- 
gaard). The militia of Prussia and 
Austria. 



Langrage, lang-graje. ) A particular 
Langrel, lang-gril. j kind of shot 
used at sea for tearing sails and destroy- 
ing rigging. It is formed of bolts, nails, 
and other pieces of iron tied together, but 
is seldom "used except by privateers and 
merchantmen. 

Lang syne. A Scotch term, signifying 
long ago ; in the olden time. 

Languente, langu-enty (Italian). In 
music, a direction signifying that the part 
is to be performed softly or languishingly. 

Languid, lang-wid (Latin, langiieo, to 
languish). Faint ; weak ; indisposed to 
exertion through feebleness and exhaus- 
tion ; without animation or activity. 

Languor, lang-gwur (Latin, langueo, 
to languish). Faintness ; feebleness ; 
lassitude of body ; exhaustion of streng-th. 

Laniard, Ian-yard (French, laniere, a 
strap). Short pieces of rope or line 
fastened to several things in a ship, to 
secure them in their places, or to manage 
them more conveniently. The name is 
more especially given to the cords or 
braces which serve to extend the shrouds 
and stays of the masts by their commu- 
nication with the dead eyes. 

Lank (Saxon, hlanca). Long or 
lengthened to excess ; slender ; spare ; 
meagre ; loose or lax, and yielding easily 
to pressure. 

Lansquenet, lansky - net (German, 
lanz-hieclct). A German foot soldier; the 
name of a game of cards of French origin. 

Lantern, lant-urn. In architecture, 
this term is applied to a small tm-ret raised 
above the roof of a building, having 
windows all round it, 

Laocoon, lay-okko-on. In fabulous 
history, the priest of Apollo or Neptune, 
during the Trojan war, who, while engaged 
in sacrificing a bull, was, with his two sons, 
crushed to death by an enormous serpent. 
The subject forms one of the most ex- 
quisite groups of sculpture in ancient art. 

Laodicean, layo-deesy-an. An epithe 
applied to persons who are lukewarm 
religion, like the Christians of Laodicea. 

Lapel, lah-pel. That part of a coat] 
which laps over the facing. 

Lapidary, lappid-ary (Latin, hqns, a 
stone). One who polishes and engraves 
stones and gems ; a virtuoso skilled in the 
nature, ■ kinds, and values of precious 



its 



LAP 

stones ; a dealer in precious stones. 
Lapidary style denotes that which is pro- 
per for monumental or other inscriptions. 

Lapidific, lappy-diffik (Latin, lapis, a 
stone ; facio, to make). Forming or con- 
verting into stone. 

Lappet, lap-pet. Part of a garment 
hanging loose. 

Lapse, laps (Latin, lapsus). A gliding, 
slipping, or passing away ; a fault com- 
mitted through inadvertence ; a deviation 
from rectitude. In ecclesiastical law, the 
omission of a patron to present to a 
benefice within six months. 

Lap-sided, lap-si-ded. The state of 
a ship when built in such a manner as to 
leave one of the sides heavier than the other, 
and by consequence to retain a constant 
heel or inchnation to the heavier side. 

Lapsus linguaB, lap-sus ling-gwe 
(Latin). A slip of the tongtie ; something 
inadvertently said ; a mistake in uttering 
a word. 

Larboard, lar-borde. The name given 
by seamen to the left-hand side of the ship 
when the face is tiu-ned towards the stem 
or head. Larboard tack, is when the ship 
is close-hauled, with the wind blowing on 
her larboard side. Larboard ^oatch, is the 
division of a ship's company on duty when 
the other is relieved from it. 

Larceny, larsen-ny (French, larcin). 
In law, the crime of theft. The steaUng 
of anjiihing below the value of twelve pence 
is petty larceny; above that value, grand 
larceny. 

Larder, lar-dur (old French, lardier, 
from Latin, lardum, the fat or lard of 
swine). A place or room where meat is 
kept ; a store-room. 

Lares, lay-res (Latin). The household 
deities of the Romans, which the family 
believed to be souls of their deceased 
ancestors, and which they honoured as 
their protectors. They were represented 
by images of wood, stone, or metal, and 
generally stood upon the hearth in a kind 
of shrine. 

Largess, lar-jes (French, largesse). A 
gift or donation ; proceeding from the 
largeness of the donor's bounty. In an- 
tiquity, a free donation of corn, provisions, 
or clothes, which was made to the Roman 
people. 

Larghetto, lar-getto (Italian). In 
music, a diminutive of largo, slow, but less 
sic w than largo. 



LAT 



m 



Largo, lar-go (ItaUan). In music, a 
term for a slow movement, one degree 
quicker than adagio. 

Larum, lar-um (German, lilrm, noise, 
bustle). A noise giving notice of danger. 

Larva, lar-va (Latin, a visor or mask). 
In entomology, the grub or caterpillar state 
of an insect. 

Larynx, lar-inks (Greek). The wind- 
pipe ; the organ of voice ; a cartilage form- 
ing the protuberance in the throat, and 
vulgarly called Adam's apple. 

Lascar, las-kar. The name given to 
the native sailors of India. 

Lascivious, las-siwy-us (Latin, las- 
civios). Luxurious ; wanton ; lustful ; lewd. 

Lassitude, lassy-tude (Latin, lassiis, 
weaiy). Weariness ; fatigaie ; weakness ; 
languor of body or mind. 

Lasso, las-so. A rope or cord with a 
noose, used for catching wild horses, kc. 

Latent, lay-tent (Latin, lateo, to be 
hid). Lying hidden or concealed ; secret ; 
remote from view. Latent heat, that which 
is insensible to the thermometer, upon 
which the liquid and aerifoi-m state of bo- 
dies depend, and which becomes sensible 
during the conversion of the vapours into 
liquids, and the liquids into solids. 

Lateral, lattur-al (Latin, latiis, the 
side). Of or pertaining to the side ; be- 
longing to or proceeding from the side ; 
placed or acting in a du-ection perpendicu- 
lar to the horizon. 

Later an, latter-an. Originally the 
name of a person, from whom it descended 
to the ancient palace in Rome, and to the 
buildings since erected in its place, parti- 
cularly a chvirch called St. John of Lateran. 
Councils of the Lateran, those held in the 
basilica of the Lateran. Canons regidar of 
the congregation of the Lateran is a congre- 
gation of regular canons, of which that 
church is the principal seat. 

Lathe, lathe. The machine of a turner, 
the implement by which pieces of wood, 
ivory, metal, &c., are turned or cut into a 
smooth, round form. 

Latlireve, lath-reev. ) An officer 
Leidgreve, lede-greev. j under the 

Saxon Government, who had authority over 

a third part of the country. 

Latin, lat-in. Pertaining to the Roman 
language, or languag-e spoken by the people 
of Latium, in Italy. 



172 



LAT 



Iiatinize, lattin-ize. To givo to foreign 
words Latin terminationSj and make them 
Latin. 

Latitat, latty-tat (Latin, he lies hid). 
In law, a wi-it which pre-supposes that the 
defendant lies concealed, and cannot be 
found in the county of Middlesex, but is 
gone to some other county, to the sheriff 
whereof the writ is directed. 



Xiatitude, latty-tude (Latin, 
breadth). In geography, the distance of 
any place on the globe north or south of 
the ec[uator ; a particular degree, reckoned 
from the equator north or south. The 
small circles parallel to the equator are 
hence called parallels of latitude, and show 
the latitude of places by their intersections 
with the meridians. The difference of lati- 
tude is an arc of the meridian, or the near- 
est distance between the parallels of lati- 
tude of two places. 

Latitudinarians, latty-tewdy-nary- 
ans. In ecclesiastical history, a sect of di- 
vines, in the time of Charles II., opposed 
equally to High Chm-chmen and Dissen- 
ters. The term is now applied to those who 
do not adopt the more rigid interpretation 
of Scripture, or merely as a party term. 

Latria, lay-treah. In the Roman Ca- 
tholic Church, the highest form of worship, 
or that paid to God, in distinction to that 
paid to saints. 

Latten, lat-ten (French, laiton). A 
name sometimes given to tin plates, or iron 
plates tinned over, of which canisters are 
made. 

Lattice, lat-tis (French, latte, a lath). A 
window fitted with cross-bars of wood or 
iron, crossing each 'other at smaU distances. 

Laudable, lawdah-bl. (Latin, laiis, 
praise). Praiseworthy; commendable. 

LaTidanum, loddah-num (Latin, 
laudo, to praise). An extract or prepara- 
tion of opium, so called from its praise- 
worthy efficacy. 

Launch, lahnch. Literally, to hurl a 
lance ; hence, to propel with velocity, as a 
ship into the water. 

Laureate, lawry-ate (Latin, laurea, 
a laurel). To adorn, to deck, or crown with 
laurel. Poet laureate was formerly an 
officer of the royal household, whose busi- 
ness it was to compose a birthday ode for 
the monarch, and another for the new year. 
These obhgations have been dispensed 
with, and the honour of the laureateship, 
with the salary, is now given as the reward 
of poetic excellence. 



LAZ 

Lava, lav-all (Latin, lavo, to wash 
away). The matter which flows in a melted 
state from a volcano, but which hardens 
when cool. 

Lavatory, la-vah-turry (Latin, lavo, tc 
wash away). A place for washing ; a wash 
or lotion for some diseased part. 

Lave (Latin, lavo, to wash away). Tc 
wash ; to bathe ; to cleanse or purify with 
water. 

Lavish, lav-ish. Prodigal ; wasteful ; 
expending or bestowing with profusion ; 
liberal to a fault ; unrestrained. 

Lawsuit, law-sute. A process in law, 
instituted by one party to compel anothei' 
to do him justice, or for the recovery of a 
supposed right. 

Lax (Latin, lax^is). Loose ; unconfined ; 
unrestrained ; inexact ; not strict. 

Laxative, laksah-tiv (Latin, laxus). 
Having the power of loosening; in medi- 
cine, an aperient. 

Lay brothers. Persons received into 
convents of monks under the" three vows, 
but not in holy orders. 

Lay-days. In maritime affairs, the 
number of days stipulated in a charter- 
party, or allowed by custom for shipping 
or discharging a cargo. 

Lay elders. In Presbyterian churches, 
persons who assist the pastor of each 
congregation, but not ordained as clergy- 
men. 

Layer, lay-yur (Saxon, lecgan). A 
stratum ; a bed ; one body spread over 
another ; one surface laid on the top of a 
preceding one ; a shoot or twig of a plant,, 
laid under ground for growth or propaga- 
tion. 

Lay figure. Among artists, a wooden 
figure with free joints, contrived for the 
study of drapery. 

Layman (Greek, laos, the people). 
One who is not a clergyman. 

Lazar, lay-zar (from Lazarus). A per- 
son infected with a loathsome disease. 

Lazaretto, lazer-etto (Spanish, lazar- 
eto). A pest-house for diseased persons ; 
a hospital for quarantine. 

Lazaroni, latzah-ro-ne. A name given 
in Italy to the poor who live by begging, 
or have no permanent habitation. They 
are divided into regularly organised bands, 
have chiefs belonging to them, and are 
capable of working considerable mischief 
when acting in concert. 



LEA 

Ijea^ lee (Saxon, ley). Plain, or pastxiro 
land. In agricultui-e, a term applied to 
lands which are kept under grass or pas- 
tiirage for a short period. For example, 
in a rotation of fallow, wheat, clover, and 
rye-grass, for three years, the ground, 
when under the clover and rye-grass, is 
said by agriculturists to be in lea. 

Leading Strings. Strings which, are 
used for supporting children when learning 
to walk ; hence figuratively, a person is 
said to be in leading strings who places 
himself entirely under the guidance and 
direction of another. 

Leaflet, leef-let. A small leaf formed 
by the petiole of a leaf branching out and 
separating the cellular tissue of the lamina 
into more distinct portions than one. 

League, leeg (Latin, ligo, to bind). A 
confederacy ; an alliance ; a combination ; 
union for mutual interest or friendship. 

League, leeg (Welsh, llec). A distance 
of three miles. 

Lean-to, leen-too. In architecture, a 
low building, the roof of which slants down 
from a higher one. 

Lease, leess (Saxon, lesan). A contract 
for a temporary possession of houses or 
lands. A deed or instrument by which 
any lands or tenements are let. Meta- 
phorically applied to any time or tei-m 
granted, as a lease of a person's life. Lessor, 
is the party letting the lands, &c. Lessee, 
the pai'ty to whom such are let. 

Leasll, leesh (Italian, lassa). A lash 
or thong of leather ; among sportsmen, a 
brace and a half ; three. To leash dogs 
is to tie or fasten them together. 

Leaven, lev-vn (Latin, levis, light). To 
raise or lighten by the intermixture of 
another ingredient, especially as applied to 
the mixtiire of yeast with bread. Meta- 
phorically, to intermix with a substance of 
less purity ; to savour or season, stain, 
tinge, or imbue. 

Lecherous, letsher-us. Addicted to 
lewdness ; lustful. 

Lection, lek-shun (Latin, lego, to 
read). A reading ; a difference or variety 
in copies of a manuscript or book ; a les- 
son or portion of Scripture read in Divine 
service. 

Led Captain. A term of reproach 
applied to a humble attendant ; a favourite 
that fo-Uows as if led by a string. 

Ledger, lej-jur. In book-keeping, the 
principal record of commercial trarisac- 



LEG 



173 



tions ; the book into which the accoimts, 
of the journal are carried in a summary 
form. 

Lee. In nautical language, the side op- 
posite to the wind. The lee-shore is that 
on which the wind blows. A lee-tide runs 
in the same direction as the wind blows. 

Leer, leer (Saxon, hlear). An oblique 
look ; an affected expression of the coun- 
tenance. 

Lees, leez (French, lie). Dregs ; sedi- 
ment ; the grosser parts of a liquid which 
settle at the bottom of a vessel. 

Leet, leet (Saxon, leth). An assembly ; 
a court ; a convention. The court leet is a 
court of record ordained for punishing of- 
fences against the Crown, and said to be 
the oldest in the land. 

Legate, leg-ate (Latin, lego, to send). 
A deputy ; any one sent to act for or ac- 
cording to the directions of another ; an 
ambassador, especially appliedto the Pope's 
ambassador to a foreign prince or state. 

Legatee, leggah-tee. One to whom a 
particular thing or certain sum of money is 
bequeathed. 

Legend, le-jend (Latin, lego, to read). 
A narrative or relation ; a record or regis- 
ter ; anything told ; chronicle of the lives 
of saints, and from the abuse of ti'uth in 
these last, the term is applied to any ficti- 
tious and incredible story. Also, specially 
used in numismatics for the inscription 
placed on the edge of a coin or medal. 

Leger, lej-ur (Dutch, leggeii). That 
which lies by or at hand ; anything that 
lies in a place. .Leger amlassador, one sent 
to remain or continue. Leger-line, in music, 
a line added to the staff of five lines, when 
more than that number is wanted, to de- 
signate ascending or descending notes. 

Legerdemain, lejjur-de-mane (Fr., 
%er, light; tZemawz., olf-hand). Sleight of 
hand ; juggle ; trick ; X->o"^er of deceiving 
the eye by dexterity of hand. 

Legibility, lejjy-billit-te (Latin, lego, 
to read). The quality or state of being 
legible, or easy to be read. 

Legion, le-jun (Latin, legio). Among 
the ancient Romans, a body of infantry, 
consisting of different numbers at different 
times ; it is now \ised in a general sense to 
express a vast number. Legion of Honour, 
an order of merit in France instituted by 
Napoleon Buonaparte, as a recompense for 
military and civil services. 



174 



LEG 



Legislature, lejjis-lay-ttire (Latin, lex, 
law ; latum, to enact). Tho body of per- 
sons in a state or kingdom invested with 
power to make and repeal laws; the su- 
preme power of a state. 

Legitimate, le-jittim-ate (Latin, legi- 
timus). Born in marriage ; lawfully be- 
gotten ; lawful ; according to law or esta- 
blished usage ; genuine ; real ; proceeding 
from a pure source. 

Leguminous, le-gewmin-us (Latin, 
legumen, a pod). Pertaining to pulse, as 
beans, peas, &c. , 

Leman, le-man (Saxon, leofman). Any 
one loved ; generally applied to one loved 
illicitly, or with mere gallantry. 

Lem.m.a, lem-ma (Greek, lemma, a 
thing taken or assumed). In mathematics, 
a preparatory proposition borrowed from 
another subject, or from another part of 
the same subject, and introduced at the 
point where it becomes indispensable. 

Lenient, leany-ent(Lat., lenis, gentle). 
Having or noting the quality of gentleness, 
softness, or mildness. Mitigating ; mild ; 
soothing. 

Lenitive, lenny-tiv (Latin, lenis, soft). 
Softening ; mitigating ; emollient ; an 
emollient medicine ; anything medicinally 
applied to heal pain. 

Lens, lenz (Latin, lens, a bean or lentil). 
Literally, a pulse, and from the shape of 
its seed, somewhat couA-ex on both sides, a 
glass so formed, for a telescope or burning 
glass, is thus named. 

Lent (Dutch, lenten, to dissolve, because 
the severity r' ^e winter is then dis- 
solved). The luTlj days' fast, commencing 
on Ash- Wednesday. 

Lenten, len-tn. Pertaining to Lent; 
used in Lent ; abstemious ; sparing. 

Lentiform (Latin, lens, a bean; forma, 
form). Of the form of a lens. 

Lentil, len-t'.. i^Latin, lens, a bean). A 
plant resembling a bean. 

Lento, len-to. In music, an Italian 
word meaning slow, and used to denote a 
movement between largo and grave. 

Leo, le-o (Latin). The lion ; in astro- 
nomy, the fifth sign of the Zodiac. 

Leod, le-od (Saxon). The people; a 
nation, or country. 

Leonine, le-o-nine (Latin, leoninus). 
Having the qualities of a lion ; resembling 
a lion. Leonine verses,^ a certain species of 
verse having a word in the middle which 



LE\ 

rhymes with a word at the end ; so oaLed 
from Leo X. 



Leprosy, lepproh-se (Greek. 
A loathsome disease, which generally con- 
sists of a universal cancer of the whole 
body, and having dry, white, sciirfy scales. 

Le roi le vent (French). The sove- 
reign wills it. The form of royal assent to 
the passing of bills in parliament, pro- 
nounced by the clerk. 

Lese Majesty, le-se majjes-te. Any 
crime committed against the sovereign 
power in a state. 

Lethargy, leth-arjy (Greek, lethe, for- 
getfulness ; argos, idle). Morbid drowsi- 
ness ; dulness ; a sluggish forgetfulness ; 
sleepiness to excess. 

Letlie, le-the (Greek, lethe, forgetful- 
ness). Oblivion ; causing forgetfulness ; 
death. In Greek m\i:hology, Lethe was the 
river Oblivion, the waters of which were 
fabled to possess the quality of making 
those who drank them forget the whole of 
their former existence. 

Letterpress. Print ; letters and words 
impressed on paper, or other material, by 
types. 

Lettre de Cachet, letr'd'-kashay 
(French, a sealed letter). Formerly, in 
France, an arbitrary warrant of imprison- 
ment, without accusation or trial. 

Levant, le-vant (French, levant, rising). 
The east; a wind coming from the east; 
the eastern part of the Mediterranean ; 
called levant, because there the sun rises. 

Levee, lev-ee (French, lever, to rise). 
An assembly of visitors at or soon after the 
time of rising ; the ceremonial visits which 
distinguished personages receive in the 
morning. It is now specially applied in 
this country to the stated public occasions 
on which the sovereign receives visits from 
such persons as are entitled by rank, fame, 
or fortune, to that honour. 

Levee en Masse, leway-ong-mass 
(French). A military expression for the 
patriotic rising of a whole peo})le, including 
all capable of bearing arms, who are not 
otherwise engaged in the regular seiwice ; 
and which is the most formidable obstacle 
an enemy can encounter. 

Leveller, lewel-ur. One who levels 
or destroys distinctions. 

Levelling, le-i-\^el-ling. The finding of 
a line parallel to the horizon, at one or 
more stations, to determine the height or 



\. 



LEV 

depth of one place in relation to another ; 
asually performed by means of an in- 
strument called a level, with levelling 
staffs, &c. 

Lever, le-vur (Latin, levo, to raise). In 
mechanics, a bar of metal, wood, or other 
flexible substance, turning on a fulcrum 
or prop, and usually regarded as one of the 
simple mechanical powers. 

Leveret, lev-vur-it (French, lievre, a 
hare^. A hare in the first year of her age. 

Leviathan, le-viah-than. A Hebrew 
word, signifying a great fish, or sea animal ; 
it is metaphorically applied to anything 
of gigantic proportions. 

Levigate, lewy-gate (Latin, Icevigo, to 
make smooth). To reduce to a fine 
powder ; to make smooth ; to polish. 

Levitation, lewy-tayshun (Latin, 
levis, light). Lightness ; buoyancy ; act 
of making light. 

Levitical, le-vitty-kal. Belonging to 
the Levites or tribe of Levi ; making part 
of the religion of the Jews ; pertaining to 
the priesthood. 

Leviticus, le-vitty-kus. A canonical 
book in the Old Testament, so called from 
its containing the laws and regiilations 
relating to the priests, Levites, and sac- 
rifices. 

Levity, lewit-e (Latin, levis, light). 
Lightness ; the want of weight in a body 
compared with another which is heavier ; 
hence, lightness of character; frivolity; 
fickleness ; inconstancy. 

Levy, lev-e (French, lever, to raise). 
To raise ; to collect ; to gather, as to levy 
an army, to levy a tax. 

> Lewd, lude ("Welsh, llodig). Given to 
the indulgence of lust ; licentious ; sensual ; 
impure. 

Lexicographer, leksy-kograh-fur 
(Greek, lexicon, a dictionary ; grapho, to 
write). The writer or compiler of a dic- 
tionary. 

Lexicology, leksy-kollo-je (Greek, 
lexicon; logos, &treaX\?,e), The science of 
words ; that branch of learning which 
treats of the proper signification and just 
application of words. 

Lexicon, leksy-kon (Greek). A dic- 
tionary ; a book in which words are 
explained ; the term lexicon is retained 
with us as relating to the Greek dictionary. 

Lex non scripta, leks non skrip-ta 
(Latin). The unwritten law ; custom long 



LIB 



175 



established. The lex own scripta means 
especially the ancient common law of 
England, which existed in full force for 
centuries, without ever having been 
written. The lex scripta means the 
statute laws of England. 

Lex talionis, Isx taly-onis (Latin). 
The law of retaliation or requital in kind, 
such as is alluded to in the Scripture, — 
*'an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth." 

Ley, lay (Latin, lexivium). The liquor 
in which saline and soluble particles of the 
residues of distillation and combustion are 
dissolved ; the solution made by levigating 
ashes which contain alkali. 

Leyden jar, lyden jar. A jar used for 
accumulating electricity, and employed in 
electrical experiments ; it was the inven- 
tion of M. Vanleigh, of Leyden. 

Liaison, le-ah-zong (French). Bond 
of union ; illicit connection. 

Libation, li-bayshun (Latin, liho, to 
pour out). The act of poimng out wine in 
honour of some deity ; the wine so poured. 

Libel, li-bel (Latin, lilcllus, a little 
book). A defamatory writing ; any book, 
pamphlet, waiting, or picture, containing 
misrepresentations, maliciously made or 
published, tending to bring a person into 
contempt, or expose him to public hatred 
and derision ; also, a writ, citation, or pro- 
cess, containing the substance of the suit 
upon any action ; also a bill, certificate, 
request, or supplication in wilting. 

Liberal, libber-al (Latin, liheralis). 
Free ; generous ; ready to give or bestow; 
bounteous ; munificent. In politics, one 
who professes enlarged views for thepubUc 
good, and who advocates the bestowal of 
the greatest number of privileges upon the 
people. Liberal arts, those arts which de- 
pend more on intellectual exertion and re- 
fined taste, as distinguished from those 
which require great mechanical labour. 

Liberate, libber-ate (Latin, libera). To 
release from confinement; to set free; to 
emancipate from bondage. 

Libertine, libber-tin (Latin, Uberiimis). 
Literally, a free man; hence, in an evil 
sense, one free from restraint ; licentious ; 
immoral; irreligious. 

Libidinous, lib-iddin-us (Latin, libido, 
desire). Lewd; lustful. 

Libra, li-brah (Latin). The balance; 
the seventh sign of the Zodiac. It denotes 
the first month of spring, and extends 
from the 20th of March to the 2Uth of 



176 



LIB 



LIM 



April. This month answers to the vernal 
equinox, and the equahty, or balance, of 
the days and nights. 

Librarian, li-brary-an (Latin, liber, a 
book). One who has the care of a library ; 
the keeper of a library. 

liibration, h-brayshun (Latin, libra, a 
balance). The act of poising or balancing ; 
equipoise ; the apparent oscillatory motion 
of the moon, which brings into view at one 
time small portions of its surface, which 
are at other times invisible. 

Libratory, libray-tury. Balancing ; 
moving like a balance, as it tends to an 
equipoise or level. 

License, H-sens (Latin, licet, it is per- 
mitted). A right, authority, or permis- 
sion; excess of liberty; abuse of freedom. 

Licentiate, li-senshy-ate (Latin, H- 
centia). One who has a license to practice 
any art or faculty. Licentiate in Medicine 
is a physician who has a licence to practice, 
granted by the College of Physicians. 

Liclien, li-ken or lik-en (Greek, leicJieii). 
A plant ; rock-moss ; an order of plants of 
the most simple organisation, requiring 
free access to light and air, and forming 
irregular patches upon the surface of stones, 
trees, the earth, and other bodies. 

Lic'tor, lik-tm-. The name of a Roman 
oflficer, or beadle, who attended on the ma- 
gisti-ates, and inflicted punishment on the 
condemned. Each lictor carried on his 
shoulder the fasces, or bundle of rods, with 
an axe in the middle. 

Lief, leef (Saxon, leof, loved). With 
free consent ; gladly ; willingly. 

Liege, leej (Lntin. Hgo, to bind). Bound 
by feudal tenui-e ; subject ; obliged to be 
loyal and faithful to a superior ; the word 
is also applied as if the bond were only 
to attach the people to the prince, and in 
this sense liege is sovereign, or supreme 
head or chief. 

Lien, le-en. (Obsolete participle of lie). 
A legal claim to property to satisfy a debt ; 
the right by which a possessor of property 
holds it against the o^mer, in satisfaction 
of a demand. 

Lieu, lu (French). Place ; room ; stead. 
Used only with in, as iji lieu, instead. 

Life-boat. A boat constructed so that 
it cannot sink or be swamped ; used in 
saving the lives of shipwrecked persons. 

Ligament, liggah-ment (Latin, ligo, to 
Dind). Anything that ties or binds one 
thing to another. In anatomy, ligaments 



are those insensible strings seated within 
or near a joiiit, and which serve to hold 
the various articulations of the animal body 
together. 

Lighter, li-tur. A large open flat- 
bottomed vessel, which attends upon ships 
of burden, and lightens them of their 
lading. 

Ligbtliouse, lite-hous. A building, 
usually in the form of a tower, built upon 
or adjacent to dangerous rocks, for the 
purpose of warning ships of their situation ; 
or along the sea-coast as landmarks, lights 
of various descriptions being introduced 
upon the top at night, 

LigMs, lites. The lungs, so called 
from theii- lightness ; being lighter in pro- 
portion to theu- bulk than any other part 
of the body. 

Ligneous, lig-ne-us (Latin, ligmim, 
wood). Woody or wooden; having the 
substance of wood. 

Lignum vitse, lig-num vi-te (Latin, 
wood of bfe). The guaiacum or pockwood. 
The common lignum vitte tree is a native 
of the warm latitudes of America. It is a 
large tree, and the wood is hard, ponderous, 
very resinous, of a blackish-yeJlow colour 
in the middle, and of a hot ai'omatic taste. 

Lilliputian, lilly-pewshan. Anything 
of very small proportions ; a pigmy ; so 
called from the people of LiUiput mentioned 
in " Gulliver's Travels," by Dean Swift. 

Lilt, lilt. To sing or dance merrily and 
with vivacity. 

Limation, li-mayshun (Latin, Umo, tol 
file). The act of filing or polishing. ^ 

Limber, lim-bm- (Danish, Umper). 
Flexible ; easily bent ; pliant ; yielding. 

Limbo, lim-bo (Latin, Umhus, a hem or 
edge). Thepurgatory of the Roman Catholio 
Chm-ch, supposed to lie on the edge of the 
neighbourhood of the infernal regions ; a 
middle state, in which there is neither plea- 
sure nor pain. Popularly, a place of con- 
finement ; a prison. 

Limit, lim-it (Latin, limes). A bound > 
a border ; utmost reach ; the part or thing 
which terminates. 

Limited Liability. In commerce, 
the Kability of a shareholder in a company, 
or a partner in a firm, for a specified 
amount, such as the amoimt of his shares, 
and no more. It is a recent introduction 
into England, and differs from the former 
system, where, if a person had only one 



LIM 



LIQ 



177 



share in a concern, he was held equally 
liable with the rest. 

Limner, lim-nur (French, enlumiiieur). 
A painter ; a painter who works chiefly in 
water-colours. 

lilmpid, lim-pid (Latin, limpidus). 
Clear ; transparent ; pure ; characteris«d 
by clearness or transparency. 

Xiinclipin, linsh -pin (Saxon, lynis). A 
pin used to prevent the wheel of a carriage 
sliding off the axle-tree. 

Ijine (Latin, linea). In geometry, any- 
thing extended in length without breadth 
or thickness. Lines are either curves or 
right lines. In fortification, whatever is 
drawn on the ground of the field, as a 
trench or a row of gabions, &c. 

liine of battle. The disposition of an 
army, which is usually drawn up in three 
lines— the vanguard, main body, and rear- 
guard. Line of march signifies any dis- 
tance of ground over which armed bodies 
move in regular succession. Line of de- 
marcation, a hne which is drawn by the 
consent of the pai'ties interested to ascer- 
tain the limits of certain lands and terri- 
tories belonging to different powers. In 
navigation the word is used in dilferent 
senses, as a ship of the line, any vessel of 
war large enough to be drawn up in the 
line of battle ; deep-sea line, a long line 
marked at every five fathoms ; iddte line, 
that which has not been tarred, in distinc- 
tion from the tarred line. 

Lineage, linny-aje (Latin, linea, a 
line). Family, line, or race ; either ascend- 
ing or descending ; genealogy. 

Lineal, linny-al (Latin, linea, a line). 
Composed of lines ; in the direction of a 
line ; descending in a direct line from an 
ancestor ; allied by direct descent. 

Lineament, linny-a-ment (Latin, 
linea, a line). Feature ; form ; outline ; 
any mark either in the face or form, which 
distinguishes one person from another. 

Linear, hn-yeer (Latin, linearis, strap- 
shaped). Pertaining to a Une ; consisting 
of lines ; like a line ; in a straight direc- 
tion. Linear eq-uatioiis, in the integral cal- 
culus, are those in which the unknown 
quantity is only of the first degree. Linear 
perspective is that which regards only the 
positions, magnitudes, and forms of 
objects. 

Liners. A name given to packet ships 
r»v«!liS'ly trading to and from certain far 
'distant ports beyond seas. 



Lines of grovsrth. Ilioso concentric 
lines or markings in a shell, trunk of a 
tree, &c., which denote the growth of the 
individual, are thus named. 

Ling. A termination of Saxon origin ; 
it was customarj' to subjoin it to the name 
of the father, as Eadmund, Eadmon-ling ; 
it was further subjoined to designate off- 
spring, or progeny, as duck, dvxkVmg. It 
always denotes belonging or pertaining to ; 
and is frequently used to express the added 
circumstances, or connection with or de- 
pendence upon. 

Linguadental, ling-gwa-dental. Ut- 
tered by the joint action of the tongue aiid 
teeth. 

Lingua Franca, Ung-gwa frang-ka. 
A species of corrupt Italian, spoken chiefiy 
on the coasts of the Mediterranean. 

Lingual, ling-gwal (Latin, lingua, a 
tongue). Pertaining to the tongue. 

Linguist, ling-gwist (Latin, lingua, a 
tongfue). A person skilled in languages. 

Liniment, linny-ment (Latin, lino, to 
anoint). An ointment to be spread or 
smeared over sores ; a remedy for external 
use by means of friction. 

Link, link (German, lenhen, to bend). 
The parts by which a chain is extended in 
its length ; the parts of which a chain is 
formed ; anything connecting ; hence me- 
taphorically, the links in a chain of evi- 
dence, the links of society. 

Linnsean, lin-neean. Pertaining to 
Linnseus, the naturalist, or his system, 
which consisted of a scientific arrangement 
of all natural objects, as animals, plants, 
and minerals, into three kingdoms, sub- 
divided into classes, orders, genera, species, 
and varieties, with a description of their 
generic and specific characters. 

Linstock, Un-stok. A staff with a 
match at the end, used in firing a cannon. 

Lintel, Hn-tel (Spanish, lintel). The 
horizontal or head-piece which covers the 
opening of a door or window ; the part of 
the frame which lies on the side pieces. 

Lipogram, lippo-gram (Greek, leipo, 
to leave ; gramma, a letter). A writing in 
which a particular letter is wholly omitteMd. 

Liquefaction, Hkwe-fakshun (Latin, 
ligiceo, to melt). The act of melting ; the 
conversion of a solid into a hquid; tho 
state of being melted. 

Liqueur, le-kure (French). Tha 
French name for any liquor. Appliec^ 



178 



LIQ 



most commonly to a spirituous compound, 
or to medicated, aromatised liquors. 

Liquidate, likwid-ate (Latin, liqueo, 
to melt). Literally, to clear away by 
making liquid ; hence, to pay off as a 
debt ; to settle or adjust accounts. 

Liripoop, lirry-poop (French, {Uri- 
pipion). A graduate's hood. 

Iiissome, lis-sum (Saxon, lesan, to 
loose). Limber ; supple ; relaxed ; loose ; 
free. 

List (French, liste). Originally a long, 
narrow strip, as on the outer edge of cloth ; 
hence, a roll or collection, as a list of names, 
a list of books. In nautical language, an 
inclination to one side ; also, to heai-ken ; 
'to attend ; contracted from liste7i. 

Iiistless, list -less (Saxon, lysian). 
Indifferent ; heedless ; careless ; without 
any inclination or determination to one 
thing more than another. 

Litany, littah-ny (Greek, litaneyo, to 
beseech). A form of prayer and suppli- 
cation used in divine worship, to appease 
God's anger, to avert evils, and to request 
those blessings and virtues which are most 
needed. 

Literal, litter-al (Latin, litera, a letter). 
According to the letter ; the primary and 
obvious sense of a thing, opposed to 
.figurative; following the letter, or word 
for word, as a literal translation. 

Literary, litter-aiy (Latin, litera, a 
letter). Eelating to letters and learning ; 
devoted to learning ; pursuing learned 
studies ; derived from erudition ; versed in 
letters. 

Literati, litter-ay-te. The learned; 
men of learning ; literary men as a body. 

Literatim, litter -aytim (Latin). 
Literally ; letter for letter. 

Literature, litterah-ture. Learning ; 
skUl in letters ; acquaintance with letters 
or books ; literary compositions. 

Lith.arge, lith-arj (Greek, lithos, a 
stone ; arguros, silver). A scum usually 
produced in the purification of silver from 
lead, and the refining of gold and silver by 
means of this metal. 

Lithe, lyth (Welsh, llyth). Flexible; 
easily bent ; soft ; gentle ; compliant. 

Lithesome, lyth-suia. Pliant ; limber ; 
nimble. 

Lithography, Hth-oggrah-fe (Greek, 
liihos, Sk stone ; grapho, to write). The 



LIV 

art of taking impress ons upon paper of 
writing and figures previously traced upon 
a stone. The ink with which the lines are 
traced is essentially composed of some 
fatty matter, and firmly adhering to the 
smoothly polished surface of the stone, 
attracts the printing-ink from the roller as 
it passes over the surface. 

Lithology, lith-ollo-je (Greek, lithos, 
a stone ; logos, a treatise). The science or 
natural history of stones ; a treatise on 
stones found in the body. 

Lithotomy, lith-otto-me (Greek, 
lithos, a stone ; temno, to cut). The opera- 
tion of cutting into the bladder, in order to 
extract a stone. 

Lithotritty, lith - ottry - ty (Greek, 
lithos, a stone ; Latin, tero, to break). The 
operation of breaking a stone in the bladder. 

Litigation, litty-gayshun (Latin, lis, 
strife). Judicial contention ; a contest 
carried oh by suit at law for the recovery 
of a right or claim. 

Litigious, le-tijus (Latin, lis, strife). 
Inclined to law-suits ; fond of going to law ; 
quarrelsome ; contentious. 

Litmus, lit-mus. A blue pigment 
formed from archil, a kind of lichen. 

Litre, leetr. A French measure of 
capacity equal to one thirty-fifth of an 
English bushel. 

Litter, lit-tur (Latin, lectus, a bed). A 
bed or couch on wMch persons are canned ; 
straw laid under animals ; a brood of young ; 
untidiness ; disarrangement ; disorder. 

Litterateur, littay-rah-tur (French). 
A literary man ; a man of letters ; a dabbler 
in literature. 

Liturgy, littur-je (Greek, leitos, public; 
ergon, work). A term applied in the Chris- 
tian Church to a form of public devotion ; 
a form of prayer and thanksgiving, to be 
ministered in public. The English liturgy 
was first composed, confirmed, and ap- 
proved in Parliament in the year 1548, the 
offices for the morning and evening prayer 
being then in the same order as they stand 
at present, excepting that there was no 
confession and absolution, the office be- 
ginning with the Lord's prayer. 

Livery, liver-e (French, livrer, to de- 
liver). This word formerly denoted the 
clothes, food, kc, delivered and distributed 
by masters to their servants ; now to the 
clothes, or mai'ks upon the clothes, by 
which the servants of one master may be 
known from those of another. 



I 



LIV 

Livery of Seisin. In law, a delivery 
•f possessions to one who is entitled to 
thera, 

Iiiveryman. A term especially ap- 
plied to certain citizens of London, who are 
chosen from among the freemen of each 
company. Out of this body, the common 
council, sheriffs, and other superior ofl&cers 
are elected. 

Live Stock. Cattle, horses, and other 
animals. 



LOG 



119 



Livid, liv-id (Latin, lividus). Black 
and blue ; discoloured as with a blow ; a 
dead, earthy, leaden hue. 

Livraison, leevray-zong (French). A 
part or a number of a work published 
serially. 

Livre, le-vur. A French money of 
account formerly used, equal to about 
ninepence-halfpenny sterling ; also, the 
French name for a pound weight. 

Lixivial, liks-siwy-al (Latin, lixivium, 
lye). Made from lye ; impregnated with 
salts ; having the quality of alkaline salts 
from wood ashes. 

LL.D. Letters standing for the Latin, 
Legimi Doctor ; that is. Doctor of Laws. 

Lloyd's. LloycCs List is a London peri- 
odical, in which the shipping news received 
at Lloyd's Rooms is regularly published. 
These rooms form a part of the Eoyal Ex- 
change, and are under the management of 
a committee, for the convenience of under- 
writers and other subscribers interested in 
shipping. Agents, commonly styled Lloyd's 
Agents, are appointed to all the principal 
ports of the world, who forward regularly 
to Lloyd's, accounts of the departures from 
and arrivals at their ports, as well as of 
losses and other casualties, and all such 
information as may be supposed of impor- 
tance towards guiding the judgment of the 
underwriters. 

Load-star. The leading star ; the pole- 
star. 

Loadstone (corruption of lode-stone. — 
See Lode). A native magnet ; a magnetic 
iron, which is black, with a slight me- 
tallic lustre. It is so called because it is 
capable of attracting or leading iron or 
steel. 

Loafer, lofur (German, laufen). An 
indolent person, who lounges about with 
no settled employment. 

Loam, iome (Saxon, liman, to stick or 
bind together). Earth of an adhesive and 
tenacious quality ; any soil which does not 



cohere so strongly as clay, but more intt-l 
mately than chalk, is designated loam ; a 
mixture of sand and clay. 

Loan, lone (Saxon, Icen). Anything 
lent ; anything intrusted or transferred 
to another on condition of return or repay- 
ment ; permission to use ; grant of use. 

Loathe, lothe (Saxon, lathian, to de- 
test). To hate ; to hold in hatred ; . to 
detest ; to abhor ; to feel disgust, dislike, 
or reluctance at or towards ; to be back- 
ward or unwilling. 

Lobe, lobe (Greek, lotos). A division ; 
a distinct part ; the lower part of the ear ; 
a part of the lungs ; a division of a simple 
leaf. 

Loblolly, lob-lolly. Among seamen, 
spoon- victuals. Loblolly-hoy, the surgeon's 
attendant on ship-board. 

Lobule, lob-ule (Spanish, lohulo). A 
little lobe. 

Local, lo-kal (Latin, localis). Kelating 
to a limited portion, and not the whole, as 
a local disease, custom, &c. Local colours 
are such as are natural and proper for par- 
ticular portions of a pictm-e. Local medi- 
cines are designed to act on particular 
parts. Local aeiions must be brought 
in a particular county. Local militia are 
exercised within prescribed limits of the 
country. 

Locate, lo-kate (Latin, locatus). To 
set or place in a particular spot or position ; 
to settle in a place. 

Loc. eit., lok-sit (Latin, contraction of 
loco citato). A term signifying in the pas- 
sage before quoted. 

Loch, lok (Gaelic). A lake ; a bay or 
arm of the sea. 

Lock, lok (Saxon, loc). The barrier or 
works of a canal, which confines the water 
where a change of level takes place, and 
facilitates the passage of boats from one 
level to another. 

Loco foco, lo-ko fo-ko, A name given 
in the United States of America to an 
ultra-democrat. 

Locomotion, loko-mo-sliun (Latin^ 
locus, a place ; motio, a moving). The 
power of changing place ; the act of moving 
from place to place. 

Locomotive, lo-ko-mo-tiv (Latin, 
locus, a place ; motio, a moving). Changing 
place. Locomotive engine, a steam-engine, 
usually constructed on the high-pressure 
principle, employed in land-carriage, 
chiefly on railways. Locomotive poioer is 
U2 



180 



LOG 



LON 



any power applied directly to the transport 
of goods, in distinction from stationary 
power. 

Loco parentis, loko pay-rentis (Latin). 
In the place, or position, of a parent. 

IiOCUm tenens, lokum teenens (Lat.). 
A substitute ; a deputy ; a person acting 
in the place of another. 

Locus in quo, lo-kus in kwo (Latin). 
The place in question ; the spot mentioned. 

Locus Standi, lo-kus stan-di (Latin). 
Recognised position ; acknowledged right 
or claim. 

Locution, lo-kewshun (Latin, hculiim). 
Speech ; mode or manner of speech. 

Lode, lode (Saxon, loedan, to lead). In 
mining, a vein of ore. The term is used 
to signify a regular vein or course, whether 
metallio or not ; but most commonly it is 
applied to a metallic vein. 

Lodgement, loj-ment. In fortifica- 
tion, a work raised with earth, gabions, 
fascines, &c., to cover the besiegers from 
the enemy's fire, and enable them the 
better to hold a position which they have 
taken. 

Log, log (Saxon, Iscgav, to lay). A 
bulky piece of wood ; an instrament for 
measuring the velocity of a ship through 
the water. 

Logarithms, loggah-rlthumz (Greek, 
logos, a ratio ; ai-iihmos, number). A series 
of numbers adapted in a certain way to a 
series of natural numbers, to facilitate the 
processes of numerical computation. A 
simple idea of this system may be acquired 
by taking a set of numbers, as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 
having for their common difference the first 
number of the series ; and placing under 
them another set of numbers, which pro- 
ceed by continued multiplication by the 
first number of the series, as 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 
64. The former set are the logarithms of 
the latter, which are called natural numbers. 

Log-book. In nautical affairs, a journal 
kept by the chief mate or first officer, in 
which the situation of the ship from time 
to time, the winds, weather, courses, and 
distances, the misconduct or desertion of 
any of the crew, and everything of impor- 
tance, are carefully noted down. 

Loggerhead, log-gur-hed. Literally, 
ahead hard and thick as a log; to fall to 
loggei'Jieads, or go to loggerlieofls, to scuffle ; 
to come to blows ; to fight without weapons. 

IiOgie, loj-ik (Greek, logos, a word, or 
Tn^dom}. A term which, in its most ex- 



tensive application, means the science an 
well as the art of reasoning'. So far as it 
institutes an analysis of the process of tho 
mind in reasoning, it is strictly a science ; 
while, so far as it investigates the prin- 
ciples on which argumentation is conducted 
and fmuishes tnles to secure the mind 
from error in its deductions, it may be 
called the art of reasoning ; the use of 
words in the art of reasoning ; the art of 
reasoning justly in the investigation of 
truth. 

Logician, lo-jishan. One skilled in 
the art of logic. 

Log-line, log -line. A line or cord 
fastened to a piece of boai-d, and wovmd 
upon a reel ; used to accertain the rate at 
which a ship is sailing. 

Logography, lo-gograh-fe (Greek, 
logos, a word ; grapho, to write). A method 
of printing in which a type represents a 
word, instead of forming a letter. 

Logy. A termination in constant use 
for the formation of scientific terms ; 
derived from the Greek word, logoi, a 
discourse. 

Lollards, lol-lards. A sect of early 
refoi-mers in Germany and England, the 
followers of Wickliffe. The name was at 
that time applied to them as one of infamy, 
the Romish Church treating them as the 
vilest heretics. 

Lombard, lum-bard (Latin, longa 
harba, long beard). An ancient name in 
England for a banker, because the people 
of Lombardy first followed this branch of 
commerce. Hence the name of Lonibard- 
street, so long noted for its numerous 
banking-houses. 

Longboat. The largest boat belonging 
to a ship ; built full, flat, and high, so as 
to carry a great weight ; it is also called the 
launch. 

Longevity, lon-jewy-ty (Latin, longus, 
long ; cevum, age). Length or duration of 
life ; great length of Ufe. 

Longimetry, Ion jimmy-tre (Latin, 
longus, long ; Greek, metron, a measui'e). 
The aii; or practice of measuring distances 
or heights. 

Longitude, lonjy-tude (Latin, Icngi- 
tudo, length). In geography and naviga- 
tion, the measure of the angle included 
between the meridian of any place, the 
longitude of which is required, and a cer- 
tain fixed meridian, from which the longi- 
tude is reckoned ; or it is the number of 
degrees, minutes, &c., intercepted Lotvveen 



ION 



LUG 



181 



a certain fixed point of tlie equator and the 
intersection of the meridian of the place 
\vith the same circle. It is usual to reckon 
longitude from the first meridian, whether 
eastward or westward, until we reach the 
•opposite meridian ; therefore the longitude 
of a place in either hemisphere can never 
exceed 180 degrees. The longitude of a 
celestial body is an arc of the ecliptic con- 
tained between the vernal equinoctial point, 
and a circle of longitude passing through 
the centre of the body. 

Longitudinal, lonjy-tewdin-al. Ec- 
lating to longitude or length ; running in 
the longest direction, as distinguished 
from transverse or across; measured by 
the length. 

XtOOm, loom (Saxon, leoman, to shine). 
To appear large above the surface; to 
appear larger than natiu-al. 

Looming, loom-Ing. The indistinct 
and magnified appearance of objects seen 
in particular states of the atmosphere. 

Loon (Saxon, lun, needy). A rascal ; 
a scoundrel ; a sorry fellow ; an ill -con- 
ditioned person. 

Loquacity, lo-kwassy-te (Latin, lo- 
quor, to speak). Talkativeness ; freedom 
of speech ; the habit of talking continually 
or immoderately. 

Lord. A title of courtesy given to all 
Bishops and Irish noblemen, from the 
baron upwards ; to the eldest sons of earls ; 
to all the sons of marquesses and dukes ; 
and as an honorary title, to certain 
official characters. The title is from 
Saxon, Jdeford, usually derived from klaf, 
loaf, and /ore?, or afford, to give ; and hence 
lord is interpreted a bread-giver. A lord, 
in law, is one who possesses a fee or 
manor. 

Lore, lore (Saxon, lar). Learning ; 
doctrine ; instruction. 

Loricate, lawry-kate (Latin, lorica, a 
coat of mail). To plate or cover over ; to 
protect as with a breast-plate. 

Lorn, lawm (Saxon, kn'en, to lose). 
Utterly lost ; deserted ; forsaken ; desti- 
tute ; solitary. 

Losel, loz-el (from the root of loose). 
A wasteful, worthless fellow. 

IiOUis d'or, looy-dore. A French gold 
coin, first struck in 1640, in the reign of 
Louis the Thirteenth ; value, twenty-five 
shillings sterling. 

Louver, loo-vur (French, Vouvert). An 
opening for the emission of smoke. 



Love Feasts. Religious festivals, 
celebrated periodically by certain sects. 

Lo'Wins:, lo-ing (Saxon, hlowan, to 
bellow). The bellowing or cry of cattle. 

Loyalty, iojryal-te (French, leal). Fi- 
delity to a prince, lady, or lover ; firm and 
faithful devotion to a cause. 

Lozenge, loz-enj (French, losange). A 
rhomb; a four-cornered figure. In her- 
aldry, a figure on which is represented 
the coats of arms of maidens and widows. 
In confectionary, a small cake of preserved 
fruit or of sugar, so called from its original 
rhomboidal form. 

Lubricate, lewbry-kate (Latin, Ivltri- 
cus, slippery). To make smooth or 
slippery. 

Lucid, lu-sid (Latin, hicidus, from luz, 
light). Shining ; bright ; clear ; bright 
with the radiance of intellect ; without any 
darkness or disorder of the mind. 

Lucifer, lewsif-ur (Latin, lux, light; 
fero, to bring). The planet Venus ; also, 
a name given to Satan. 

Luctmeter, lu-simmy-tur (Latin, lux, 
light ; Greek, metron, measure). An appa- 
ratus for measuring the intensity of Ught 
proceeding from dififerent bodies. 

Lucrative, lewkrah-tiv (French, Zttcw- 
tif). Profitable ; tending to increase 
wealth ; productive of gain or emolu- 
ment. 

Lucre, lu-kur (Latin, liicrum). Gain ; 
profit ; emolument, or advantage ; gene- 
rally applied in an ill sense, and denounced 
a& filthy lucre. 

Lucubration, lu-ku-brayshun (Latin, 
lucubro, to study or work by candle-light). 
Study by lamp or candle-light ; any^ing 
composed by night or ia retirement ; ap- 
plied in a general sense to meditation, 
reflection, study. 

Luculent, lu-ku-lent (Latin, IneU' 
lentus). Enlightening; bright; clear; full 
of light. 

Ludicrous lewdy-krus (Latin, ludo, 
to sport). Playful ; sportive ; tending to 
excite laughter; burlesque. 

Luff, luf. In nautical language, the 
order to th,e helmsman to put the rudder 
towai'ds the lee-side of the ship, in order 
to make it sail nearer in the direction of 
the wind. 

Lugger, lug-gur (Dutch, loger). A 
small vessel carrying either two or three 
masts, with a i"anning bowsprit, upon 



182 



LUG 



LUT 



whicii are set lug-sails, and occasionally 
with topsails adapted to them. 

Lugubrious, lu-gewbry-us (Latin, 
lugeo, to mourn). Doleful; sorroTvful; 
mournful. 

Lukewarm, luke-warm (Saxon, wlaco 
wearm). Moderately warm ; indifferent; 
without fervour, ardour, or zeal. 

Lull, lul (Dutch, lullen). To soothe ; 
to compose ; to assuage ; to calm ; to be- 
come tranquil ; to subside. 

Lullaby, lullah-bi (Dutch, lullen). A 
song to lull asleep, especially infants ; that 
which quiets. 

Lumbago, lum-baygo, (Latin, lumhi, 
the loins). A troublesome fixed pain about 
the loins and ligaments of the back 

Lumbar, lum-bar. In anatomy, per- 
taining to the loins. 

Lumber, lum-bur (German, lumpen). 
Anything useless or cumbersome ; articles 
of furniture not in use or orderly arrange- 
ment, thi'own together in a lump ; any- 
thing of more bulk than value. 

Luminary, lewmin-ary (Latin, lumen, 
light). Any orb or body which gives light ; 
any one who illustrates a subject, or en- 
lightens mankind. 

Lumpers, lum-purz. A name given to 
labourers employed to load and imload 
merchant ships when in harbour ; more 
particularly applicable to such as contract 
to do work by the lump. 

Lunacy, lewnah-se (Latin, luna, the 
moon). Mental derangement; madness; 
insanity of the mind ; so called because it 
is popularly supposed to be influenced by 
the moon, or periodical in the month. 

Lunar, lu-nar (Latin, luna, the moon). 
Relating to the moon; resembling the 
moon ; vmder the influence of the moon. 
Lunar caustic, fused nitrate of silver. 
Lunar observation, an observation of the 
moon's distance from a star for the purpose 
of finding the longitude. Lunar rainhoio, 
a rainbow caused by the reflection of the 
light of the moon. 

Lunar Month. The interval in which 
the moon completes a revolution about the 
•arth. 

Lunar Year. The period of twelve 
Siinar months, or about three hundred and 
Sour days and one-third. 

Lunette, lu-net (French, lunette). In 
fortification, the name of small works on 
each side of a ravehn to strengthen it. 



In optics, a species of glasses ; also, a j 
small window in a concave ceiling. 

Lurch, lurtsh (Welsh, Here). In naur- 
tical language, the sudden jerk or roUtng 
of a ship on either side, caused by a heavy 
wave striking either upon the rudder or 
quarter ; a lea h(,rch, a rolling or heaving 
to leeward when a heavy sea strikes the 
ship on the weather-side ; to leave in the 
lurch, to abandon in a difficult or embar- 
rassing condition. 

Lurcher, lurtsh-ur. A sporting dog 
that watches for his game. , 

Lure, lure (French, leurre). An entice- 
ment ; a temptation ; a snare ; to induce 
or attract by some inducement. 

Lurid, lu-rid (Latin, luHdm). Gloomy ; 
dismal ; ghastly pale ; ghostlike. 

Luscious, lush-us (Saxon, leu-ish, full 
of juice). Sweet to excess ; swollen with 
juice ; sweet or rich, so as to clog or nau- 
seate ; pleasing ; delightful ; grateful to 
the taste. 

Lustral, lus-tral (Latin, IvMro, to pu- 
rify). Used in purification, or pertaining 
to it. 

Lustrum., lus-trum. In ancient Rome, 
a period of five years, at the beginning of 
which the Romans paid the tribute laid on 
them by the censors. 

Lusty, lust-e (Danish, lustig). Stout ; 
vigorous ; healthy ; able of body ; robust ; 
sturdy. 

Lusus Naturae, lu-sus na-tewry (Lat. ) 
Freak of Nature ; deformed production, as 
a sheep bom with two heads, a dog with five 
legs, &c. 

Lutarious, lu-tary-us (Latin, lutarius). 
Pertaining to mud ; of the colour of mud. 

Lutation, lu-tayshun. The act of 
luting, or cementing chemical vessels close 
together. 

Lute, lute. A stringed musical instru- 
ment, containing at first five rows of strings, 
to which were afterwards added six more, 
with nine or ten stops 

Lutheran, lewther-an. A disciple or 

follower of Luther, the Gei-man reformer, 

who separated from the Church of Rome 

in the year 1517, and took the lead in what 

I is now called the Reformation. 

Luting, lu-ting (Latin, lutum). A 
composition of soft clay and other sub- 
stances, employed in stopping the poiLiwS 
of apparatus, and coating vessels whlcQ 
are exposed to the action of fire. 



LUX 

Luxate, lux-ate (Latin, lv.xo). To put 
out of joint; to disjoint; to dislocate. 

Lyceum, li-seeum (Greek, hileion). 
In Greece, a place where Aristotle taught ; 
a place appropriated to instruction by lec- 
tures and disquisitions ; a literary asso- 
ciation. 

Lydian, liddy-an. Noting a kind of 
soft, slow, and flowing air in music, used 
first by the natives of Lydia. 

Lye, li. Solution of an alkali in water, 
particularly applied to dissolved potash. 

Lying-to. In nautical language, the 
situation of a ship when she is retarded in 
her course, by arranging the sails in such 
a manner as to counteract each other with 
nearly equal effect. 

Lymph, limf (Latin, lymplia). A co- 
lourless fluid in animal bodies. 

Ljrnell-la^W, lintsh-law. The infliction 
of pimishment without the forms of a regu- 
larly constituted tribunal ; punishment or 
putting to death by the mob. 

Lynx-eyed, links-ide. , Having sharp 
and keen sight, such as the lynx is fabled 
to possess. 

Lyre, lire (Latin, lyra). A stringed 
musical instrument, somewhat resembling 
the harp ; much used by the ancients. 

Lyric, lir-ik. Pertaining to a lyre, to 
poetry sung to a lyre. Lyric 2^oetry con- 
sists chiefly of songs, odes, and verse of 
the lighter kind. 

M. 

Mac, mak. A prefix in Scotch and 
Irish names, signifying son. 

Macadamize, ma-kaddam-ize. To 
cover a roadway or path with small broken 
stones of a uniform size. The name is de- 
rived from the projector, Ilacadam ; and 
the principle is, that the pulverised stones, 
when laid on the surface and subjected to 
the pressure caused by ordinary traffic, bind 
with the earth, and thus form a solid mass. 

Macaroni, makkah-rony. A kind of 
edible paste dl•a^vn into long hollow tubes ; 
also applied to a droll or fool ; a conceited 
fop ; a frivolous pretender. 

Macaronic, makkah-ronik. Eesem- 
bling macaroni ; a mixture ; a confused 
heap ; hence Macaronic verses, a kind of 
burlesque poetiy, consisting of a jumble of 
words, of different languages with words 
of the vulgar tongue, mixed up with Greek 
and Latin Avords or terminations. 



MAG 



183 



Maccabees, makkah-beez. The name 
of two apocryphal books of Scripture, 
containing the history of Judas and his 
brothers, and their wars against the Syrian 
kings in defence of their religion and 
liberties. 

Mace, mase (Italian, mazza). A spice ; 
the middle bark of the nutmeg. 

Mace, mase (Flemish, masse). An en- 
sign of authority borne before mayors, 
magistrates, and other official persons by 
a mace bearer. Originally it was a club 
or instrument of war, made of iron, and 
used by cavaky. 

Macedonian, massy-dony-an. A na- 
tive of Macedonia, a country of Greece. 
In ecclesiastical history, one of a sect of 
Christians who sprung up in the fourth 
century, denominated after a bishop of 
Constantinople, who denied the existence 
of the Holy Ghost. 

Macerate, massy-rate (Latin, macer, 
lean). To make lean ; to mortify ; to 
weaken or bring down ; to harass with 
bodily hardships ; to steep almost to solu- 
tion. 

Machiavelian, mak-eah-vel-yun. Ac- 
cording to the principles of Machiavel; 
cunning ; crafty ; subtle. 

Machiavelism, mak-eah-vel-izm. 
The principles inculcated by Machiavel, 
an Italian writer on politics ; in ordinary 
practice, seeking to accomplish a design 
by stratagem and artifice, and without any 
regard to the welfare of others, or the dic- 
tates of honour and honesty. 

Machination, makky-nayshun (Gr., 
nuchane, a contrivance). An artifice ; a 
plot ; a malicious scheme ; an evil purpose 
formed with dehberation. 

Machine, ma-sheen (Latin, machina). 
Any complicated work ; an instrument of 
force; an instrument contributing to or 
producing motion ; an engine. 

Machinist, ma-sheenist. A constructor 
of machines ; an inventor of engines ; one 
versed in the principles of mechanics. 

Mackintosh. A name given to water- 
proof clothing, from its inventor. 

Macrocosm, makro-kozm. (Greek, 
makros, great; hosmos, the world). The 
whole world, or visible system, in oppo- 
sition to the microcosm, or the world of 
man. 

Macrology, ma-krol-ojy (Greek, 
raakros, long ; logos, a discourse). Length- 
ened and tedious discourse ; superfluous, 



184 



MAC 



illustration of a subject ; redundant copi- 
ousness, or accumulation of words without 
meaning. 

Maerometer, ma-krommy-tur. (Gr., 
viaJcroSf great; metron, measure). An in- 
strument for measuring objects that are 
inaccessible. 

Mactation, mak-tayshun. (Latin, 
macto, to kill). The act of killing for 
sacrifice. 

Maculate, makku-late (Latin, macula, 
a spot). To spot, or stain with spots ; to 
taint. 

Madam, mad-um ' (French ma, my ; 
dame, lady). A complimentary title, or 
style of address, generally applied to elderly 
or to married ladies. 

Madcap, mad-kap {mad, and Latin, 
caput, the head). A rash, hot-headed 
person ; a madman. 

Madder, mad-der (Dutch, meeden, to 
dye, to tinge). A plant, the root of which 
affords a fine scarlet colour for dyeing, 
calico printing, &e. It is also used in 
medicine. 

Madefaction, maddy-fakshun (Latin, 
onadefacio, to moisten). The act of making 
wet. 

Madeira, ma-deer-rah. A wine made 
in Madeira. 

Mademoiselle, mad-mwaw-zel (Fr.). 
An appellative given to a young woman, 
or unmarried lady; a term of address 
equivalent to miss. 

Madonna, ma-donnah (Italian). A 
name given to pictorial representations of 
the Virgin Mary; a term of address, " My 
lady ; " called also madona. 

Madrigal, maddry-gal (Spanish). Ori- 
ginally a pastoral song ; now applied to a 
short amorous poem of a certain number of 
unequal verses ; also a vocal composition 
in five or six parts. 

Maelstrom, mahl-strom. A most re- 
markable and very dangerous whirlpool on 
the coast of Norway ; it carries away ships, 
trees, and everything within its reach ; and 
when it is most boisterous, it is dangerous 
to come within a mile of it. 

Maestoso, mah-es-to-zo. An Italian 
word, signifying majestic, and used in music 
as a direction to play the part with force 
and grandeur. 

Magazine, mag-gah-zeen (Arabic, 
ffrazana, to store). A store of arms, am- 
munition, provisions, &c. ; also the building 
or place so appropriated ; a periodical pub- I 



MAG 

lication, containing miscellaneous papers 
or compositions. 

Maggiore, mad-je-ory. An Italian 
musical term, implying greater. 

Magi, may-ji. An ancient religious 
sect in Persia and other Eastern countries, 
taking its rise from the wise men or philo- 
sophers of the East. The priests of the 
magi were the most skilful mathematicians 
and philosophers of their day ; hence they 
were able to produce effects so astonishing 
to the ignorant, as to be thought super- 
natural. 

Magian, majee-an. Relating to the 
magi or philosophers of the East. 

Magic, maj-ik. Originally a term syno- 
nymous with the more sublime part of 
philosophy, but latterly a kind of science 
of producing wonderful effects through the 
supposed agency of supernatural beings ; 
sorcery; enchantment. 

Magister, majis-tur. An appellation 
given in the Middle Ages to those j>ersons 
who had obtained some degi-ee of literary 
or scientific eminence ; contracted to 
Mister or Mr. 

Magisterial, majjis-teery-al (Latin, 
magister, a master). Literally, belonging 
to a master, and hence to a magistrate ; 
arrogant ; dogmatic ; proud. 

Magistrate, majjis-trate (Latin, ma- 
gister, a master.) A public civil officer; 
a person judicially empowered to adminis- 
ter the law. 

Magna Charta, mag-nah kar-tah 
(Latin). The great charter of EngUsh 
libei-ty, so called. It was obtained by 
the English barons from King John, in 
1215. 

Magnanimity, magna - nimmy - ty 
(Latin, magnus, gi*eat ; aimmis, the mind). 
Greatness of mind ; loftiness of feeling, 
thought, or sentiment; despising mean 
considerations. 

Magnate, mag-nate (Latin, magnatus). 
A person of rank; a distinguished indi- 
vidual. 

Magnet, magnet (Greek, magiies). The 
loadstone, so called from Magnesia, a coun- 
try in Lydia. The native magnet is a 
mineral, consisting of protoxide and 
peroxide of iron in equal proportions, i] 
It possesses the peculiar property of .1 
attracting metallic iron; of assuming a »l 
determinate position with regard to the 
axis of the earth, when freely suspended ; 
and of communicating these properties to 
iron by contact. • The artificial magnet 






MAG 



MAL 



185 



consists of a bar of steel to wMch these 
properties have been communicated. 

Magnificat, mag-niffy-kat (Latin). 
A term applied to the song of the Virgin 
Mary. 

Magnificence, mag - niffy - sense 
(Latin, magnus, great ; facto, to make). 
Grandeur ; splendour ; richness of appear- 
ance, in buildings, clothes, or furniture. 

Magnifico, mag-niffy ko. The title 
given by courtesy to a nobleman of Venice. 

Magniloquence, mag - nillo - kwence 
(Latin, magnus, great ; loquens, speaking). 
A lofty manner of speaking ; a pompous 
style of address. 

Magnum Bonum, mag num bo-num. 
A Latin term applied to certain articles, 
to imply that they possess rare advan- 
tages, and excellent qualities. 

Mahometan. See Mohammedan. 

Maiden Assize. In law, an assize in 
which there are no persons to be brought 
to trial. 

Mail, male (French, maille). Literally, 
net work, or meshes ; but applied to the 
coat formed of meshes collectively. 

Mail, male (French, malle). A bag or 
case for conveying letters by post ; postal 
conveyance ; a carriage for conveying the 
mail. 

Maim, mame (Greek, maitan, to cut off). 
To wound so as to disfigure ; to disable 
from use ; to deprive of any necessary 
part ; to cripple by loss of a limb ; to 
mutilate. 

Main, mane (Saxon, mcegn). Chief ; prin- 
cipal ; firet in size, i-ank, or importance ; 
powerful ; containing the gi'oss bulk or 
chief part. The 7nain sea, or highway of the 
ocean, is elliptically termed the main. 
Main-land, the principal land, the conti- 
nent. Main-keel, the principal keel of a 
ship, as distinguished from the false keel. 
Main-mast, the principal mast in a ship. 
Main-tojp, the top of the main-mast of a ship 
or brig. Main-sail, the principal sail of a 
ship. Main-deck, the deck next below the 
spar deck, in frigates. Alain-yard, the 
yard of the main-mast. Main cluince, the 
chief object to be regarded, or provided for. 

Mainprize, mane-prize (French, main, 
the hand ; pris, taken). In law, a writ 
directed to the sheriff, commanding him to 
take svireties for the prisoner's appearance, 
and to let him go at large. 

Maintenance, mainty-nans (French, 
,main, the hand ; tenir, to hold). Means of 



subsistence; support; preservation; se>* 
curity. 

Maitre d*Hotel, maytr - dote - el 
(French). Steward.; house-steward; major- 
domo. 

Maize, maze. Indian com or wheat ; 
the native com of America. 

Majesty, maj-esty (Latin, majestas, 
greatness). Dignity ; grandeur ; loftiness 
of thought ; greatness of appearance ; the 
quality or state of a person, or thing, 
inspiring reverence or awe in the beholder ; 
a title given to sovereigns. 

Major, may-jur (Latin, mcy'o)-, greater). 
Greater in number, quantity, or extent; 
elder ; superior. In logic, the predicate 
of the conclusion, so called because it is 
generally of larger extension than the 
minor term. In music, an epithet for the 
modes, in which the third is four semi- 
tones above the key-note. In military 
affairs, an officer next in rank above a 
captain, and the lowest field officer. In 
law, a person of full age to manage his or- 
her own affairs. 

Major-Domo, mayjur-do-mo (Latin), 
A master of a house or steward. 

Majority, ma-jorry-ty (French, ma- 
jorite). The gi-eater number; the state of 
being greater ; in elections or parliamentary 
divisions, the greater number of votes ; 
full age ; the office, rank, or commission of. 
a major, 

Makevireight, make - wate. That 
which is thrown into a scale to make up 
weight ; figuratively, anything added op 
allowed, as a balance to either superior or 
inferior qualities. 

Mai ) (Latin, mains, evil). In corn- 
Mail ) position, a prefix denoting ill, or 
evU. 

Mal-administration, mallad-minis- 
trayshun (Latin, mains, bad ; ad, to ; min- 
ister). Bad management of affairs ; 
vicious or defective conduct in adminis- 
tration. 

Maladroit, mallah - droyt (French), 
Awkward ; wanting in dexterity. 

Malady, mallah -dy (French, maladie). 
Illness ; disease ; sickness ; a lingering or 
deep-seated disorder ; mental disorder. 

Mala fides, mayla - fydez (Latin). 
"Want of good faith ; want of integrity. 

Malapert, mallah-pert {mal and ;>«•<). 
Saucy ; presumptuous ; quick with impu- 
dence ; exceedingly pert. 



186 



MAT i 



MAN 



Mal-apropos, mallah-propo (Frencli). 
Unreasonable ; ill-timed ; out of place. 

Malar, may-lar(Latin, mala, the cheek), 
PtelatiQg to the cheek. 

Malaria, mal-ary-ah (Italian, mat' aria, 
bad air). The exhalation of marshy dis- 
tricts, which produces intermittent fevers. 

Malaxation, mal-aks-ayshun (Greek, 
nialasso, to soften). The act of blending 
or beating together ; the act of softening 
or kneading into softness ; the process of 
forming a plastic composition of various 
ingredients. 

Malcontent, malkon-tent (French). 
Dissatisfied with existing government ; one 
who is discontented with the laws or their 
administration. 

Malediction, mally-dikshim (Latin, 
malv.s, evn ; dico, to speak). A curse ; 
execration ; the act of denouncing or 
wishing evil to a person. 

Malefactor, mally-faktur (Latin, 
mains, bad ; facio, to do). An offender 
against the law ; an evildoer ; a criminal. 

Malevolence, ma-lewo-lens (Latin, 
mains, ill ; volo, to wish).* lU-will ; evil 
disposition ; inclination to harm. 

Malfeasance, mal-feezans (French). 
Evil doing ; illegal deed. 

Mal-formation, malfui- - mayshim. 
Defective fonnation ; irregular or anoma- 
lous structure of parts. 

Malic, may-lik (Latin, malum, an apple). 
An acid obtained from the juice of apples 
is called malic acid ; pei*taining to apples. 

Malign, ma-Une (Latin, malus, evU). 
Ill-disposed ; pernicious ; determined upon 
doing another a mischief ; to regard with 
malice ; to defame ; to hui-t. 

Malignant, ma-hg-nant (Latin, malus, 
•evil). Malicious; revengeful; exerting 
pernicious influence ; in a medical sense, 
infectious ; vinilent ; hurtful to the body. 

Malignity, ma-lig-ny-ty (Latin, mahis, 
evil). Malice ; ill-will ; evil intention ; 
extreme enmity, or malevolent disposition 
evinced towards another. 

Malla,rd, mal-lard. The di-ake of the 
wild duck. 

Malleable, mal-leah-bl (Latin, malleus, 
a hammer). That may be beaten or ham- 
mered out ; capable of being di-awn out or 
extended by beating. 

Mal-practice, mal-praktis. Illegal 
practice ; evil or immoral conduct ; prac- 
tice contrary to equity or established rules. 



Malthusian, mal-thewzy-an. Accord- 
ing to the political doctrines of Malthus, 
as laid down in his " Essay on the Principles 
of Population." 

Mal-treatment. Ill-treatment ; rough 
or unkindly usage. 

Malum in se, maylum in se (Latin). 
In law, a term distinguishing an evil in 
itself, from malum 2yrohibitum. 

Malum prohibitum, maylum pro- 
hibbit-um (Latin). In law, that which 
is wrong because it is forbidden. 

Malversation, malver-sayshun (Latin, 
mal, ill ; versor, to behave). Improper 
conduct or behaviour ; fraud, especially ia 
office ; mean artifices ; fraudulent tricks. 

Mamalukes, mamma-lewks. The 
former military force of Egypt. The 
Mamalukes were originally Tm-kish and 
Circassian slaves, but afterwards masters 
of the country. Their power was annihi- 
lated by Mehemet Ali, in 1811. 

Mamma, mam-mah. A familiar word 
for mother. The word is derived from the 
Latin mamma, a breast. The word mam, 
or mamma, may also be said to be formed 
by Nature herself, since most infants begin 
to speak with this word. 

Mammalia, ma - may - lyah (Latin, 
mamma, a teat). The first gi-and division 
of the animal kingdom, including all that 
suckle their young. 

Mammifer, mammy-fer (Latin, mam- 
ma, a breast ; fero, to bear). An animal 
having breasts, and which suckles its 
young. 

Mammon, mam-mun(Syriac). Riches; 
wealth ; the god of riches. 

Manacle, mannah-kl (Latin, manus, 
the hand). An iron instrument for bind- 
ing fast the hands ; to shackle ; to confine 
the hands, by means of an iron instiimient, 
or other fastening. 

Manciple, mansy-pl (Latin, manus, 
the hand ; capio, to take). The steward 
of a community ; a piu-veyor, particularly 
of a college, or inn of court. 

Mandamus, man-daymus (Latin, 
mando, to order). In law, a writ issuei/ 
by the Court of Queen's Bench, command- 
ing the perfonnance of something; and so 
named from the initial word of the wi-it. 

Mandarin, mandah-rin. The general 
name given to magistrates, governors, and 
chief officers in China. They are chosen 
from among the most leai'ned men of every 
part of the empire, who, having obtained 



I 



MAN 



MAE 



187 



their degrees, and passed their examina- 
tion, have their names inscribed, and kept 
in a court of record for that purposs. 

Mandate, man-date (Latin, incmdo, to 
bid). A command ; a charge or order 
given. In canon law, a rescript of the 
Pope, commanding an ordinary collator to 
put the person therein named in posses- 
sion of the first vacant benefice in his 
collation. 

Mandible, mandy-bl .(Latin, onandi- 
hulum, a jaw). The upper jaw of an insect. 

Mandoline, mando-lin. A musical 
instrument of the lute kind, having four 
strings, which are tuned as those of the 
violin. 

Manege, man-ayzh (French). A place 
where horses are trained, or horseman- 
ship taught ; a riding school. 

Manes, may-nez (Latin). In the Pagan 
system of theology, this term included 
the souls of deceased persons. It was 
usual to erect altars and offer libations to 
the manes of deceased friends aaid rela- 
tions, with a view of propitiating them. 
Also when it was not known whether a 
corpse was buried or not, a cenotaph was 
erected, and the manes solemnly invited to 
enter there, so that they might be spared 
the pain of wandering about the world in 
search of the body which they once inha- 
bited. 

Mangel-"wurzel, mang-gul wm--zel 
(German, mangold wiorzel, scarcity root). 
The field beet, a plant extensively culti- 
vated in England as a food for cattle. 

Manheim gold, man-Iiim golde. An 
alloy, consisting of three parts copper and 
one of zinc. 

Mania, mane-yah (Greek, mania). Mad- 
ness ; an excessive passion for anything. 

Manichees, mani-kees, A sect of 
Christian heretics, of the thii'd century, 
the followers of Mani, a person who gave 
himself out to be a second Christ. 

Manifest, manny-fest. An inventory 
of the whole cargo of a merchant-ship. 

Manifesto, manny-festo (Latin, mani- 
festus). A public declaration made by a 
prince or sovereign, of his intentions, 
opinions, or motives, in reference to some 
public question. 

Manifold, manny-fold. Of different 
kinds ; many in number ; complicated. 

Manipulate, man - ippu - late (Latin, 
ma7ius, the hand). To operate, or work 
with the hands; to execute a design. 



Manna, mannah (Arabic, .manna,, to 
provide). A substance with which the 
children of Israel were fed in the wilderness, 
and which is supposed to have been a kind 
of honey-dew ; also a peculiar saccharine 
matter, which exudes from many plants, 
but especially the concrete juice of a 
species of ash, which grows in the south- 
ern parts of Europe. 

Mannerism, manner-izm. Uniformity 
of manner ; adherence to the same, as in 
acting or speaking. 

Manor, mannur (Norman, manoir, a 
habitation). A district of ground held by 
a lord or nobleman in his own possession, 
for the direct use of his family ; his 
other lands being distributed among his 
tenants. 

Manor-house. The house of the 
lord or owner of the manor. 

Manse, mans (Latin, mando, from 
maneo, to remain). A parsonage-house ; 
farm and land. 

Manslaughter, man-slawtur. In its 
primary signification, murder, or the 
destruction of the human species. In law, 
the killing a person without malice pre- 
pense, as in a sudden quarrel. 

Mantology, man-tollo-je (Greek, m.an- 
teia, divination; logos, a discourse). The 
act or art of divination. 

Manual, mannu-al (Latin, manus, the 
Performed by the hand; used by 
the hand ; a hand-book, or small book such 
as may be carried in the hand. 

Manumission, mannu-mishun (Lat., 
manus, the hand ; viiito, to send). The 
act of giving liberty to slaves. 

Manumotive, mannu-mo-tiv (Latin, 
manus, the hand ; moveo, to move). Mov- 
able by the hand. 

Manuscript, mannu-skript (Latin, 
manus, the hand ; sa-iptus, written). A 
written book or copy, generally ap- 
plied to such books as have not been 
printed. 

Mar (Saxon, men^ran). To injure by 
cutting off a part, or by wounding and 
making defective ; to hurt ; to impair the 
strength and purity of. 

Maranatha, marrah-naytha (Syriac). 
A form of anathematising among the Jews, 
signifying " the Lord will come ;" that is, 
to take vengeance. 

Marauding, ma - rawding (French, 
maraud). Roving in quest of plunder; 
robbing; destroying. 



183 



MAB 



Maravedi, raara-veedy. A small 
Spanish copper coiu, worth about half a 
farthing English. 

Marbles, mar-blz. A generic term for 
a collection of sculpture and statuary, as 
the Elgin marbles, the Arundel marbles, &c. 

Marches, martsh-iz (French). Bor- 
ders ; limits ; confines between one country 
or district and another. 

Marchioness, marshun-ees. The 
wife or widow of a marquis, or a female 
having the same rank as a marquis. 

Margin, mar-jin (Latin, mar go, the 
brink). The brink, border, or edge ; the 
verge ; the edge of a leaf, or page of a book ; 
figuratively, extent, beyond certain defined 
limits. 

Margrave, mar-grave (German, marJc- 
graf, from mark, a march, or border ; 
gruff, a count, or earl). Originally, a keeper 
of the marches ; now a title of nobility in 
Germany. 

Margravine, margrah- vine. The wife 
of a margrave. 

Marigenous, ma-rijjy-nus. (Latin, 
raare. the sea ; gigno, to bring forth). Pro- 
duced in or by the sea. 

Marine, ma-reen (Latin, mare, the sea). 
Belonging to the sea ; transacted at sea ; 
doing duty on the sea ; a marine is a 
soldier who serves on board ship, in naval 
engagements ; the manne is a general 
name for the navy of a kingdom or state, 
and the whole economy of naval affau-^. 

Mariner, marrin-er (Latin, Diare, the 
sea). A seaman ; a sailor. 

Marital, marrit-al (Latin, maritus, a 
husband). Pertaining to a husband ; inci- 
dent to the state of a husband. 

Maritime, marrit-ime (Latin, mare, 
the sea). Relating to the sea or 
ocean ; bordering on the sea ; performed 
at sea; having a navy and commerce by 
sea. 

Marjoram, marjur-am. A fragrant 
plant. 

Marksm.an, marks-mam One who 
can hit a mark with precision ; one expert 
in the use of the gun or the rifle. 

Marl (Welsh). A mixed earthy sub- 
stance of calcareous earth, clay, and sili- 
ceous sand, in very variable proj>ortions. 
According to the preponderance of the one 
or the other of the three principal ingre- 
dients, marls are calcareous, clayey, or 
sandy. 



MAH 

Marline, mar-lin. In nautical afifairs, 
a small line, composed of two strands, 
slightly twisted, and either tarred or 
white, used for winding round ropes, to 
prevent their being fretted by the blocks, 
&c. 

Marmorean, mar-mory-an (Latin, 
7)iarm(y); marble). Made of marble ; 
relating to marble. 

Maronites, man-o-nitse. A commu- 
nity of Greek Christians, who inhabit 
a district of country about Mount Lebanon. 
They are said to derive their name 
from Johi Maroii, or Maro, who called 
himself patriarch of Antioch, in the sixth 
century. 

Maroon, ma-roon. The name given 
to revolted negroes in the "West Indies, 
and in some parts of South America. 

Marque, mark (French). Letters of 
marque constitute a power, licence, or 
extraordinary commission, granted by a 
state to its subjects, to make reprisals on 
the subject of another, for damages sus- 
tained at sea ; the ship commissioned for 
making reprisals is also called a letter of 
marque. The word is said to be derived 
from the same root as march, a limit,, 
literally denoting a license to pass the limits 
of a jiu-isdiction on land, for the purpose of 
obtaining satisfaction for theft. 

Marquee, mar-kee (French). A field- 
tent for an officer ; a large tent erected at 
fancy fairs, and other out-of-door celebra- 
tions. 

Marquetry, market-ry (French, mar- 
quetene). A nanae given to inlaid work of 
wood, shells, &c. 

Marquis, mark-wis (French, marquis). 
A title of honour of the second order of 
nobility, next in rank to a duke. 

Marquisate, markwy - zate. The 
seniority, dignity, or lordship of a 
marquis. 

Marshal, mar-shal (French, marechal). 
The chief officer of arms, whose duty it 
formerly was to regulate combats in the 
lists ; one who regulates rank and order at 
a feast, or any other assembly ; one who 
goes before a prince, to declare his coming, 
and provide for his reception. * 

Marshalling, marshal-ling. The dis- 
posing or reviewing of troops ; the putting 
of soldiers into position. 

Mart, mart (contracted from market). 
A place of public traffic ; to buy or sell ; 
bargain ; purchase and sale. 



MAB 



MAT 



189 



Martello, mar-tello (from Ifurtello 
Bay, Coi'sica). An epithet applied to 
certain circular towers, erected along dif- 
ferent parts of the English coast, at the 
commencement of the present century, as 
a defence against invasion. 

Martial, mar-shal (Latin, Mars, the 
god of war). Warlike ; pertaining to 
war ; military ; courageous ; not civS, or 
according to the laws of peaceable govern- 
ment. 

Martial-law, marshal law. The law 
of arms, which depends entirely upon the 
regulations which the sovereign, or those 
deiegfated with authority, may consider it 
necessary to issue ; it is virtually an en- 
forcement of the articles of war. 

Martinet, martin-et. In military 
language, a punctilious observer and 
rigid enforcer of discipline ; so called 
from a French officer of that name, men- 
tioned by Voltaire. 

Martingale, martin-gal (French, mar- 
tiiigaU). A strap fastened to the girth of 
the saddle, under the horse's belly. 

Martinmas, martin-mas {Martin and 
mass). The feast of St. Martin; the 
lltb of November. 

Martlet, mart-let. In heraldry, a bird 
without legs or beak, added to the family 
arms, by the fourth of the junior bi-anches 
of a family, as the mark of theu* cadency. 

Martyr, mar-tui- (Greek, martur, a 
witness). One who by his death bears 
witness of the tinith ; one who suffei*s death 
in defence of any cause. 

Marvel, mar-vel , (French, merveille). 
Anything astonishing'; a wonder ; that 
which arrests the attention, and causes a 
person to pause and gaze. 

Masculine, masku-lin (Latin, mas, a 
male). Male ; of the male gender ; having 
the qualities of a man ; strong ; robust ; 
bold. 

Masked Battery. A battery so con- 
structed in external appearance as to mis- 
lead and lull the suspicions of a recon- 
noitring or approaching enemy. 

Masonic, ma-sonnik. Relating to the 
fraternity of Freemasons. 

Masquerade, maskur - ade (Italian, 
inasclierata). An assembly of i)ersons 
wearing masks ; a disguise. 

Mass (Saxon, mxesse). In the Church 
of Rome, the office or prayers used at the 
celebration of the eucharist. High mass, 
or grand mass, is that sung by choristers^ 



and celebrated with 'the assistance of a 
deacon and sub-deacon ; low mass, that 
wherein the prayers are. simply rehearsed 
without singing. 

Massacre, massah - kur (French). 
Murder ; slaughter ; especially applied to 
indiscriminate carnage and brutality per- 
petrated on defenceless persons. 

Mass meeting. A large concourse of 
people specially harangued on some public 
occasion. 

Mast (Saxon, mcBst): In navigation, 
the beam or pole set up in a ship, to sup- 
port or carry the sails. Masts are of 
several kinds : the main-viasl is the prin- 
cipal mast of the ship ; the fore-viast is 
that which stands near the stem, and is 
next in size to the main-mast; the mizen- 
mast is the smallest mast, and stands half- 
way between the main-mast and the stem ; 
there are also the lower-mast, the top-iiutsi, 
and the top-gallant mast. 

Mast (Saxon, moeste). The fruit of 
certain trees, as the oak, beech, &;c. 

Mastic, mas-tik (Greek, masiihc, a 
species of gum). A resin which exudes 
from the mastic-tree, used chiefly as var- 
nish. In architecture, a cement employed 
in plastering walls. 

Masticate, masty-kate (Latin, mastico, 
to chew). To chew ; to grind food with 
the teeth ; to prepare food for digestion. 

Mastodon, masto-don (Greek, inastos, 
the breast; odous, a tooth.) An animal 
resembling the elephant, now extinct. 
Its remains are found in a high . state of 
preservation, and in great abundance, 
throughout North America. The name 
has been given on account of certain cha- 
racteristic pi-ojections of the teeth. 

Matadore,' mattah - dore (Spanish, 
matador). The name given to a man pitted 
against the btdl at bull- tights ; also, one of 
the three principal cards at the games of 
ombre and quadrille. 

Matchlock, matsh - lok. Formerly 
the lock of a musket, which was fired by a 
raatch. 

Matclimaker. One who contrives or 
effects a union by marriage ; one who 
endeavours to match unmarried persons. 

Mate, mate (Dutch, maet). One of a 
pair ; husband or wife ; a companion ; an 
officer in a ship, whose duty it is to assist 
the captain. 

Mater, may-tor (Latin, muter, mother). 
A name given to two membranes of the 



190 



MAT 



MAU 



brain, which are thus named from an old 
notion that all the other membranes of 
the body were derived from them, or 
from their protecting the brain. 

Materia Medica,ma-teery-ahmeddy- 
ka (Latin). A term including- aU those 
substances selected from the animal, vege- 
table, and mineral kingdoms, which are 
used in the cure of diseases ; a catalogue 
of remedies. 

Material, ma-teery-al (Latin, materia, 
matter). Consisting of matter ; corporeal ; 
not spiritual ; important ; essential ; having 
influence or effect. 

Material, mah-teery-el (French). A 
tei-m denoting those material objects which 
are employed in any design. 

Materialism, ma-teeryal-izm (Latin, 
materia^ matter). The doctrine of material- 
ists; the opinion of those who maintain 
that the soul of man is not a spiritual sub- 
stance, distinct from matter, but that it is 
the result or effect of the organisation of 
matter in the body. 

Maternal, ma-tumal (Latin, mater, 
mother). Motherly ; befitting or pertain- 
ing to a mother. 

Math, math (Saxon, mceih). A mow- 
ing ; used in composition, as an after math, 
latter math. 

Matlierriatics,matthy-mattiks(Greek, 
mathesis, learning). The science which 
considers quantity, either as computable 
or measurable ; it is divided into pure and 
onired. The pure determines quantity in 
the abstract, that is, without any relation 
to another ; and the mixed as subsisting 
in material objects, as length on a I'oad, 
&c. 

Matin, mat-in (French, matin). The 
morning ; used in or belonging to the 
morning. 

Matins, mat-inz. Morning worship or 
service ; morning prayers or songs ; time 
of morning service. 

Matralia, may-traly-ah. A Eoman 
festival, celebrated by the matrons, in 
honour of the goddess Mater Matula, on 
the thu'd of the ides of June. 

Matrass, mat-rass (French, matras'). 
A chemical vessel, in the shape of an egg, 
or with a tapering neck, open at the top. 

Matrice, mat-riss ) (Latin, matrix). 

Matrix, mat-riks S The womb ; a 
mould or form, in which printers' types 
ar3 cast ; the mould used in coining. 



Matricide, mat-re-side (Latin, mdt«r, 
mother ; coedo, to kill). The murdering of 
a mother ; the murderer of a mother. 

Matriculate, ma-trikku-late (Latin, 
mater, ^ mother). To enter or admit, by 
enrolling the name in a register ; particu- 
larly at a college or university, where the 
scholars are said to be matriculated when 
they are sworn and registered into the 
society of th-evc foster-mother of learning at 
the University. 

Matronalia, matron - ayleah (Latin). 
A Roman festival, celebrated in the kalends 
of March, in honour of Mars ; so called from 
being particularly observed by matrons. 

Mattamore, mattah-more. A name 
given in the East to a subterranean reposi- 
tory for wheat. 

Matter, mat-tur (Latin, materia^ In 
a general sense, the substance of which all 
bodies are constituted; metaphorically, a 
subject, an object ; object in view, pxir- 
sued, or followed, contemplated or consi- 
dered ; business ; importance ; pus. 

Maturation, mattu-rayshun (Latin, 
maturo, to ripen). The act of ripening ; 
the state of growing ripe. 

Mature, ma-ture (Latin, maturo, to 
ripen). Perfected by time ; ripe ; com- 
plete ; well-digested. 

Matutinal, mattu - tynal (French, 
matin, morning). Relating to the morn- 
ing ; performed in the morning. 

Maudlin, mawd-lin. Approaching to 
or in a state of intoxication ; sottishness ; 
weakness of mind. This word is a corrup- m 
tion of Magdalen, who is depicted with a ■ 
disordered appearance, and eyes swollen ■ 
with tears. 

Maugre, maw-gr (French, malgrS). 
Notwithstanding; despite of; in opposi- 
tion to. 

Maunday Thursday, mawn - day 
thurz-day. The Thursday preceding Easter, 
or next before Good Friday. The word is 
supposed by some to be derived from the 
Saxon mand, a basket, because on this 
day it was and is stiU the custom for 
princes to bestow alms from or in baskets ; 
others think that it is derived from the 
command which Christ gave to his disciples 
for the commemoration of his last supper. 

Mausoleum, mawso - le - yum. A ■ 
pompous tomb or monument, erected in 
honour of the dead ; so called from Mau- 
solas, King of Caria, to whose memory 
Artemisia, his widow, erected a stately 



I 



MAU 



MED 



191 



monument, one of the wonders of the 
■vrorld. 

Mauvaise Honte, movay - za'vvnt 
(French). Bashfulness ; sheepishness ; 
want of self-possession. 

Mauvais Ton, movay-tong' (French). 
Vulgarity; ill-manners; want of good 
breeding. 

Mavis, may-vis. Another name for 
the throstle or song-thrush. 

Maw, maw (German, magen). The 
craw of fowls ; the stomach of a beast ; 
figuratively applied to a rapacious or 
greedy person. 

Mawkish, maw - kish. Tasteless; 
insipid ; disgusting ; apt to cause satiety 
or loathing. 

Mawworm, maw-wurm. A worm 
that infests the stomach ; applied in con- 
tempt to one who has morbid tastes, or 
affects asceticism. 

Maxillary, maks-Ular-ry (Latin, max- 
illaris). Pertaining to or situated in the 
jaw. 

Maxim, maks-im (French, maxime). 
A general principle ; an axiom ; a leading 
truth. 

Maximum, maksy-mum (Latin) . The 
greatest number or quantity ; the ex- 
treme or highest sum, amount, or degree. 
In analysis and geometry, the greatest 
and the least quantities of a variable 
quantity. 

May. The fifth month of our year, 
but the third of the Koman. It derived 
its name from Maia, the mother of Mer- 
cuiy. 

Mazarine, mazah-reen. A deep blue 
colour. 

Maze, maze^(Saxon, missian, to miss, to 
err). A labyrinth, or place with passages 
so intricate, that it is difficult to get out 
of them ; perplexity ; confusion of thought ; 
uncertainty. 

M.A. An abbreviature for magister 
artium, or Master bf Arts. 

M.B. An abbreviature for medicince 
lac'calaureus, or Bachelor of Medicine. 

' M.D. An abbreviature for unedicince 
doctor, or Doctor of Medicine. 

MP. An fitt^reyiature f or Member of 
ParHament. 

MS. An abbreviature of "manuscript," 
And MSS. of ''^ manuscripts." M.S. on 
monuments, means memorice sacrum, or, 
sacred to the memory. 



Meagre, me-gur (Saxon, mcegre,.lesLX!i.), 
Lean ; thin ; without flesh or fleshy sub- 
stance ; without nutriment or fertility ;. 
wanting in fulness ; insufficient ; in literary 
composition, void of strength or diction, 
or profusion of ideas or imagery. 

Mealy mouthed, meely- mowthd. 
Fair-spoken ; with words mild and soft a» 
meal ; concealing the real intention; 
speaking hypocritically. 

Mean, meen (Latin, medius, middle). 
The middle between two extremes ; being 
or lying at equal distance between the 
beginning and end ; intervening time ; 
mediocrity ; medium. 

Meander, me-andm' (the name of a 
winding river in Phrygia). A maze ; a 
labyrinth ; a winding course ; to wind ; to 
turn round ; to trace a winding or intricate 
course. 

Mease, mees. In some localities, used 
to express the number of 500, as a mease of 
herrings. 

Meatus, me-aytus (Latin, meo, to flow). 
In anatomy, a passage, such as that lead- 
ing to the ear. 

Mechanic, me-kannik ) (Greek, 

Mechanical, me-kanny-kal ) meclianey 
art). Pertaining to machines ; con- 
structed or performed according to the 
laws of mechanics ; acting by physical 
power ; pertaining to artisans ; performed 
without design or intelligence. 

Mechanic, me-kannik. One skilled 
or employed in mechanical pursuits; an 
artisan ; an artificer. 

Mechanically, me - kannik - ally. 
According to mechanics ; by physical laws- 
of force ; by force of habit. 

Mechanician, mekka-nisshan. One 
skilled in mechanics ; one who constructs 
machines or machinery. 

Mechanics, me-kanniks. A branch 
of practical mathematics, which treats of 
forces and powers, and their actions on 
bodies, either directly or by the interven- 
tion of machinery ; a science which treats 
of the laws of equilibrium and motion. 

Mechanism, mekkan-izm. The con- 
struction and adaptation of the several 
parts of a machine, so as to- produce uni- 
form action and impelling power, accord- 
ing to the laws of mechanics. 

Mechlin lace, mek-lin lase. A lace 
first manufactured at MecJdin. 

Medal, med-al (Spanish, medalla). A 
piece of metal stamped in honour of com© 



192 



MED 



person, oi* in commemoration of some 
levent. 

Medallion, me-dal-yun (French, me- 
daillon), A large antique stamp or medal. 
In architecture, any circular tablet, on 
which figures are sometimes sculptured. 

Medallurgy, med-allur-je (medal, and 
Greek, ergon, work). The art of striking 
medals and other coins. 

Mediaeval, meedy-eeval (Latin, mediusy 
the middle ; cevum, an age). Relating to 
the Middle Ages. A term specially applied 
to works of ait execute<i during the period 
between the taking of Rome by the bar- 
barians and the sacking of Constantinople 
by Mahomet the Second, in 1453. 

Mediant, me-de-unt. In music, the 
"third above the key-note. 

Mediate, meedy-ate (Latin, medhis, 
middle). Interposed; intervening; be- 
tween two extremes ; to interpose as a 
friend between parties ; to effect by media- 
tion. 

Medicament, me-dikka-ment (Latin, 
medeor, to cure). Anything used in heal- 
ing ; an application for the cure of disease ; 
a medicine. 

Medicinal, me-dissinal (Latin, m^di- 
einalis). Having the power of healing ; 
adapted to cure disease, or alleviate bodily 
^sorders ; pertaining to medicine. 

Medicine, meddy-sin (Latin, medicina). 
A drug administered to cure a disorder ; 
physic ; a remedy. The science and iurt 
which relate to the preservation of health, 
and the alleviation or cure of disease. 

Medietas Linguas, meedi-eetas lin- 
gwy (Latin). In law, a jury one half of 
which are natives and the other half fo- 
reigners, empannelled in cases where the 
party put on his trial is a foreigner. 

Mediocrity, meedy-okkry ty (Latin, 
medizis, middle). Moderate degree ; middle 
state or rate ; neither excellent nor mean. 

Mediterranean, meddit-er-rane-yan 
{liSiim, medius, middle \ terra, land). In- 
-elosed, or nearly inclosed with land, as the 
Mcdlien'anean Ocean, which was so named 
by the ancients because, according to their 
limited knowledge, it was supposed to be 
in the middle of the earth. 

Medium, meed-yum (Latin). Anything 

that intervenes or comes betweeu ; a 

middle state ; the means or iiistmraent by 

which anything is accomplished, conveyed, 

i «r carried on. 



MEL 

Medley, med-le (French, meler). A 
mixture ; a mingled mass ; a confused as- 
semblage of ingredients. 

Medullary, meddul - lary (Latin, 
medulla, marrow). Pertaining to marrow ; 
consisting of marrow, or resembling it. 

Medusa, me-dewzah. In fabulous his- 
tory, the chief of the Glorgons, whose head 
in the shield of Minerva had power to 
transform all who looked on it into stone. 

Meed, meed (Saxon, med). Reward; 
recompense ; that which is meet, or fitting, 
as a reward for service done, or labour 
performed ; a payment ; donation, or 
bounty. 

Meerschaum, meer-shawm (German, 
sea-froth). A white mineral of an earthy- 
appearance, always soft, but dry to the 
t/)uch. From this substance the well-known 
meerschaum pipes are made in Germany. 

Meet, meet (Saxon, gemet). Fit ; suit- 
able ; convenient ; becoming ; adapted for. 

Megacosm, meggah - kozum (Greek, 
megas, great ; kosmos, the world). The 
gfreat world, as distinguished from micro- 
cosm, or less. 

Megarian, me-gary-an. | Belonging to 

Megaric, me-garik. j Megara, as 
the Megarian school, to which a majority 
of the disciples of Socrates retired after his 
death. 

Megascope, meggah - skope (Greek, 
megas, great ; skopeo, to view). A modifi- 
cation of the solar microscope, used for the 
examination of bodies of considerable 
dimensions. 

Megatherium, meggah - theory - um 
(Greek, megas, great ; Uterion, a breast). 
An extinct animal of enormous size, the 
bones of which are found in a fossil state, 
chiefly in South America. It has been 
termed the giant sloth, as it unites the 
generic character of the sloth tribe vrith] 
that of the armadilloes, while its size must 
have been equal to that of the rhinoceros. 

Megrim, me-grim (Greek, erai, half ; 
kranion, the skull). A violent intermitting 
pain, affecting one side of the head ; me- 
grims implies morbid fancies or whims. 

Melange, me-launj (French). A mix^ 
ture ; a medley. 

Melee, mel ay (French). A confused 
fight or scuffle; an indiscriminate on- 
slaught. 

Meliorate, meely-orate ( Latin, melior, 
better). To make better ; to render more 
desirable ; to improve. 



I 



MEL 

Mellifluent, mel-lifflu-ent (Latin, mel, 
honey ; fluo, to flow). Flowing smoothly 
and with sweetness ; flowing with honey. 

ilVCelodious, me-lode-yus (Greek, melos, 
a song). Musical ; agreeable to the ear, by 
a sweet succession of sounds. 

Melodrama, mello-drammah \ (Greek, 
Melodrame, mello-dram j melos, 
a song ; and drama). Strictly, a dramatic 
performance, in which music is intermixed. 
It differs from opera, inasmuch as the 
actors do not sing, but declaim ; the music 
filling up the pauses only with strains suit- 
able to the subject. The term melodramatic, 
or melodrama, is, however, applied to such 
piece as cannot be called either a comedy 
or tragedy, partaking of the character- 
istics of both, and especially charged with 
romantic incidents. 

Member, mem-bur (Latin, memhrum). 
A limb of the body ; a clause ; a part of 
a discourse ; an individual of a commu- 
nity or society; a subordinate part of a 
buUding. 

Membrane, mem-brane (Latin, mem- 
Irana). A thin skin of expansive proper- 
ties formed by fibres interwoven. The 
membranes of animals consist of concrete 
gelatine, and are convertible into leather 
by tanning. The term is also extended by 
analogy to parts of vegetables of a mem- 
branaceous texture, as the substance be- 
tween the tree and the bark. 

Memento, me-mento (Latin). A hint 
or suggestion to awaken' memory ; that 
■which reminds. Memento niori means, 
literally, " remember to die ;" that is, bear 
in mind that you must one day die, 

Memnon, mem-non. A celebrated 
statue at Thebes, in Upper Egypt, which 
possessed the real or imaginary property 
of emitting a soxind like a harp at sun- 
rise. 

Memoir, mem-wawr (French, memoire, 
memory). A species of history describing 
transactions and events in which some 
particular person has a principal share, 
■written either by the person himself or by 
some other person. 

Memorabilia, memo-ray-billeah ( Lat). 
Circumstances remarkable and worthy to 
be remembered. 

Memorandum, memmur - andum 
(Latin). A note to help the memory : 
plural, memoranda. 

Memorial, me-mory-al (Latin, wemo- 
rialis). Preeervative of memory ; con- 



MEN 



193 



tained in memory ; any note or hint to 
assist the memory ; a written representation 
of facts made to a legislature or other body, 
as the ground of a petition, or such a detail 
of facts, accompanied with a petition. 

Memoriter, me-morrit-ur (Latin). 
By memory. 

Memphian, memf-yan. Kelating to 
Memphis, the ancient capital of Egypt; 
very dark. 

Menace, men-ase (French, menacer). 
To threaten ; to show the probability or 
appearance of any future evil or danger to. 

Menage, men-azh. A collection of 
animals ; a place in which horses are ren- 
dered manageable, or tractable to the 
rider or driver. 

Menagerie, me-nazhur-ry. A collec- 
tion of wild animals ; the place where ■wild 
animals are kept. 

Mendacity, men - dassy - ty (Latin, 
mendax, false). Falsehood ; habitual lying ; 
want of veracity. 

Mendicant, mendy-kant (Latin, men- 
dico, to beg). A beggar; one who exists 
upon alms ; also, a religious sect subsisting 
by alms, acquired by begging. 

Mendicity, men - dissy - ty (Latin, 
mendicitas). The state of begging ; ■fche life 



Menial, meen-yal (Norman, meynaV). 
Relating to servants, or domestic servants ; 
being low or mean. 

Menology, me-noUo je (Greek, men, 
a month ; logos, a treatise). A register of 
months. In the Greek Church, martyr- 
ology, or a brief calendar of the lives of the 
saints for each day in the year. 

Menstruum, men - stru - um (Latin, 
mensis, a month). In chemistry, a term 
applied to all liquids, which are used as 
dissolvents, infusions, decoctions, &c. The 
most common is water. The term was 
used by the old chemists for a prepara- 
tion or drug which could only operate at 
a particular period of the trwon, or month. 

Mensuration, mensu-rayshun (Latin, 
menstcra, measure). Measurement ; that 
branch of practical geometry which 
teaches the methods of calculating the 
dimensions and areas of figures, the 
volumes of solids, &c., from the measure- 
ment of certain lines and angles, which 
supply the requisite data. 

Ment. A termination commou ttr 
many words in the English languagt.> 



194 



MEN 



signifying to mean, or mind, or have in 
mind ; to intend, to design, to wish, or 
will. 

Mental, men-tal (Latin, me^is, the 
mind). Eelating to the mind; intellectual. 

Menticultlire, menty-kulture (Latin, 
vims, the mind ; cuUo, to cultivate). Cul- 
tivation of the mental faculties; exercise 
of the mind. 

Mentor, men-tor. A wise and faithful 
counsellor ; a friendly adviser ; so called 
from Mentor, the friend and adviser of 



Menu, \ me-noo. In Hindoo mytho- 
MenoUjjlogy, the son of Brahma, 

whose institutes are the great code of 

Indian civil and religious law. 

lijiephitie, me-fitik (Latin, mepliitis, an 
ill smell). Offensive to the smell ; noxious. 
Formerly carbonic acid was termed mephi- 
tic acid, and nitrogen mephiti^ air. 

Mercantile, merkan -tile (Latin, mer- 
cor, to buy). Pertaining >%6 merchandise, 
or the buying and selUpg of goods and 
commodities dealt in-bymierchants ; com- 
mercial; trading. a.v*i 

Mercator's '^^C^iart, mer - kayturz 
tschart. A ch^irt in which the parallels of 
latitude and ^%meridians are represented 
by straight lines, invented by Gerard Mer- 
cator. . 

"Merce^Q^iry, mersen - ary (French, 
fnercenaire). Hired ; sold for money ; 
greedy of gain ; a hired soldier ; a hireling ; 
one wriql,cts or works for the sake of reward 
or gaifi^ 

;MprcIiantnian, mertshant-man. A 
trading ship employed in importing and 
exporting goods to and from foreign coun- 
t5rads. 

Mercurial, mer-kewry-al (Latin, Mer- 
cwntts, Mercury). Literally, bom under 
the planet, or formed under the influence 
of Me)'cur7j ; hence, active ; sprightly ; vola- 
tile ; full of vigour or fire ; also crafty, 
subtle, and deceitful. 

Mercury, merku-ry. In Eoman 
mythology, a deity who was employed as 
the messenger of the gods ; and was also 
the patron of trade, and of theft and fraud. 
In astronomy, the name of a planet ; in 
chemistry, quicksilver. 

Mere, meer (Saxon, mere). A pool or 
lake ; a boundary or division. 

Merely, meer-ly. Simply; solely; 
thus, and no other way ; for this, and for 
ZM> t>th©r end or purpose.- ' ■ 



lilES 

Meretricious, merry-trisshus. Allur- 
ing by false show; false; gaudy; not 
genuine ; of no real merit or value. 

Merge, murj (Latin, mergo, to plunge). 
To sink ; to immerse ; to incorporate with 
something else, so as to lose its individu- 
ality, and merely beccme part of a whole. 

Meridian, me-riddy-an (Latin, meri- 
dies, mid-day). Noon ; mid-day ; the 
line supposed to be drawn through the 
poles, which the sun crosses at noon ; the 
highest point; the particular or distin- 
guishing place. 

Mermaid, mur-mayd (Latin, mer, the 
sea ; and maid). A fabulous sea-monster, 
supposed to have a woman's face and shape, 
but a fish's taU. Masculine, merman. 

Merry Andrew. A buffoon ; a droll ; 
one whose business it is to ma,ke sport by 
grotesque and ludicrous antics. 

Merrythought, merry-thawt. The 
forked bone in the breast of a fowl. 

Mesh, mesh (German, masche). The 
space between the threads of a net. 

Mesmerism, mezmer-izm. Another 
name for animal magnetism under certain 
conditions ; that is, the power of commu- 
nicating at will certain influences to the 
mind of the person affected, or put to sleep, 
in which questions are answered, revela- 
tions made, and certain events detennined 
on. It derives its name from Antony 
Mesmer, who wrote on the subject in 
1770. 

Mesne, mean (Old French). In law, 
middle ; intervening as a me5?i€ lord, that is, 
a lord who holds land of a superior, but 
grants it to another person. Mesne process, 
is that part of the proceedings of a suit 
which intervenes between the original pro- 
cess or writ, and the final issue, and which 
issues pending the suit, on the collateral 
matter. 

Mess, mess (Gothic, ones). A dish of 
food ; a quantity of food prepared and set 
on the table at one time ; in the army and 
navy, a number of persons who .eat to- 
gether. 

Messiah, mes-siah (Hebrew, the An- 
ointed). The title given by way of emi- 
nence to our Saviour, alluding to the 
authority which Christ had to assume the 
characters of Prophet, Priest, and King of 
his Church. 

Messieurs, mes-yerz (French, plural of 
monsieur). Sirs ; gentlemei:. 



MES 



MET 



195 



Messmate, mes-mate. Literally, an 
associate in eating; one who eats at the 
same table ; hence, a term of familiarity 
and companionship among seamen. 

Messuage, mes-saje (Old French, me- 
sonage, a house). In law, a dwelling-house 
and adjoining land, appropriated to the 
use of the household. 

Mestizo, mes-teezo. An epithet for 
the child of a Spaniard, and a native 
Indian. 

Meta. In composition, a prefix, signi- 
fying with, together with, into, towards, in 
addition to, in accordance, in exchange icith, 
amongst, from, Ityond, &c. 

Metabasis, mettah-basis (Greek, tneta, 
from ; haino, to go). In rhetoric, a figure 
by which the orator passes from one sub- 
ject to another. 

Metabolians, mettah - bole - yans 
(Greek, metabole, change). Insects which 
xmdergo a metamorphosis, and which are 
usually fitted with wings in their final 
state. 

Metacarpus, mettah-karpus (Greek, 
meta, beyond ; Jcarpos, the wrist). That 
part of the hand which is between the 
wrist and the fingers. 

Metachronism, me - takro - nizm 
(Greek, meta, beyond ; chronos, time). An 
error in chronology, made by placing an 
event after its real time. 

Metallic, me-tallik (Greek, metallon, 
metal). Pertaining to metal ; containing 
metal ; consisting of metal ; like a metal. 

Metallography, mettal - oggrah - f e 
(■Greek, metallon, metal ; grapho, to de- 
scribe). A treatise on or description of 
metals. 

Metallurgy, met - tallur - jy (Greek, 
metallon, a metal ; ergon, work). A term 
comprehending the whole art of working 
metals from the state of ore to the utensil ; 
but technically, it includes only the opera- 
tions followed in separating metals from 
their ores. 

Metamorphosis, mettah-maurfo-sis 
(Greek, oneta, change ; morphe, shape). 
Change of shape or form ; transformation ; 
the taking of another form ; the change 
which an animal undergoes, both in its 
formation and growth ; the various shapes 
which some insects assume in the different 
stages of their existence. 

Metaphor, metta-fur (Greek, meta, 
over; phei'o, to carry). Literally, the 
transferring from one subject to another ; 



in rhetoric, transferring the application oi 
a word in its literal meaning from on© 
object to another, founded upon some 
similarity, analogy, or resemblance; a 
metaphor thus becomes a simile or com- 
parison expressed in words, as. She bridle 
her anger ; He deadens the sound. 

Metaphorical, me1-«i-forry-kal. Per- 
taining to metaphor ; figurative ; not 
Hteral. 

Metaphrase^ mettah-fraze (Greek, 
meta, change ; phrasis, a speaking). A 
verbal translation from one language to 
another ; a close interpretation. 

Metaphysics, mettah- fizziks (Greek, 
m£ta, after ; physis, natui'e). The science 
of mind and intelligence ; the science of 
the principles and causes of all things 
existing. 

Metaplasm., mettah-plazm (Greek, 
m£ta, charge ; plasso, to form). In gram- 
mar, the changing or transposing a syllable 
or letter in a word. In rhetoric, the plac- 
ing of words, syllables, or letters contrary 
to their natural order. 

Metastasis, meetas - taysis (Greek, 
meta, change ; stasis, a standing, or place). 
Translation, or removal; transition of a 
disease from one part of the body to 
another. 

Metatarsus, mettah-tarsus (Greek, 
meta, beyond ; tarsos, the sole of the foot). 
The middle of the foot, or that part be- 
tween the ankle and the toes. 

Metathesis, metath-eesis (Greek, m^ta, 
change ; thesis, position). A transposition 
of letters or syllables ; in rhetoric, a figure 
of speech, in which words are transposed, 
so as to convey a suitable meaning ; as, 
" We should not live to eat, but eat to hve." 

Mete, meet (Saxon, metan'). To mea- 
sure ; to ascertain quantity, dimensions, or 
capacity by any rule or standard. 

Metempsychosis, me-tempsy-kosis 
(Greek, meta, change ; empsucho, to ani- 
mate). The doctrine of transmigration of 
souls, after death, from one body to 
another. 

Meteor, meety-ur (Greek, m^teonw, 
subhme). A luminous body floating in 
the atmosphere, or any luminous body 
whichhasasud kii and uncertain appear- 
ance, and with more or less motion in tho 
atmosphere. 

Meteoric, meety-orik. Relating to 
meteors. Metem-ic stones are peculiar solid 
compoimds of earthy and metallic matters, 
H 2 



196 



MET 



MID 



of singular aspect, which occasionally 
descend from the atmosphere, usually from 
a luminovis meteor. Meteoric iron is a 
mineral of a pale steel-gray colour, occur- 
ring inmeteoric stones. 

Meteorology, meet-yo-rollo-je (Greek, 
meteors, aerial; logos, a discourse). The 
science of the atmosphere and its pheno- 
mena, particularly in its relation to heat 
and moisture, and its changes with respect 
to weight and electricity, giving rise to 
the various states of the weather. 

Metheglen, me-theglin (Welsh, med~ 
dyglyn). A beverage made of honey and 
water, fermented with yeast. 

iiyCetllod, methud (Greek, meta; hodos, a 
■way). An orderly or regular course ; a 
natviral disposition of ideas, or regular 
placing of things, best adapted to attain 
some given end ; classification ; arrange- 
ment ; way ; manner of doing things. 

Methodists, mettho-dists. A sect of 
Christians founded by John and Charles 
Wesley, and the Rev. George Whitfield. 
They were named Methodists from the 
scrupulous regularity of their lives, and the 
strictness of their principles and rules ; 
also, because by the same principles they 
essayed to reduce religion to exact 
rules and axioms, in which they were com- 
ared to the methodical physicians at 






Metonsnny, me - tonny - me (Greek, 
meta, change ; onovai, a name). In rhe- 
toric, a figure by which one word is put for 
another, as the effect for the cause, the 
thing containing for the substance con- 
tained. Thus we say, " The kettle boils," 
meaning the water contained in the 
kettle. 

Metre, mee-tur (Saxon, mete)-)'. Liter- 
ally, measure ; in poetry, a collection of 
words disposed in lines of a certain num- 
ber, so as to sound harmonious to the ear ; 
the name of a French measure of length 
equal to 39| English inches. 

Metrical, mettry-kal (Latin, metricus). 
Pertaining to metre or numbers ; consist- 
ing of verses. 

Metronome, met-ronno-me (Greek, 
metron, a measm-e ; nomas, a law). An 
instrument for measuring time in music. 

Metropolis, me - troppo - lis (Greek, 
meter, a mother ; pofis, a city). The chief 
city of any country or state. London, on 
account of its wealth, industry, and high 
state of civilisation, is said to be the Tnetro- 
polia of the world. 



Metropolitan, mettro - pollit - tau 
(Greek, meter, a mother; polis, a city). 
Pertaining to a metropolis ; a bishop of a 
mother church, or the chief church in the 
chief city ; an archbishop. 

Mettle, met-tl (a corruption from 
metal). Spirit ; courage ; sprightliness ; 
constitutional ardour ; a temperament 
susceptible of high excitement. 

Meum and Tuum, me-um and tu-um 
(Latin). Mine and thine ; that which 
belongs to others, and that which belongs 
to ourselves. 

Mezzo, met-zo. In music, an Italian 
word, signifying kalf. Thus mezzo-forte, 
mezzo-piano, mezzo-voce imply a middle 
degree of piano and soft. Mezzo-soprano 
signifies a pitch of voice between the 
soprano and treble, and counter-tenor. 

Mezzo Relievo, met - zo re - leevo 
(Italian). An art-term signifying middle 
relief, or that degree of projection of 
figures in sculpture between the propor- 
tion of those in alto and basso-relievo. 

Mezzo Tinto, met-zo tin-to. An en- 
graving on copper, in imitation of painting 
in Indian-ink. 

Miasma, mi-asmah (Greek, miaino, to 
pollute). Noxious exhalation ; infectious 
substance, or particles or atoms from off 
putrefying bodies floating in the air, and 
considered deleterious to health. 

Michaelmas, mikkel-mas. The feast 
of the Archangel Michael, celebrated on 
the 29th of September. 

Mickle, mik-kl. A Scotch word signi- 
fying much, great. 

Microcosm, mikro - kozm (Greek, 
mikros, small; /tosmos, the world). Literally, 
a little world, or world in miniature ; and 
hence applied by some philosophers to 
man, as the epitome of everything admir- 
able in the universe or great world. 

Microscope, mikro - skope (Greek, 
mikros, small; skapeo, to view). A well- 
known optical instrument arranged to give 
to the eye an enlarged image of objects 
wldch are too minute to be examined with- 
out artificiai aid. 

Middle Ages. A term which, in an 
historical sense, denotes that period which 
begins with the final destruction of the 
Roman Empire, and entls with the revival 
of i-stters in Europe. See Mediaeval. 



MID 



MIM 



197 



Middle distance. In paintings and 
drawings, the central portion of a landscape, 
sometimes termed middle-ground. 

Midland, mid-land. Remote from the 
sea-coast ; in the interior of the country, as 
the midland counties in England, so-called. 

Midnight, mid-nite. The middle of 
the night ; usually reckoned as twelve 
o'clock. 

Midriff, mid-riff. The diaphragm. 

Midshipman, midship-man. A naval 
cadet, whose general duties are comprised 
in seconding the orders of his superior 
oflBcers, and who in this capacity serves a 
kind of apprenticeship, so as to fit him for 
command hereafter. 

Mien, meen (French, mine). Air ; look ; 
manner; external appearance ; personal 
carriage. 

Migrate, mi-grate (Latin, migro). To 
remove from one place to another; to 
change residence or habitation. 

Migration, mi-grayshun (Latin, mi- 
gratia). The act of changing residence or 
habitation ; in zoology, the transit of a 
species of animals from one locality to 
another. 

Mileh, milsh (Saxon, melee). Giving 
milk ; a milch cow is a cow kept and nurtured 
for the purpose of producing milk. 

Mildew, mil-dew (Saxon, mildeawe). 
A disease which attacks both living and 
•dead vegetable matter, vulgarly believed to 
be caused by the falling of the vapour or 
dew. 

]V[ileage, mile-aje. Pees allowed for 
travelling expenses at a certain rate per 
mile. 

Miliary, milly-ary (Latin, milium, 
millet). Resembling millet seeds ; accom- 
panied with an eruption like millet-seeds ; 
very small. 

Militant, milly-tant (Latin, miles, a 
soldier). Fighting, or acting in the charac- 
ter of a soldier. In divinity, Church militant 
means the Christian Church on earth, which 
is supposed to be engaged in a constant 
warfare against its enemies. 

Militate, millit-ate (Latin, miles, a 
soldier). To oppose, to operate against; 
to injiu-e. 

Militia, mil-lishah (Latin, miles, a 
soldier). A body of soldiers regularly 
enrolled and trained, though not in con- 
stant service in time of peace, and thereby 
differing from regular troops. 



Milky- way. See Galaxy. 

Milldam, mill-dam. A dam or mound 
by which water is collected and retained at 
a proper height for working a mill. 

Millenarian, miUy-nary-an. One who 
believes in the doctrine of the millennium. 

Millenary, milly-nary (Latin, mille, a 
thousand ; annus, a year). Consisting of a 
thousand years; the space of a thousand 



Millennium, mil-lenny-um (Latin, 
mille, a thousand ; annus, a year. ) A thou- 
sand years ; the term is especially used to 
denote the thousand years mentioned in 
Rev. XX., during which Satan shall be 
bound, and Christ shall reign on earth 
with his saints. 

Millepede, milly-peed (Latin, mille, a 
thousand ; pes, a foot). A general name 
given to insects possessing a great many 
feet, as the wood-louse. 

Millesimal, mil-lessy-mal (Latin, mille, 
Sk thousand). Thousandth; consisting of 
thousandth parts. 

Milligram, > milly - gram. In 

Milligramme,) French weights and 

measures, the thousandth part of a gramme. 

MiUilLter,) milly- leetur. A French 
Millilitre,) measure of capacity, the 
thousandth part of a litre. 

Millimeter, ) milly-metur. A French. 
Millimetre, j lineal measure, the 
thousandth part of a metre. 

Milling, mil-ling. The act or employ- 
ment of passing gram through a mill ; the 
raised impression on the edges of coin, &c. 

Million, mil-yun (Italian, milione). Ten 
hundred thousand; proverbially, a very 
great number. 

Millionaire, mil-yun-aii (French). 
Literally, a person worth a million, but 
generally implying one possessed of great 
wealth. 

Mill-pond, mill-pond. A reservoir of 
water raised for driving a miU- wheel. 

Milt, milt (Saxon, milt). In anatomy, 
the spleen; applied to the soft roe of 
fish. 

Mime, mime (Greek, mimos, an imi- 
tator). Originally, a poem or dramatic 
performance imitating any action to stir 
up laughter ; a buffoon ; a mimic. 

Mimetic, me-mettik (Greek, mimos, an 
imitator). Imitative ; given to imitation. 



198 



MIM 



Mimic, mim-ik (Greek, mimos, an imi- 
tetor). One who imitates or copies the 
actions and gestures of persons, to render 
them ridiculous and excite laughter ; a 
mean or servile imitator. 

Minaret, minnah-ret. A small orna- 
mental spire or steeple in Saracen archi- 
tecture; a taU spire above the roof of a 
"building. 

Minatory* minnah - tuny (Latin, 
nniiuyi', to thi'eaten). Threatening; contain- 
ing threats or menaces. 

Mince, minse (Saxon, ininisian, to cut 
into very small pieces). To separate by 
cutting into small or minute parts ; to 
cHp the words in speaking ; to cut short 
the steps in walking ; to do or say anything 
with nicety, and with slow or small grada- 
tions. 

Mineral, minner-al (Xow Latin, vuTiare, 
to lead). A name given to the solid pro- 
ducts of chemical afBnity, such as stones, 
ores, salts, &c. , existing in or on the earth ; 
anything which may be extracted by 
miniTig. 

Mineral Kingdom. That depart- 
ment of Nature which includes minerals or 
inorganic bodies. 

Mineralogy, minnui'-allo-je (Greek, 
mineral, and Greek, logos, a science). The 
science which treats of minerals, their pro- 
perties, relations, &c., and enables to dis- 
tinguish, aiTange, and describe them. 

Mineral Waters. Waters which hold 
some metal, eai-th, or salt in solution. 

Minerva, me-nervah. In mythology, 
the goddess of wisdom and of the liberal 
arts. 

Minever, mi-neevur. A name given in 
the Middle Ages to a species of squirrel, the 
fur of which was held in high repute. 

Miniature, minnit-yure (Latin, minium, 
TermiUion). A small likeness ; a picture or 
representation in a small compass, or less 
than the reality ; a red letter ; rubric dis- 
tinction. 

Minim, miu-im (Latin, viinimum, the 
least). In music, a note equal to half a 
semibreve. In pharmacy, the one-sixtieth 
of a fluid drachm, answering to the ordinary 
drop, taking water as the standard. 

Minimum, minny-mum (Latin). The 
least quantity; the smallest as distinguished 
from the greatest, vuucimum. 

Minion, min-yun (French, mignon). 
Originally used as the term for favourite or 



MIN 

darling, now- applied in contempt to one 
who gains favour by obseqmousness or 
flattery, or who conciliates another by 
servile compliance. 

Ministerial, minis - teery- al (Latin, 
minister, a servant). Attendant ; done 
under authority ; sacerdotal ; relating to a 
ministry. 

Minor, mi-nur (Latin). Petty or in- 
considerable ; less ; smaller. In law, one 
who is not of fuU age. In music, less, in 
opposition to viajor, used to distinguish the 
mode or key, which takes a minor third. 
In logic, minor tei-m is the subject of the 
conclusion ; the minor premise contains the 
minor term. | 

Minority, mi-norry-te (Latin, miTvor, f 
less, smaller). Used in opposition to 
majority. Applied especially to the lesser 
number of persons in an assembly, voting - 
upon some question. In law, the state of 
an individual who is under age, beicg 
thereby disqualified from the exercise of 
certain civil rights, and from being an 
inheritor of property. 

Minotaur, minno-tawr. A fabulous 
monster, supposed by the ancients to be 
half man and half beast ; so named from 
Minos, an ancient king of Crete, and taurus, 
abuU. 

Minster, min-stur (Saxon, mynster). 
The church of a monastery, or a cathedral 
church ; as Westminster, York Minster. 

Minstrel, minstrU (French, menetrier). 
Literally, ministers of song, music, or 
poetry ; a singer, or a performer on musical 
instruments. 

Mint, mint (Saxon, myneiian, to coin 
money). The place established by public 
authority for the coining of money ; figura- 
tively, a place of fabrication or invention ; 
a source of abundant wealth. 

Minuet, minnu-et (Spanish, minueto). 
A slow, regular, and graceful dance ; per- 
formed generally by two persons, and the 
figure of which resembles a capital Z. 

Minus, mi-nus (Latin). A term in 
algebra, denoting subtraction; it is also 
used for decrease or diminution. 

Minute, my-nute (Latin, minwtus). 
Very small ; little ; slender ; trifling ; 
critical. 

Minute, min-it (Latin, minutim). The 
sixtieth pari of an hour ; any small space 
of time ; the first draught of any agree- 
ment, or other subject taken in writing ; a 
note to preserve the memory of anything. 



MTN 



MIS 



199 



Miivite gun, a gun fired at sea every 
minute as a signal of distress, and also in 
mourning for the death of distinguished 
persons. Minute of an arc, the sixtieth 
part of a degree, marked thus ('), and 
comprehending sixty seconds. 

MinutiaB, me-nu-she-e (Latin). The 
-least particulars, the smallest things. 

Minx', minks. A North American ani- 
mal, known to farmers by the name of 
white vision; also, a term applied to a pert, 
forward, wanton, or affected girl, 

Mirabile Dietu, me-rabby-le dik-tu 
(Latin), Wonderful to be told ; a phrase 
used to express astonishment at any cir- 
cumstance. 

Mirage, me-razh (French), The name 
given to an optical illusion, presenting an 
image of water in sandy deserts, or eleva- 
ting objects in the air, 

Mirroi% mir-rur (French, miroir). A 
looking-glass; any polished substance 
which reflects the images of objects ; 
figuratively, an example or pattern ; a re- 
flected image, by which persons may order 
and regulate their actions and behaviour. 

Mis (Saxon, from missian, to err, or go 
wrong), A prefix entering into the com- 
position of words, to denote error, defect, 
or dissimilitude, wrongful or wrongfully, 
different, adverse to, &c. 

Misadventure, mis-ad- venture. An 
unlucky accident ; mischance ; misfortune. 
In law, manslaughter, or the killing a 
person by accident. 

Misanthrope, missan - thrope } 

Misanthropist, me - santhro - pist j" 
(Greek, miseo, to hate ; anthropos, a man). 
A hater of mankind ; one who shuns the 
society of mankind, from a rooted feeling 
of discontent. 

Misapprehension, mis -appry- hen- 
shun (Saxon, mis ; Latin, ad prehendo, to 
take to). A mistake ; a thing taken in a 
wrong sense. 

Misappropriate, misap-pro-pree-ate. 
To appropriate wrongfully ; to set apart 
for one's use that which ought not to be 
taken ; to apply to some purpose not 
justified nor intended. 

Misbecome, misby-kum (Saxon, mis; 
lecuman, to happen). Not to become ; not 
to suit or fit ; to be unseemly. 

Misbegot, misby-got. ) Unlaw- 

Misbegotten, misby-gott'n. | fully or 
irregularly begotten. 



Miscarriage, mis-karraje (Saxon, mia; 
Latin, carries, a car). Unfortunate result 
of an undertaking ; abortion, or the act of 
bringing forth before due time ; failure ; ill- 
conduct. 

Miscellaneous, missel-any-us (Latin, 
misceo, to mix). Composed of various 
kinds; mingled; mixed. 

Miscellany, mis-sellan-e (Latin, misceo, 
to mix). A mass, or mixture of various 
kinds ; a book or pamphlet, containing a 
variety of compositions on various subjects. 

Mischance. Misfortune ; mishap ; 
disaster; accident; calamity. 

Misconception, miskon - sepshun 
(Saxon, mis; Latin, con, with ; capio, to take). 
Wrong notion, or false understanding of 
a thing. 

Misconstrue, miskon- stru (Saxon, 
mis. Latin, con, with ; strue, to pile up). 
To interpret words or acts erroneously, 

!BIiscreant, miskry-ant (French, me- 
creant). An infidel ; a vile wretch ; hold- 
ing wrong principles of religious faith ; 
first applied by Christian Crusaders to 
Mohammedan unbelievers in Christ. 

Misdemeanour, misdy - meenur. 
(Saxon, mis; Latin, de; French, mentr). 
Bad behaviovu- ; evil conduct ; fault. In 
law, an offence which does not amount to 
a crime, and generally used in contradis- 
tinction to felony. 

Mise en scene, meez - ong - sane 
(French). The getting up of a piece ; the 
manner in which a piece is placed upon the 
stage. 

Miserere, mizzy-reery (Latin). In the 
Eoman Catholic Chiurch, the fifty-first 
Psalm, appointed for acts of penitence ; 
the name of a seat in Eoman Catholic 
churches, for the use of aged and infirm 
ecclesiastics ; also, a mournful wailing, or 
chant. 

Misfeasance, mis - feezans (French, 
mes, wrong ; faisance, from faire, to do). 
In law, a misdeed, a trespass. 

Misgiving, mis-giving (Saxon, mis; 
gifan). Doubts ; mistrust ; relaxing 
through doubt or fear of wrong or evil* 
fearivdness ; timidity ; want of courage, 
or confidence. 

Misogamist, me-soggah-mist (Greek, 
miseo, to hate ; gamos, marriage). A hater 
of marriage. 

Misogynist, me - sojjy- nist (Greek, 
miseo, to hate ; gyne, a woman). A woman, 
hater. 



200 



MIS 



MOD 



Misprision, mis-prizhun (French, one- 
pris, neglect or contempt). In law, any 
high offence under the degree of capital, 
but approaching thereto ; also, the know- 
ledge and concealment of crime, without 
assenting to it. 

Missal, mis-sal. The Komish mass- 
book, or collection of the several masses 
which are said on particular days in the 
Soman CathoUc Church. 

Missile, mis-sil (Latin, mitto, to send). 
Anything thrown by the hand, or dis- 
charged from an engine. 

Mission, mish-un (Latin, mitto, to 
send). The state of being sent or em- 
ployed by another ; any special pursuit 
or employment; persons appointed by 
authority to perform any service. 

Missionary, mishun-ary (French, 
missionaire). One sent to propagate 
religion. 

Missive, mis-siv (Latin, mitto, to send). 
Such as may be sent or thrown ; a letter 
sent ; a messenger. 

Mister, mis-tur. The common title of 
address to gentlemen, and to men of all 
classes, expressed in writing by the abbre- 
viation of Mr. See Magister. 

Mistress, mis-tress (French, maitresse). 
A woman who governs ; the female head 
of a family ; the manager of a household ; 
a keeper of servants ; a female who is 
skilled in anything ; a woman teacher. 
This word was anciently written maistress, 
the feminine of master. 

Mistura, mis-tewra (Latin, a mixture). 
In pharmacy, a fluid composed of two or 
more ingredients. It is mostly contracted 
in prescriptions, thus, mis. e. g.—f. mis., 
which means, *' let a mixture be made." 

Mite, mite (Saxon, mite). A very 
small insect ; a small piece of money ; 
anything very small. 

Mithridate, mithiy-date. An antidote 
against poison ; named after Mithridates, 
King of Pontus and Bithynia, who took a 
portion of it every morning as a protection 
against poison. At present, it is simply 
an aromatic opiate, and is little used. 

Mitigate, mitty-gate (Latin, mitis, 
mild). To soften ; to lessen ; to temper ; 
to assuage pain ; to soothe passion ; to 
alleviate misery. 

Mitre, mi-tur (Spanish, mitra). An 
episcopal crown; an ornament for the 
head ; figui-atively, the dignity of bishops 
or abbots. 



Mitten, mit-ten (French, mitaine). 
Gloves for the hands, leaving the fingera 
imcovered. 

Mittimus, mitty-mus (Latin, mittimus, 
we send). In law, a precept or command 
in writing, under the name and seal of a 
justice of the peace, or other proper officer, 
directed to the gaoler or keeper of a 
prison, for the safe keeping of an offender, 
imtil he be delivered by due course of law. 

Mizzen, miz-zn (Italian, mezzo, half). 
In nautical langfuage, a term used to denote 
the aftermost mast in any vessel which has 
three masts, and all the sails, spars, and 
rigging with which it is connected. 
Sometimes spelt mizen. 

Mizzle, miz-zl (from mist). To rain in 
small drops, like a thick mist. 

Mnemonics, ne - moniks (Greek, 
mneme).. The art of memory. Precepts 
and rules intended to teach the method of 
assisting the memory. 

Moat, mote (French, imtte). In fortifi- 
cation, a deep trench or ditch, dug round 
the ramparts of a fortified place, to pre- 
vent surprises from the enemy. 

Mob, mob (Latin, mohilis, movable). 
Literally, the movable people or populace ; 
a promiscuous crowd or multitude of 
people ; a disorderly assembly. 

Mobife, mo-beel (Latin, mohilis, mov- 
able). That may be moved; susceptible 
of motion. 

Mobility, mo-billy-te (Latin, moveo, to 
move). The power of being moved ; ac- 
tivity ; fickleness ; conventionally applied 
to the populace. 

Mobilize, mobbil-ize (French). To call 
into active service ; applied "to troops 
which, though enrolled, were not pi-eviously 
on the war establishment. 

Moecason, mokkah-sun. A shoe or 
cover for the feet, made of soft leather 
and without a sole, worn by the native 
Indians ; written also, moccasin. 

Mode, mode (Latin, modus). Manner; 
method ; form ; fashion ; state ; degree. 
In logic, a proper disposition of the 
several paits of a syllogism in respect to 
quantity and quality. In metaphysics, 
siviple mode is a variation or different com- 
bination of the simple idea, without the 
mixtiu-e of any other, as a dozen, a score. 

Model, mod-el (French, modelle). A 
pattern of something to be made or imi- 
tated ' a form in miniature; something to 
give shape to castings; that by which a 



MOD 

thing is to be measured, copied, or imi- 
tated. 

Modem, mod-um (Spanish, inoderno). 
Peiiaiaing to the present time, or time not 
long past ; recent ; fresh ; opposed to 
ancient. 

Modernize, moddiim-ize. To render 
modem ; to adapt ancient compositions to 
modem persons or things ; to adopt the 
ancient style, or idiom, or taste. 

Moderns, mod-ums. A name given 
generally to those who have distinguished 
themselves since the revival of learning, as 
compared with the ancients, and also 
with those of the Middle Ages. 

Modicum, moddy-kum (Latin). A 
small portion or quantity ; a pittance. 

Modify, moddy-fi (Latin, modus, a 
measure ; facio, to make). To bring within 
measure or measurable bounds ; to shape 
or fashion ; to vary ; to limit ; to temper ; 
to qualify. 

Modo et forma. (Latin. ) In manner 
and form. A phrase frequently employed 
in legal pleadings. 

Modulation, moddu-layshun (Latin, 
modulus, a measure). The act of forming 
anything to certain proportions ; the form- 
ing of the sound of the voice to a certain 
key ; diversified and appropriate change 
of 'the key in conducting a melody ; sound 
modulated ; melody. 

Modus Operandi, modus opper-andi 
(Latin). Mode of operating ; plan of exe- 
cution ; the way ia which a thing is per- 
formed. 

Mogul, mo-gul. Formerly the title of 
the Emperor of Hindostan. The Great 
Mogul was the chief of the Mogul Empire, 
which empire is now extinct. 

Moliair, mo-hare (German, mohr). The 
hair of a variety of the common goat, re- 
markable for its fineness and beauty : it is 
brought from Angora, in Asia Minor. 

Mohammedan, mo-hammy-dan. Per- 
taining to Mohammed, or Mahomet ; a 
foUower of Mohammed, the founder of 
the rehgion of Arabia and Persia ; it is 
also written Mahometan. 

Mohawk, mo-hawk. An appellation 
given to certain wild rakes who infested 
London in the last century, so called from 
the savages of that name in America. 

Moidore, moy-dore. A gold coin of 
Portugal, valued at £1 7s. sterling. 

Moiety, moy-e-te (French, vioitie). 
The half ; one of two equal parts. 



MON 



201 



Molar, mo-lar (Latin, molaris, grind- 
ing). Having the power to grind; molar 
teetk are those situated at the back of the 
jaw, called double teeth, and employed in 
crushing or grinding the food, to fit it for 
reception into the stomach. 

Molasses, mo-lasses (French, melasse). 
The uncrystaUised syrup produced in the 
manufacture of sugar, and which is suffered 
to drain from casl^ into a cistern ; treacle. 

Mole, mole (Latin, moles, a mound). A 
massive work of large stones, erected for 
the purpose of protecting the entrances 
to harbours. 

Molecule, molly-kule (Latin, molecula, 
diminutive of moles, a mass). Molecules 
are the smallest particles into which a mass 
can be conceived to be divided. 

Molestation, mo-les-tayshun (Latin, 
molestus, troublesome). Disturbance ; in- 
terference ; uneasiness caused by vexation. 

Mollah, mol-lah. The title of the 
higher order of judges in the Turkish 
Empire. 

Mollify, moUy-fi (Latin, mollio, to 
soften). To soften ; to soothe ; to appease ; 
to make pliant or supple ; to relax ; to 
melt. 

MoUusea, mol-luskah (Latin, mollis, 
soft). A class of animals whose bodies 
are soft and not jointed ; the pulmonary 
circulation is double, the blood is of a 
bluish white, the skin is very sensible, and 
there is no visible organ of smell, 

Moloch, mo-luk. The name of the 
chief god of the Phoenicians. To this 
deity it was customaiy to offer human 
sacrifices, and for parents to pass their 
children through the fire, in the valley of 
Tophet, near Jerusalem. 

Momentous, mo-mentus (Latin, mo- 
raentum). Important ; weighty ; of conse-. 
quence or importance. 

Momentum, mo-mentum. That which 
causes motion ; the quantity of motion 
and amount of force in a moving body. 

Momus, mo-mus (Greek, memos, de- 
rision). The god of ridicule and raiUery. 

Monachism, monnah-kizm (Greek, 
monachos, solitary). State of monks ; 
monastic life ; the practice of retiring 
from the world for mortification or pious 
contemplation. 

Monad, mon-ad (Greek, monas). An 
atom ; an indivisible particle ; a name 
given to the simplest kind of minuto 
animalcules. 



202 



MON 



MON 



Monadic, mo-nadik. Having the na- 
titre or character of a monad. 

Monarcll, mon-ark (Greek, raonos, 
alone; arc?ie, to rule). A ruler invested 
■with absolute cr undivided authority ; an 
emperor; king, or prince; the supreme 
governor of a nation, whose powers are in 
some respects limited by the constitution 
of the government. 

Monastery, monas-tre (Greek, ononos, 
alone). A house of religious retirement 
for monks ; a seclusion from ordinaiy 
temporal concerns. 

Monetary, munny-tary. Periaining 
to money, or money concerns. 

Money Scrivener, munny skriv-nur. 
One who raises money for others. 

Monger, mung-gur (Saxon, raangene). 
A trader ; a trafficker ; a dealer ; now 
used only or chiefly in composition, as 
■^sh-monger, iron-monger. 

Mongrel, mung-grel (Saxon, raengan, 
to mix). Of a mixed breed ; mingled ; 
mixed ; impure. 

Monition, mo-nishun (Latin, moneo, 
to admonish). Information ; hint ; in- 
struction given by way of caution ; advice ; 
warning. 

Monitor, monny-tur (Latin). One 
who wai-ns of faults or instructs in duty ; 
in schools, a senior pupil appointed to teach 
a division or class. 

Monochord, monno - kawi-d (Greek, 
'iiionos, one ; cTiorde, a string). An instru- 
ment of one chord, chiefly used to demon- 
etrato and ascei-tain the relative proportions 
of musical sounds. 

Monocliromatic, monno-kro-matik 
(Greek, monos, one ; chroma, colour). 
Consisting of one colour, or presenting rays 
Df light of only one colour. 

Monoerasy, mo - nokrah - se (Greek, 
monos, one ; krateo, to govern). Govern- 
ment by a single individual. 

Monocular, mo - nokku - lar (Greek, 
monos, one ; Latin, oculus, eye). Having 
only one eye. 

Monodram, monno - dram (Greek, 
monos, one ; drama, an act). A dramatic 
performance in which only one person is 
engaged. 

Monogamy, mo-noggah-me (Greek, 
-inonos, one ; gamos, marriage). Marriage 
of one wife, or the state of such as are 
restrained ta a single wife, and disapprove 
cf a second marriage. 



Monogram, monno - gram (Greek, 
moiios, one ; gramma, a letter). A character 
or cypher composed of two or more letters 
interwoven ; a lined picture. 

Monograph., monno - graf (Greek, 
monos, one ; grapho, to write). An 
account or description of a single thing, or 
class of things. 

Monography, mo-noggrah-fe (Greek, 
monos, one ; grapho, to write). A descrip- 
tion di'awn in lines, without colours. 

Monolith, monno-lith (Greek, monos, 
one; litlios, a stone). Anything sculp- 
tured from one soUd block of stone, or such 
stone set up as a memorial, as shown in 
ancient Druidic and other monuments. 

Monologue, monno-log (Greek, monos, 
alone ; logos, a discom-se). A soliloquy ; a 
speech uttered by a person alone ; an en- 
tertainment in which only one person speaks. 

Monomania, monno-may-neah (Greek, 
Tiionos, one ; mania, madness). Madness 
upon some one point ; derangement of one 
particular faculty of the mind, the others 
not being affected. 

Monopathy, mo-noppah-the (Greek, 
monos, alone ; pathos, suffering). Solitary 
suffering ; extreme sensibility. 

Monopolize, mo-noppo-lize (Greek, 
monos, alone ; poleo, to deal). To buy or 
sell all, to the exclusion of others; in a 
general sense, to engross the whole ; to 
assert or enjoy an exclusive privilege ; to 
take the largest share. 

Monopoly, mo - noppo - le (Greek, 
monos, alone ; poleo, to deal). The ex- 
clusive privilege of selling anything ; the 
sole power of making, dealing in, or being 
otherwise interested in anything. 

Monopolylogue, mono - poUy- log 
(Greek, monos, one ; polys, many ; logos, a 
discom-se). A theatrical entertainment in 
which one performer sustains several cha- 
racters. 

Monostich, monno - stik (Greek, 
monos, one ; stichos, a verse). A composi- 
tion consisting of one verse only. 

Monostrophie, monno-strofik (Greek, 
monos, one ; strophe, a stanza). Having 
only one strophe, not varied in measiu-e. 

Monosyllable, monno - sillah - bl 
(Greek, monos, one ; sullaUe, syllable). A 
word of one syllable. 

Monotheism, monno-the-izm (Greek, 
monoSy one ; theos, God). Belief in the 
existence of only one God. 



MON 

Monotone, mormo-tone (Greek, t^otwb, 
one ; Ixmos, a tone). Uniformity of sound, 
want of cadence. 

Monotony, mo-notto-ne (Greek, 
Tiionos, one ; tonos, tone). Literally, 
uniformity of tone or sound; applied 
generally to sameness ; want of variety ; 
irksomeness. 

Monsieur, mo-sieu (French). Sir ; 
Mr.; plural, messieurs. 

Monsoon, mon-soon. A species of 
trade wind in India, which for six months 
blows constantly from the same quarter, 
and the contrary way for the other six 
months. 

Monstrosity, mon-strossy-te (Latin, 
Tiionstrum, a monster). The state of being 
out of the ordinary order of Natm'e. 

Montem, mon-tem. An ancient cus- 
tom, formerly observed among the stu- 
dents at Eton, near Windsor, which con- 
sisted of their proceeding every year, on 
Whit Tuesday, to a tumulus {ad montem), 
near the Bath road, where they exacted 
money for salt, as it is called, from all who 



Montero, mon teero (Spanish, mon- 
iera). A horseman's cap ; a sort of cap 
worn by hunters and by seamen. 

Monument, monnu-ment (Lat. , moMo, 
to inform). Anything by which the 
memory* of persons or events is preserved ; 
a memorial ; a tomb ; a pUlar, 

Mony. A termination of many words, 
implying anything vieant, or intended to 
testify ; also to nourish, support, maintain ; 
as testi-jjiojtyy a^-mony, &c. 

Mood, mood (Latin, modus, manner). 
The general or particular temper or dis- 
position of the mind ; the prevaihng dis- 
position ; style in music. In grammai*, the 
inflection of a vei'b, to express manner of 
being or action. 

Moody, moo-de (Saxon, modig). In- 
fluenced by moods of_ feeling; angry ; 
peevish ; out of humour. 

Moonstruck, moon-struk. Supposed 
to be affected by the influence of the moon; 
deranged in intellect ; lunatic. 

Moor, moor (Saxon, mor). A tract of 
land overrun with heath ; a marsh ; a fen ; 
a low-lying ground, covered with stagnant 
water ; also, the name for a native of the 
northern coast of Africa ; likewise, the 
name generally given to the Arabs who sub- 
dued Spain at the beginning of tlie eighth 



MOE 203 

century, and held it until the end of the 
fifteenth. 

Moorings, moor-ings. The anchors, 
chains, &c., laid athwart the bottom of a 
river or harbom*, to confine a ship within 
certain limits. 

Moot, moot (Saxon, motian). To de- 
bate ; to discuss ; to argue or plead on a 
supposed cause. Moot point, a point or 
case to be debated. 

Moral, mor-al (Latin, mos, a manner). 
Relating to practice or manners in re- 
ference to right or wrong ; reasoning or 
instructing with regard to vice or virtue ; 
virtuous ; jvist ; honest. The doctrine or 
practice of the duties of life ; the doctrine 
or duty inculcated by a story. 

Moralist, moral-ist (French, moraliste). 
One who teaches the duties of life ; one 
who practises moral duties. 

Moralize, moi*al-ize. To discourse en 
moral subjects ; to apply to a. moral pur- 
pose, or to explain in a moral sense. 

Morass, mo-rass (Swedish, moras). A 
tract of soft, wet groimd ; mai-sh land, 

Moravian, mo-ravy-an. One of a 
religious sect called the United Brethren, 
and in Germany " Herranhiiter ; " they are 
characterised by an extreme simplicity of 
dress and manners. 

Morbid, mawr-bid (Latin, moroidiis). 
Diseased ; unhealthy ; not sound ; un- 
wholesome ; in a technical sense, commonly 
apphed to affections of prolonged dura- 
tion, as a marbid condition of the nervous 
system ; a moi'hid sensibility. 

Morbific, mawr-biffik (French, mor- 
hifique). Causing disease ; tending to pro- 
duce disease ; generating a sickly state, 

Morceau, mawr-so (French), A bit ; 
a morsel ; a mouthful ; something selected 
as choice and dehcate, Pku-al, vnorceatix. 

Mordant, mawr-dant (Latin, ■tnordeo, 
to bite). A substance which has an affinity 
for particular colours ; it is employed by 
dyers to incorporate the colour with the 
fabric intended to be dyed, 

Moresque, mo-resk. An epithet ap- 
plied to a style of decoration founded on 
that of the Moors or Arabs, which was first 
introduced about the tenth century, and is 
remarkable for the richness of its detail. 

Morganatic, morgan - atik (Gothic, 
mavfjjan, to shorten), Morgcuiatic, or left- 
lutnd vian-iage, is applied to maiTiage con- 
ti-acts made by German princes to aa 



204 



MOH 



MOS 



inferior, in which the wife cannot enjoy 
the rank of the husband, nor the children 
inherit the possessions of their father. 

Morgue, mawrg (French). A place in 
French towns where are exposed, for re- 
cognition, the bodies of such persons as 
are found dead. 

Moribund, morry-bund. In a dying 
state ; a dying person ; figuratively applied 
to the declining condition of an institution, 
or anything which has previously existed. 

Morion, morry-on (French). A kind 
of helmet, or casque for the head. 

Morisco, mo-rlsko. The Moorish lan- 
guage ; a dance or a dancer of the morris 
or Moorish dance ; done after the manner 
of the Moors. 

Mormon, mawr-mon. ) One of a 

Mormonite, mawrman-ite. ) sect ; a 
follower of a so - called prophet, Joseph 
Smith, who claimed to have found a book 
called the Golden Bible, written on golden 
plates, and published under the title of 
the "Book of the Mormon." 

Morocco, mo-rokko. A kind of leather, 
said to have been originally brought from 
Morocco. 

Morose, mo-rose (Latin, morosus). Ill- 
humoured ; ill-tempered ; sullen ; surly. 

Morosis, mo-rosis (Greek). A disease 
among the Greeks, which answered to 
what is called idiocy, or stupidity, in 
English. 

Morris Dance, mor-ris dans. A 
peculiar kind of dance in imitation of the 
Moors, practised in the Middle Ages, in 
which bells were fixed to the feet of the 
dancer, whose great art was to move the 
feet so as to produce concord from the 
various bells. 

Mortal, mawr-tal (Latin, mortalis). 
Subject to death ; destructive, or able to 
destroy, to kill, or cause to die ; deadly ; 
human. 

Mortally, mawrtal-le. Irrecoverably ; 
in a manner certain to cause death. 

Mortar, mawr-tur (Latin, mortarium). 
A vessel in which substances are pounded ; 
a cannon for throwing bombs ; cement for 
a building. 

Mortgage, mawr-gayj (French, mort, 
dead ; gage, a pledge). In law, a pledge 
or pawn of lands or tenements, or other 
property, to be the creditor's for ever, if 
certain monies borrowed on such pledge 
be not paid on the day agreed upon. 
Mortgagee is the person to whom the 



estate is mortgaged ; mortgagor, he who 
assigns the estate as security for the 
debt. 

Mortification, mawrty - f e - kayshuu 
(Latin, onors, death ; Jio, to become). In 
medical practice, the putrefaction and 
consequent death of one part of the animal 
body while the rest is alive ; caused by 
inflammation, injury, or debility of the 
part. In a religious sense, the act of sub- 
duing the passions by prayer, fasting, and 
self-denial. In a general application, 
humiliation ; vexation of spirit ; the state 
of being humbled by anything which 
wounds or abases pride. 

Mortise, mawr-tis. In carpentry, the 
junction of two pieces of wood or other 
material, the cavity cut in one piece being 
the receiving correspondent portion of the 
wood of the other. 

Mortmain, mawrt-mane (French, morf, 
dead ; main, hand). In law, such a state 
of possession as makes it inalienable, and, 
therefore, said to be in dead hand, because 
it cannot be restored to the donor, or to 
any common or temporal use. 

Mosaic, mo-zayik (Italian, mosaico). 
In the fine arts, a word applied to any work 
which exhibits a representation, on a plane ^ 
surface, by the joining together of minute 
pieces of hard, coloured substances, such as 
marble, glass, or natural stones, united by 
cement, and serving as walls, floors, and 
the ornamental coverings of columns. 
Mosaic gold, a mixture of copper and zinc, 
used for cheap articles of jewellery, and 
ornamental metal-work produced oy cast- 
ing in a mould. 

Mosaic, mo-zayik. Pertaining to 
Moses, the leader of the children of Israel 
out of Egypt; the law ot Moses; the 
history of Moses. 

Moslem, mos-lem. A Mohammedan, 

or Mussulman. j 

Mosque, mosk (Turkish, moschit). A 
Mohammedan temple or place of worship. 
They are distinguished by the number of 
their cupolas and minarets. 

Mosquito, mos-keeto (Spanish). The 
name of a stinging fly, somewhat resem- 
bling the gnat ; and pecuHarly troublesome 
in warm climates. 

Mosstrooper, mos-trooper. A robber ; 
a bandit. An epithet applied formerly to 
bands of marauders, who infested the 
borders of England and Scotland, and 
generally encamped on the mosses. 



MOT 



MUD 



205 



Mote, mote (Saxon, mot). A small 
particle of matter ; an atom ; anytliing 
exceedingly small. 

Mote, mote (Saxon, gemote). An old 
Saxon word for an assembly, meeting, or 
court ; as ward-mote, burgk-mote, &c. 

Mother-of-Pearl. A name given to 
the variegated internal coating of the large 
Indian oyster. 

Motion, mo-shun. In parliamentary 
and other deliberative assemblies, the pro- 
posing of any matter for the consideration 
of those present. 

Motive, mo-tiv (Latin, moveo, to move). 
Literally, causing or having the power to 
move ; hence, that which moves the will 
or determines the choice ; that which in- 
cites to act. Motive j)oiver, in mechanics, 
is the whole power or force acting on a 
body. 

Motley, mot-le. Varied in colour ; 
composed of different parts, kinds, quali- 
ties, colours, characters, &c, ; dappled ; 
spotted. 

Motto, mot to (Italian). A sentence 
or word added to a device, or prefixed to 
an essay or discourse ; the word or sen- 
tence used to mark the work of an artist ; 
an inscription on the shield of a knight, 
or the arms of a family. 

Mould, molde (Spanish, molde). The 
matrix in which anything is cast, or re- 
ceives its form. 

Moulder, mole-der (Saxon, molde). To 
turn to dust ; to crumble away ; to decay ; 
to decompose into mould or earth ; to perish 
by decomposition into minute particles. 

Mouldintif, mole-ding. An ornamental 
cavity cut in wood or stone ; the small 
projecting ornaments of columns, &c., the 
forms and dimensions of which are regu- 
lated by an instrument called a mould. 

Moulting, mole-ting (Welsh, moel). 
The shedding or changing of feathers, 
horns, skin, &c. 

Mound, mownd (Saxon, mund). A 
bank of earth or stone, raised as a fence 
or a defence ; a bank ; a rampart. 

Mountaineer, mowntin-eer. A dweller 
on a mountain ; a rustic ; a free-booter. 

Mountainous, mown tin-US. Hilly, or 
aboimding in mountains ; figfuratively, any- 
thing huge, bulky, or of mountain-like 
proportions. 

Mountebank, mownty-bank (Italian, 
mpiitaref to mount; banco, a bench). 



Literally, one who vends nostrums in a 
public place, and harangues the crowd 
from a bench or stage ; hence, applied to 
any vain pretender, charlatan, or quack. 

Mounting, mown-ting. In an artistic 
sense, the placing a drawing on paper or 
cardboard in such a manner as to heighten 
its general effect. 

Mouthpiece, mowth-peese. That part 
of a musical instrument which comes in 
direct contact with the mouth ; collo- 
quially, one who is made to give utterance 
to the sentiments of others. 

Movables, mowah-blz. A term applied 
collectively to personal goods, furniture, 
or any kind of property not fixed ; and 
thus distinguished from houses and lands. 

Movement, moov-ment (Latin, moveo, 
to move). In military affairs, the regular 
orderly motion of an army, for some par- 
ticular purpose. In music, the progress 
of sounds from grave to acute, or from 
acute to grave. In political and social 
economy, any undertaking set on foot by 
co-operation and common consent. 

Moxa, mox-ah. Primarily, the down 
of a Chinese plant, used for curing certain 
disorders, by burning it on the skin ; 
hence, a surgical operation for transferring 
internal inflammation to the surface. 

Mucilage, mewsy-laje (Latin, mucus). 
A slimy vegetable substance ; the liquor 
which lubricates the ligaments and carti- 
lages of the animal body ; gum-arabic. 

Muck, muk. Moist vegetable matter ; 
dung in a heap. To run a muck is a cor- 
ruption of a Javanese word amok, to kill, 
and means the act of rushing out and 
attacking all who come in the way, whether 
friend or foe, as is done by certain fanatics 
in the East, when labouring under furious 
excitement. 

Mucous, mu-kus. Pertaining to mu- 
cus ; slimy ; viscid ; secreting a slimy 
substance. Mucous memhrane is the mem- 
brane which lines the cavities of the body 
exposed to the contact of air, or other in- 
organic substances. 

Mucus, mu-kus (Latin). A slimy fluid ; 
the secretion of the mucous membrane, as 
that of the nasal membrane. 

Mudlark, mud lark. An epithet ap- 
plied to a class of persons peculiar to 
London, who grovel through the mud on 
the banks of the Thames, at low water, 
for the purpose of finding any articles 
which may have been left on the mudbank 
by the retiring tide. 



MUE 



MITN 



Muezzia, mu-ezzin. Among the Mo- 
hammedans, the crier who announces the 
hours of prayer from the minaret, and 
reminds the faithful of their religious 
duties. 

Mufti, muf-te. A Mohammedan high 
priest. In India, the name given to the 
civilian dress of a naval or military officer 
when off duty. 

Mulatto, mu-latto (Spanish, mulato, 
from mulo, a mule). The name given to a 
person who is the offspring of a negress by 
a white man, or of a wMte woman by a 
negro. 

Mulct, mulkt (Latin, mulcta). A fine ; 
a pecimiary penalty; to impose a fin© or 
penalty. 

Mule, mule (Spanish, ranlo). An animal 
generated between a he-ass and a mare, or 
a horso and a she-ass. In botany, the 
offr>, aing of two plants of different species ; 
also, the name of a machine employed in 
(^'.otton-^pinning. 

Mulier, mu-lear (Latin). In law, 
ie^ltimate issue bom in wedlock, though 
L-egotten before. 

Mull, mull {mollio, to soften). To 
soften or dispirit ; as wine is by the ad- 
raisture of sugar, and the application of 
^7armth. In Scotland, a geographical term 
almost synonymous with cape, as the Mull 
of Gall o way ; also, an obsolete name for a 
Scotch snuff-box, made of the small end 
of a aoru. 

3il!.Uil:^at,a'WTiy, mully-gah-tawny. In 
coo:=i^, }j _< tnd of highly-seasoned soup, 
originally prepared at Coromandel ; it 
takes its name from the Tamul words 
mulagar, pepper, and tanee, water; the 
dish containing no meat, being merely a 
kind of decoction of pepper. 

Mullion, mul-yun. In architecture, 
the stone divisions in Gothic windows ; the 
upright post or bar which divides the two 
lights of a window. 

Multifarious, multy-fary-us (Latin, 
miUtus, many; fari, to speak). Having 
great variety or multiplicity ; diversified ; 
varied. 

Multiform, multy-form (Latin, Mulitis, 
many, and form). Having many forms or 
shapes ; varying in form, shape, or ap- 
pearance. 

Multiparous, mvil-tippah-ms (Latin, 
multics, many ; pario, to bring forth). 
Bearing, or bringing forth many at a litter 
or birth. 



Multipartite, mul-tippar-tito (Latin, 
multus, many ; partitus, divided). Divided 
into many parts ; having several parts. 

Multiple, multy-pl (Laitin, multus, 
many; ■pLico, to fold). In arithmetic, a 
number which contains another number 
several times ; thus, 6 is the multiple of 2, 
containing it three times. 

Multiplicand, multy-pleekand (Latin, 
multiplicandus). The number to be multi- 
plied by another. 

Multiplicator, multy-plee-kaytur. 
The number by which another number is 
multipled ; a multiplier. 

Multiplicity, multy-plissy-te. Many 
of the same kind ; state of being many. 

Multiply, multy-pli. To increase in 
number ; to increase a given number as 
many times as there are units in another 
given number. 

Multitude, multy-tude (Latin, multus, 
many). A great number ; a crowd ; the 
populace. 

Multum in Parvo, multum in parvo 
(Latin). Much in little ; a great deal in a 
small compass. 

Mum-cliance. A provincialism for a 
silent, stupid person ; a fool. It is pro- 
bably derived from an old game of that 
name, in which silence was an indispensable 
requisite. 

Mummery, mummer-e (Greek, ono- 
mos, a buffoon). Masking ; sport in masks ; 
farcical show ; foolery ; mimicry. 

Mummy, mum-me (Arabic, mum, 
wax). A dead body preserved by em- 
balining and drying, after the manner of 
the Egyptians. 

Mundane, mund-dane (Latin, muTidus, 
the world). Belonging to the world : 
worldly. 

Municipal, mu-nissy-pal (Latin, mu- 
nus, a gift or right; capio, to take). A 
term applied to the laws or customs 
which prevail in any city or province ; be- 
longing to a corporation. 

Municipality, mu-nissy-pally-ty. A 
certain district or division of the country ; 
a district, its people or government. 

Munificence, mu-mffy-sense (Latin, . 
munus, a gift ; facio, to make). Liberality ; 
bounty ; the act of bestowing bountifully, 
or giving liberally from generous motives. 

Muniment, mevmy - ment (Latin, 
munio, to fortify). A fortification or 
stronghold, support, or defence ; a writing 



MUN 



MYS 



^7 



by which claims and rights are defended 
and maintained. Muniment house, a fire- 
proof building or apartment, in which 
evidences are kept, charters preserved, &c. 

Munition, mu-nisshun (Latin, rmi- 
nitio). Materials for war ; provisions of 
a fortress or garrison, or for ships of war; 
stores of all kinds for carrying on a war. 

Mural, mu-ral (Latin, imirtis, a wall). 
E.elating or belonging to a wall. Mtiral 
crown, among the Romans, a crown given 
to him who was the first to scale the walls 
of a besieged city, and there plant a 
standard. Mural fainting, a class of de- 
coration employed during the Middle Ages, 
which consisted in covering the walls of 
sacred edifices with paintings, executed in 
distemper colours. 

Muriated, mewry-ayted (Latin, muria, 
brine). Steeped in brine ; combined with 
muriatic acid. 

Muriatic, mewry-attik (Latin, muria, 
brine). Having the nature of brine or 
salt-water ; relating to sea salt ; called 
also, hydrochloric acid. 

Murky, mur-ke (Swedish, moric). Dark ; 
obscure ; gloomy. 

Murrain, mur-rin (Spanish, morriTia). 
An infectious and fatal disease among 
cattle, which prevails especially in hot and 
dry seasons. 

Murza, mxir-za. A title of hereditary 
nobihty in Tartary. 

Muse, muze (Latin, inusa). Literally, 
to follow the Muses ; to be contemplative 
and thoughtful, as one who follows the 
Mu^es ; to meditate or dwell upon ; to 
ponder over ; to weigh weU in the mind. 

Muses, mu-zes. In heathen mythology, 
the poetical deities who are supposed to 
preside over the arts of poetry, music, and 
the various branches of polite learning. 
They are usually reckoned as nine in num- 
ber; namely, CHo, to whom is ascribed 
the invention of history ; Melpomene, of 
tragedy ; Thalia, of comedy ; Euterpe, of 
the use of the flute ; Terpsichore, of the 
harp ; Erato, of the lyre and lute ; CaUiope, 
of heroic verse ; Urania, of astronomy ; 
and Polyhymnia, of rhetoric. 

Museum, mu-zeeum (Greek, inouseion). 
Originally, the name of a palace in Alexan- 
dria ; now applied to a repository or 
cabinet of curiosities. 

Musnud, mus-nud. The name of a 
throne or royal seat in Eastern countries. 



Mussulman, mussul-man. A Mo- 
hammedan. The term signifies " resigned 
to Grod," and is the dual number of Moslem. 

Mustee, mus-tee. ) The name given to 

Mestee, mes-tee. J a child of a white 

person and a quadroon in the West Indies. 

Muster RolL In military affairs, a 
list of the officers and men in every regi- 
ment, which is delivered to the muster- 
master, inspecting field-officer, or whoever 
is appointed to inspect the same. 

Mutable, mewtah-bl (Latin, muto, to 
change). Subject to change ; not fixed ; 
inconstant; unreliable; field e. 

Mutation, mu-tayshun (Latin, vmto, 
to change). The act or process of chang- 
ing ; change ; alteration, either in form or 
of qualities. 

Mute, mute (Latin, muius). Uttering 
no sound ; one who cannot speak ; un- 
pronounced. In grammar, a letter when 
not pronounced in a word, as 6 in dumb, 
e in late. 

Mutilate, mewty-late (Latin, viuiilus, 
broken). To deprive of some essential 
part or member ; to maim. 

Mutiny, mewtin-e (French, viutin). A. 
rising against authority ; commotion ; in- 
surrection ; insubordination among soldiers 
or seamen. 

Mutual, mute-yual (Latin, inutims}. 
Eeciprocal ; each acting in return or corres- 
ponding to the other. 

Myology, mi-ollo-je {Greek, mys, a 
muscle ; logos, a discourse). A treatise or 
discourse on the muscular system of animal 
bodies. 

Myriad, mirry-ad (Greek, tnyrias, ten 
thousand). The number of ten thousand ; 
any large number. 

Myrmidon, mirmy-dun. In ancient 
history, the name of a people said to have 
dwelt on the borders of Thessaly, who 
accompanied Achilles to the Trojan war ; 
hence, the term is applied to a desperate 
soldier or ruffian ; a hanger-on, who is 
ready to engage himself in any rough or 
brutal employment. 

Myrrli, nair (Latin, myrrlia). An, 
aromatic gum obtained by incision from a 
tree which grows on the eastern coast of . 
Arabia, 

Mystagogue, mistah-gog (Greek, mys- 
terion, a mystery ; agogos, a guide). One 
who interprets mysteries ; one who pre- 
serves church relics, and exhibits them to 
stransrers. 



208 MT8 

Mystery, misty-re (Greek, mysterioTi). 
Anything hidden or concealed ; that cannot 
be perceived or understood ; something 
beyond human intelligence ; something 
awfully obscure ; anciently, a kind of 
dramatic spectacle, so called because it 
conveyed the mysterious doctrines of 
Christianity, and represented the miracles 
attributed to saints and martyrs. 

Mystic, mis - tik ) (Greek, inyo, to 
Mystical, mistik-al j imitate). Ob- 
scure ; emblematical ; involving some 
secret meaning. 

Myth, mith. A fictitious story ; a 
fable ; something which has no real exist- 
ence, but lives only in the imagination. ' 

Mythology, mith - olio - je (Greek, 
mythos, fable ; logos, a discourse). A 
system of fables representing the deities 
which heathen nations believed to preside 
over the world and its affairs. 



]sr. 

Waboto, na-bob or nay-bob (a corrup- 
tion of naiodb, from 7iaib, a deputy). In 
India, the title of the governor of a pro- 
vince or a military commander. The term 
is also vulgarly applied to those Europeans 
who have amassed large fortunes in the 
East Indies, and live in Eastern luxury and 
splendour. ' 

USTadab, na-dab. The high priest of 
the Persians, whose office and dignity 
resemble that of the mufti of Turkey. 

Ifadir, nay-der. The point of the 
•heaven immediately opposite the zenith. 

DSTaiad, nay-ad (Greek, naias). Poeti- 
cally, a water-nymph. In mythology, a 
deity who presides over rivers and springs. 

iNaive, nah'eev (French). Unsophis- 
ticated : ingenuous ; possessed of native or 
unaffected simplicity. 

K'aivete, nah'eev-tay (French). Na- 
I tive simplicity ; unaffected ingenuousness ; 
a union of natural shrewdness and uncon- 
■ scious simplicity. 

IvTamby-painby. Something affected 
i or finical ; childish. 

i Namesake, name-sake. A person of 
' the same name. 

Nape, nape (Saxon, cnmp). The hinder 
part of the neck, upon which the downy 
hair or nap grows. 

Naphtha, nap-tha (Greek). An in- 
i flammable bituminous liquid, used for 



NAT 

the purposes of illumination, instead of 
oil. 

Narcotic, nar-kottik (Greek, narJc^, 
torpor). Causing stupor ; soporific ; a 
medicine producing sleep ; an opiate. 

Narration, nar-rayshun (Latin, narro, 
to relate). The act of relating ; an account 
either by word of mouth, or in writing, of 
any circumstance or event. 

Narwhal, nar-wal ) In zoology, a kind 

Narwal, nar-wal J of whale, armed 
with a strong horn, whence it is also called 
the sea-unicorn. 

Nasal, nay-zal (Latin, nasus, the nose). 
Pertaining to the nose ; formed or affected 
by the n ose. The nose is frequently termed 
the nasal organ. 

Nascent, nas-sent (Latin, nascor, to be 
bom). Growing ; rising ; springing into 
existence ; coming into being. 

Natal, nay-tal (Latin, nascor, to be 
bom). Pertaining to birth ; relating to 
nativity. 

Natation, nay-tayshun (Latin, oiato', 
to swim). The act of swimming, or floating. 

Nathless, nath-less (Saxon, natheles). 
Nevertheless ; not the less ; notwithstand- 
ing. 

National Debt. Money borrowed by 
the Government, on the secxirity of the 
taxes, which stand pledged to the lenders 
for the payment of the interest. 

Nationality, nasshun-ally-ty (Latin, 
natio, a nation). National character ; the 
state of belonging to a nation ; the pride 
taken in, and attachment displayed for, 
one's own country. 

Nativity, na-tivvy-ty (Latin, nascor, 
to be bora). Birth ; time ; place, or man- 
ner of birth ; state or place of being pro- 
duced. The Nativity, in an especial sense, 
is understood to mean the birth of Christ, 
or Christmas-day. In astrology, the theme 
or figure of the heavens, particularly of the 
twelve "houses," at the moment when a 
person is born. 

Natural, nattu-ral. A character in 
music, employed to make a sharp note a 
semitone lower, and a flat notd i semitone 
higher; or, in other words, to restore 
to the scale of the natural key of C 
any note which had been made flat or 
sharp. 

Naturalize, nattu-ralize (Latin, na- 
tura, native). To confer upon a foreigner 
the privileges of a native, and the rights 



NAD 



NEG 



239 



of citizensMp ; to adopt ; to make our 
own ; to render easy and familiar by cus- 
tom and habit. 

Naulage, nawl-aje. The freight or 
passage money for goods or persons by sea, 
or passage over a river. 

Nausea, naw-sheah (Latin). Sickness; 
loathing; a sensation of disgust; a dis- 
position to vomit ; squeamishness of the 
stomach. 

iCfautical, nawtik-al (Latin, nauta, a 
sailor). Belonging to snips or sailors; 
relating to navigation. 

!N"autilus, nawtU-us. A shell -fish 
which extends certain membranes resem- 
bling oars and sail, with which it progresses 
through the sea, after the manner of a 
sailing vessel. 

Waval, nay-val (Latin, navis, a ship). 
Consisting of ships ; pertaining to ships. 

KTaval Crown. Among the Romans, 
a crown given to him who first boarded an 
enemy's ship. It was a circle of gold, 
surmounted by nautical emblems. 

Nave, nave (Greek, naos, a temple). 
The centre part of a church ; the middle 
portion of a wheel, in which the axle 
moves, and the spokes are fixed. 

Navigable, nawi-gahbl (Latin, navis, 
a ship). That may be navigated; capable 
of being passed by ships or boats. 

Navigation, nawy - gayshun (Latin, 
navigo, to ssiil). The art or science of 
managing a ship, and conducting it through 
the waters ; the act of a vessel passing from 
one place to another. 

Navy, nay-vy. A term applied to the 
whole naval establishment of any country, 
comprehending the ships, officers, men, 
stores, &c. That part of the navy of 
England which is distinguished by the 
title of the Royal Navy comprehends aU 
ships of war, and their crews, &c. 

Nazarene, nazzah-reen. An inhabi- 
tant of Nazareth ; a name applied by way 
of contempt to the early converts to Chris- 
tianity. 

N.B. An abbreviation for the Latin, 
nota htne, take notice. 

Neap, neep (Saxon, nep). Low ; at an 
ebb. Neap tides are the lowest tftdes, hap- 
pening when the moon is in the middle of 
' he second and fourth quarters. 

Ne ped, neept. The position of a ship 
WMch ha been left agroimd on the height 



of the spring tide, so that she cannot b© 
floated off untU the next spring tide. 

Neapolitan, neah - polly - tan. Per- 
taining to Naples; a native or inhabitant 
of Naples. 

Nebula, nebbu-lah (Latin, nebula, a 
cloud). In astronomy, a fine cloud-like 
appearance in the heavens, which, when 
viewed through atelescope, exhibits a cluster 
of small stars ; a film on the eye ; a dark 
spot on the human body. 

Nebulous, nebbu-lus (Latin, nebula, a 
cloud). Misty ; cloudy ; presenting the 
appearance of a hazy cloud, or collection 
of vapours. 

Necrology, nek - kroUo - je (Greek, 
neJcros, dead ; logos, a discourse). Memoirs 
of the dead ; a register of deaths ; a col- 
lection of biographical notices of deceased 
persons. 

Necromancy, nekkro-mansy (Greek, 
neJcros, dead ; manteia, prophecy). The 
pretended art of foretelling the future, by 
communication with the dead. 

Necropolis, ne - kroppo - lis (Greek, 
nekros, dead ; polis, a. city). Literally, a 
city of the dead ; applied to a place spe- 
cially assigned to the burial of the dead. 

Nectar, nek-tur. In mythology, the 
fabled diink of the gods, which, accord- 
ing to heathen behef, conferred immorta- 
Uty upon all who drank ; hence, used com- 
monly to express any liquor sweet and 
pleasant to the taste, or exceedingly deli- 
cious. 

Ne Exeat Regno, ne eksy-at reg-no 
(Latin). In law, a writ issued to restrain 
a person from leaving the kingdom. 

Nefarious, ne-fary-us (Latin, nefas, 
wickedness). Infamous ; wicked ; abomin- 
able ; unlawful. 

Negation, ne-gayshun (Latin, nego 
to deny). Denial or refusal ; the act of 
denying, opposed to aflBrmation. In legis- 
lation, the privilege of preventing the en- 
actment of a law. 

Negative, negga-tiv (Latin, nego, to 
deny). Denying ; opposed to affirming ; a 
word or proposition which denies. 

Negotiate, ne-goshy-ate (Latin, nego- 
iium, business). To transact business ; to 
treat with. In commerce, to pass or trans- 
fer a bill of exchange for a valuable consi- 
deration. 

Negro, ne-gro. One of the Uack race* 
of wAufrica ; feminine, nagnss. 





210 



NEM 



Nli) 



Nem. Con. An abbreviation of 
nemine contradicente (no one opposing), a 
phrase used when any measure or motion 
is agreed to unanimously. 

Ifemesis, nemmy-sis. In mythology, 
the goddess of vengeance. The term is 
used synonymously with retribution, or the 
punishment which descends on an offender. 

Ideology, ne-ollo-jy (Greet, neos,^ new ; 
logos, a discourse). The introduction of 
new words into a language ; coining a novel 
word or phrase ; promoting or promul- 
gating new doctrines. 

JSTeopliyte, neo-fite (Greek, neos, new ; 
phytos, planted). Literally, one newly 
implanted, as in the chiu-ch ; a convert ; 
a proselyte ; a novice ; a tyro. 

!N"eoterie, neo-terrik (Greek, neos, 
new). Modem ; novel ; recently intro- 
duced ; of the present period or time ; not 
long past. 

Nepentlie, ne-penthy (Greek, nependies, 
removing sorrow). Anciently, a magic 
potion, which was represented as having 
the power to drown sorrow, and drive away 
grief ; figuratively applied to any remedy 
which relieves pain, or allays mental 
anguish. 

TSe Plus Ultra, ne-plus ul-trah(Lat.). 
No farther beyond ; the utmost extreme of 
anything ; an epithet applied to excellence 
in the highest degree. 

Nepotism, neppo-tizm (Latin, nq)os, a 
nephew or grandson). Literally, fondness 
for nephews; hence applied to an undue 
preference which persons ia power and 
authority display for their relatives. 

iN'erve, nerv (Latin, nervus). In ana- 
tomy, an organ of motion and sensation in 
animal bodies. In a general sense, vigour ; 
force ; power ; firmness. 

iKTescience, neshy-ens (Latin, nesciens). 
Ignorance ; want of knowledge ; the state 
of not knowing. 

Ness. A termination added to an ad- 
jective, to change it into a substantive, 
denoting state or quality, as whiteness, 
goodness. When incorporated with the 
names of places, ness signifies a cape or 
promontory, a point of land shooting 
out into the sea, as Inverness. 

Nestle, nes-sl (Saxon, nest). To lie 
warmly and securely, as birds in a nest ; to 
lie close ; to harbour, nourish, or protect. 

Nether, neth - ur (Saxon, neother). 
Iiower. as opposed to upper ; belonging 



to the lower regions; being in a lowe* 
place. 

Nexiralgia, nu-raljy-ah (Greek, neuron, 
a nerve ; algos, pain). A pain in the 
nerves, as tic-douloureux, and sciatica. 

Neuter, nu-tur (Latin). Not either 
one or other ; of neither gender ; not 
adhering to either party ; in grammar, 
applied to verbs, expressing an action or 
state limited to the subject, and not fol- 
lowed by an object. 

Neutral, nu-tral (French, oieutre). In- 
different ; not acting ; not engaged on 
either side ; neither good nor bad. In 
chemistry, neither acid nor alkaline. 

Neutral Tint. In painting, a facti- 
tious grey tint, chiefly used in water- 
colours; in natural scenery, the purple hue 
which distant hills assume. 

New Style. In chronology, the days 
of the year according to the Gregorian 
calendar, adopted in England in 1753. 

Newtonian, nu-tony-an. Pertaining 
to Sir Isaac Newton ; the doctrine or philo- 
sophy propoimded by Newton. 

Nicene Creed, ni-seen kreed. The 
name given to certain articles of faith, 
drawn up by the ecclesiastics of the 
Council of Nice, a town of Asia Minor, 
and since adopted by the Church of 
England. 

Niche, nitsh (French). A nick or nook; 
a hollow seat or standing cut into a wall 
for a statue or image. 

Nickel, nik-el. A hard metal of a 
silver- white colour^ difficult of fusion, but 
easily drawn into a thin wire. 

Nicotian, ne-koshan. Denoting or 
pertaining to tobacco. Named after Nicot, 
a Frenchman, who introduced tobacco into 
France, in the year 1560. 

Nictitating, nik-te-tayting (Latin, 
nicto, to wink). The act of winking ; the 
nictitating memhrane of birds and fishes 
is a covering for the eyes, which may be 
drawn over the eye without obstructing 
the sight, and which thus protects the 
vision from the injurious effects of too 
intenserlight, particles of dust, and other 
injurious influences. 

Niddin, nid-din. A species of minor 
excommunication among the Hebrews, 
which lasted a month. 

Nidifieation, niddy- fe - kayshun 
(Latin, nidus, a nest). The process of 
constructing a nest. 



NIG 



NON 



2]] 



Ifiggard, nig-gurd (German, hnicker). 
Covetous, or of a narrow disposition ; 
mean ; parsimonious ; supplying sparingly ; 
stinting. 

Niglitniare, nite - mare. Incubus; 
a sensation of weight and oppression during 



^ Ifihil, ni-M) (Latin). Nothing; nihils, 
in law, issues which the sheriff declares 
are worth nothing and illeviable, from the 
insu£Bciency of the parties who should pay 
them. 
Nil, nil (Latin). Nothing. 

Nimbus, nim-bus. In meteorology, 
the rain-cloud ; also, the name given in 
paintings and sculptures to a circle of rays 
around the heads of saints, &c, 

N'importe, nam-port (French). Never 
mind ; no matter ; it does not signify. 

Nisi _ prius, ni-se pri-us. A judicial 
writ, which lies in a case where the inquest 
is panelled, and returned before the jus- 
tices of the bench, one party making peti- 
tion to have this writ for the ease of the 
country, that the case may be tried before 
the justices of the same county ; also, the 
name of certain courts for the trial of 
causes in the several counties. 

Nitrogen, nytro-jen (Greek, nitron, 
ni1a*e ; gennao, to produce). An element 
of nitre ; a gaseous body, which is inca- 
pable of alone supporting animal life, but 
which, when mixed with oxygen, consti- 
tutes the atmosphere. 

Nizam, ni-zam. The title given to one 
of the native princes of India. 

_ Nocturnal, nok-tumal (Latin, nox, 
night). Pertaining to night ; occurring 
or performed during the night ; nightly. 

Nodation, no-dayshun (Latin, nodus, 
a knot). The state of being knotted, or of 
making knots. 

Node, node (Latin, nodm, a knot). A 
knot; a knob ; a swelling, or protuberance. 
In surgery, a hard tumour on the bone. In 
astronomy, a point in the orbit of a planet 
which intersects the ecliptic. 

Noisom.e, noy-sum (Norman, noisife). 
Noxious ; unwholesome ; injurious ; offen- 
sive. 

Nolens Volens, no-lenz vo-lenz (Lat.). 
A phrase signifying imwilling or willing; 
whether it be desired or not. 

Noli me tangere, nolly me tanjerry 
(Latin, "touch mo not"). A disease of the 



skin ; also, the motto around thS TMstle of 
Scotland. 

Nolle Prosequi, nolly pro-seekwy 
(Latin). In law, the absence of declara- 
tion on the part of a plaintiff within a 
reasonable time, which is regarded as a 
confession that he has no reasonable cause 
of action ; and as a consequence, an aban- 
donment of the suit. 

Nomadic, no-maddik (Greek, nomo, to 
feed). Pastoral, wandering for pasture ; 
having no fixed abode, and shifting from 
place to place for the convenience of 
pasturage. 

Nom de guerre, nong day gare 
(French). A fictitious name ; a name as- 
sumed for the time, or for a specific purpose. 

Nomenclature, nommen - klayture 
(Latin, nomen, a name). The act of giving 
names to persons or things ; a list or cata- 
logue ; a vocabulaiy or dictionary. 

Nominal, nommin-al (Latin, nomen, a 
name). Existing in name only ; not real ; 
pertaining to a name or names. 

Nominate, nommin-ate (Latin, nomen, 
a name). To name ; to mention by name ; 
to name for election ; to appoint. 

Nominative case, nom-minnah-tiv 
kase (Latin, nomino, to name). In gram- 
mar, the naming case, or that which pre- 
cedes the verb, and designates its subject 
absolutely, without relation to any other 
subject. 

Non, non. A Latin prefix, used in the 
English language for giving a negative 
sense to words, and being equivalent to 
not, in, un. 

Nonage, non-aje. Minority; time of 
life previous to legal maturity. 

Nonagon, nonnah-gon (Latin, novem, 
nine; Greek, gonia, an angle). In geo- 
metry, a plane figure having nine angles, 
and consequently nine sides. 

Nonce, nonse (from once). Purpose ; 
intent ; design ; for an especial purpose ; 
for one occasion. 

Nonchalance, non-shallawns (French), 
Coolness ; indifference ; carelessness. 

Non-Corr-mlssioned Ofacer. Un- 
der this title are included the serjeant- 
major, quarter-master serjeant, serjaants 
and drum and fife majors, who are ap- 
pointed by order of the commaii.diu^ 
officer. 

" 



212 



NON 



NOV 



Non Compos Mentis, nou -com-pos 
men-tis (Latin). Not of sound mind or 
judgment; deranged. 

Non-conductor, nonkun-doktur. The 
term applied to substances which do not 
convey heat or the electric fluid, as glass, 
silk, &c. 

INTonconformistjnonkon-formist. One 
who is not a member of the Established 
Church. 

liTondeseript, nondy-skript (Latin, 
non; descriptus, described). That which 
has not been described, or does not admit 
of a description; anything to which no 
particular class, rank, or order can be 
assigned. 

ITonentity, non-enty-ty (Latin, non; 
ens, being). Non-existence ; a thing not 
existing. 

Nones, nonze or no-nis. In the Koman 
calendar, the fifth day of January, Febru- 
ary, April, June, August, September, 
November, December; and the seventh 
day of March, May, July, October. 

Non est Inventus, non est in-ventus 
(Latin, he is not found). The sheriff's 
return to a writ, when the defendant has 
not been found. 

Nonjuror, non-jewrur (Latin, non; 
j%(,ro, to swear). Literally, a non-swearer. 
In English history, one of the adherents of 
James the Second, who refused to take the 
oath of allegiance to the Hanoverian family 
upon their accession to the throne. 

Non liquet, non like-wet (Latin). It 
is not clear ; a phrase used when one votes 
on neither side of a question, because unde- 
cided, or because the matter is not clear. 

Nonpareil, nonpar-el (Latin, non; par, 
equal). Excellence unequalled ; without a 
rival ; the name of an apple, and of a small 
printing type. 

Nonplus, non-plus (Latin, non; plus, 
more). A state in which nothing more 
can be said or done. 

Non sequitur, non sekwy-tiir (Latin). 
It does not follow. 

Nonsuit, non-sute. In law, a renun- 
ciation of the suit by the plaintiff or de- 
fendant, commonly on the discovery of 
some error or defect, when the matter is 
ready for the verdict of the jury. 

Normal, nawr-mal (Latin, worwia, a 
nile). According to a principle or rvde; 
relation to the rudiments or elements^ as 



a normal school, in which children are 
instructed in the elementary branches of 
education. In natiu-al history, having the 
ordinary structure peculiar to a family, 
species, or genus. 

Norroy, nawr-roy. From north-roy or 
north king. The title of the third of the 
three kings at arms, or provincial heralds. 

Norse, nawrs. The name of the Nor- 
wegian language. 

North. Pole. That point of the heaven 
which is ninety degrees every way distant 
north from the equinoctial. 

Norwegian, nawr-weejy-an. Native 
of Norway ; pertaining to Norway. 

Nosology, noz-ollo-jy (Greek, nosos, 
a disease ; logos, a discourse). A classifi- 
cation and arrangement of diseases, with 
names and definitions according to the 
distinctive character of each class, order, 
genus, and species. 

Nostrum, nostrum (Latin, nosier, ours). 
A medicine respecting which there is some 
real or pretended secrecy ; a quack medi- 
cine. 

Notable, notah-bl. (Latin, noialilis). 
Careful ; industrious ; bustling ; remark- 
able; memorable. 

Notables, nottah-bls. In French his- 
tory, the deputies of the states under the 
old regime, appointed and convoked by the 
sovereign on certain occasions ; a term 
applied generally to persons of rank and 
distinction. 

Notably, notah-bly. Eemark; 
memorably ; with show of consequence or 
importance. 

Notary, notah-re (Latin, nolo, to mark). 
A legal officer, whose duty it is to attest 
deeds and writings, protest biUs, enter and 
extend a ship's protests, &c. He is usually 
styled notary public. 

Notation, no-tayshun (Latin, nolo, to 
mark). The method of expressing, by 
means of appropriate characters, any pro- 
posed quantity. In music, the method 
whereby any pitch or tune, and diu*ation 
of musical sounds are represented, and by 
which definite periods of silence, called 
rests, are marked. 

Notify, noty-fi (French, notifier). To 
declare ; to make known ; to publish. 

Novation, no-vayshun. In law, the 
acceptance of a new debt or obligation, in 
satisfaction of a prior existing one. 



I 



NOV 

Novice, nov-is (Latin, novus, new). 
One who is new to any business ; a 
beginner ; a probationer ; one unskilled. 

Novitiate, no - visshy -ate (French, 
noviciat). The state of a novice ; the time 
during which the rudiments of any art or 
science are taught; the time spent in a 
religious house, by way of trial, before 
taking the vow. 

ISTox, noks. In mythology, the god- 
dess of night. 

Noxious, nok-shus (Latin, nozius). 
Hurtful; baneful; hannful; destructive; 
pernicious. 

Nubilous, newby-lus (Latin, nubilus). 
Cloudy. 

Nucleus, newkly-xis (Latin). A kernel; 
anything about which matter is collected. 

Nude, newd (Latin, nudus). Bare ; 
naked ; void. 

Nudity, newdit-ty (Latin, nudus). 
Nakedness; bareness. Nudities, in the 
fine arts, are figures wholly divested of 
drapery. 

Nugator3r,newgah-turry (Latin, nug(yr, 
to trifle). Trifling ; futile ; ineffectual. 

Null, null (Latin, nullus, none). Use- 
less ; of no force or efficacy ; neither legal 
nor binding. 

Nullify, nully-fi (Latin, nullus, none ; 
facio, to make). To annul ; make void ; 
render invalid ; deprive of legal force or 
efficacy. 

Nuiaeral,newmy-ral (Latin, numeralis). 
Eelating to number; expressing number. 
Numeral figures are those figures by which 
all numbers are expressed in arithmetic — 1, 
2, 3, 4, &c. Numeral letters are seven of the 
Roman capitals, which were used by the 
Romans in expressing numbers. 

Numisraatic, newmiz-mattik (Latin, 
numisma, a coin). Pertaining to money, 
coin, or medals. 

Nun, nun (Saxon, nunne). A woman 
devoted to a religious life and secluded in 
a cloister. 

Nuncio, nun-sheo (Latin). A mes- 
senger ; an ambassador from the Pope. 

Nuncupative, nunku-paytiv |(Lat., 
Nun.CUpatory,nunku-paytur-ryj nun- 
cupo, to name). Declaring publicly 
or solemnly ; verbally pronovmced. A 
nuncupative will is one made by the 
rerbal declaration of the testator, and 



OBJ" 



213 



depends upon mere oral testimony for 
proof. 

Nuptial, nup-shal (Latin, nulo, to 
marry). Pertaining to marriage ; per- 
formed at a wedding; constituting mar- 
riage. 

Nurture, nurt-yur (French, nourri- 
ture). That which nourishes ; food ; diet ; 
education ; anything which supports life, 
and promotes growth. 

Nutriment, newtry - ment (Latin, 
nvirio, to nourish). Food; aUment; that 
which feeds or nourishes. 

Nux, nuks. The Latin word for nut. 
The nux vomica is the fruit of a species of 
strychnos, which grows in various parts of 
the East Indies. The taste is extremely 
bitter and acrid, but the substance has no 
remarkable smell. 

Nymph., nimf (Greek, nymphe). In 
Grecian mythology, a goddess of the 
mountains, woods, or waters. Poetically, 
a young maiden. 

O. 

Oa^ ofe. A foolish child ; a dolt ; an 
idiot ; a changeling, superstitiously sup- 
posed to be left by fairies in the place of 
a child. 

Oakum, oke - um (Saxon, ceoimle). 
Ropes vmtwisted, and reduced to hemp. 

Oasis, o-aysis (Greek). A fertile spot 
in a desert ; applied metaphorically to any 
sign of life or culture in the midst of bar- 



Ob. A Latin preposition, usually signi- 
fying lefore, in front, against, towards, &c. ; 
it has also the force of in or on. 

Obdurate, obdu-rate (Latin, oh; durus, 
hard). Stubborn ; inflexible ; impenitent ; 
obstinately bent on vice. 

Obeisance, o-besanse or o-baysanse 
(Latin, obedio, to obey). An act of obedi- 
ence or homage ; a bow, or curtsey, or bend- 
ing of the knee. 

Obelisk, obby - lisk (Greek, ohelos, a 
needle). A lofty quadmngular column, 
growino- gradually smaller from the base 
to the summit. In writing and printing, a 
mark of reference, thus f ; also used to 
designate any special intention. 

Obese, o-beese (Latin, ohesus, fat). 
Fat ; corpulent ; fleshy. 

Obfuscate, ob-fuskate (Latin, ob;fusco, 
to obscure). To darken ; to obscure. 



214 



OBI 



OBS 



Obiter, ob-iter. (Latin). In passing; 
incidentally. Obitei' dictum,- a passing or 
casual observation. 

; Obituary, o-bittu-ary (Latin, obitus, 
death). A list of deaths, as the ohituary 
in the public journals ; a register of the 
dead ; an account of persons deceased. 

Object, ob-jekt (Latin, ob, before; 
jacio, to cast). That about which any 
power or faculty is employed. In gram- 
mar, that which is produced, influenced, 
or acted on by something else : that which 
f oUows a transitive verb. 

Object Glass. In optical instruments, 
that which is placed towards the object, 
the other extreme lens being called the eye 
glass. 

Objective, ob-jektiv (Latin, ob, before ; 
jacio, to cast). Relating to the object ; 
belonging to the object. In grammar, the 
objective case is that which foUows an active 
verb or a preposition. 

Objurgation, objur - gayshun (Latin, 
objurgo, to rebuke). Reproof; reprehen- 
sion ; the act of chiding or censuring. 

Oblation, ob-layshun (Latin, oblatum, 
an offering). An offering ; a sacrifice ; 
anything offered as an act of worship or 
reverence. 

Obligato, obly-gahto (Italian, bound 
to). In music, a part written for a parti- 
cular instrument. 

Obligee, obly- j ee. The person to whom 
another is bound, by a legal or written 
contract. 

Obligor, obly-jawr. The person who 
binds himseK, or executes a bond for 
another. 



ObUque, ob-leek (Latin, 
aslant). Deviating from a right line ; in- 
direct ; not straight, parallel, nor perpen- 
dicular; aslant. 

Obliquity, ob-likkwy-ty (Latin, oUi- 
quus, aslant). Divergence from a right 
line ; hence, metaphorically, deviation from 
moral rectitude ; irregularity. 

Obliterate, ob-litty-rate (Latin, ob, 
out ; liter a, a letter). To efface ; to erase; 
to destroy the form or figure of ; to blot 
out from the memory. 

Oblivion, ob-liv-ytm (Latin, obliviscor, 
to forget). Forgetfulness ; wiping out of 
the past ; cessation of remembrance ; re- 
mission of pxinishment. 



Oblong, ob-long (Latin, ob; longits, 
broad). Longer than broad ; a figure or 
object longer than broad. 

Obloquy, obblo-kwy (Latin, ob; loquor, 
to speak). Censorious speech; language by 
which a person is spoken of disparagingly ; 
reproach ; slander ; blame. 

Obnoxious, ob-nokshus (Latin, ob; 
noxa, danger). Literally, liable or exposed 
to punishment ; hence, censurable ; repre- 
hensible ; hateful. 

Obscene, ob-seen (Latin, obscceims). 
Immodest ; unchaste ; impure ; offensive 
to decency and delicacy ; f ovd ; filthy ; 
lewd. 

Obscuration, obsku-rayshun (Latin, 
obscurus, obsciire). The act of darkening ; 
the state of being obscured or darkened. 

Obscurity, ob - skewrit - ty (Latin, 
obsciinis). Dimness ; gloom ; mean state ; 
humble condition. 

Obsequies, obsy-kv?eez (Latin, obsequi, 
to follow after). Funeral rites or solem- 
nities in honour of the dead ; the last duties 
performed to a deceased person. 

Obsequious, ob-seekwy-us (Latin, 
obsequi, to f oUow after). Following closely ; 
standing servilely ; yielding ; compliant ; 
subservient. 

Observanda, obzur-vandah (Latin). 
Things to be observed ; objects or circum- 
stances worthy of note. 

Observatory,ob-zervah-turry (French, 
observatoire). A place for conducting as- 
tronomical observations. 

Obsolete, obso-leet (Latin, ob; soleo, to 
use). Gone out of use ; out of date ; anti- 
quated ; old-fashioned. 

Obstacle, obstah-kl (Latin, obsto, to 
withstand). Anything which opposes; 
hindrance ; obstruction. 

Obstetric, ob-stetrik (Latin, obstetrix, 
a midwife). Pertaining to midwifery, or 
the accouchement of women. 

Obstreperous, ob-streppa-rus (Latin, 
ob ; strepo, to make a noise). Loud ; clam- 
orous ; noisy ; turbulent. 

Obstriction, ob-strikshun (Latin, ob ; 
stringo, to strain). Obligation ; bond. 

Obstruction, ob-strukshun (Latin, ob, 
against ; struo, to build). Hindrance; 
impediment ; obstacle. Anything which 
retards progress, or blocks up a way or 
channel. 



I 



OBS 



ODO 



215 



Obstruent,ob-struent (Latin, ohstruens, 
hindering'). A class of medicines reputed 
to have the power of closing the orifices 
of the ducts or canals of the body. 

Obtrude, ob-trude (Latin, ob; trudo, to 
thrust). To thrust forward ; to urge upon, 
against the will. 

Obtuse, ob-tuse (Latin, dbhindo, to 
blunt). Dull ; stupid ; not acute ; not 
sharp or shrill ; not having acute sensibi- 
lity. Obtuse angle is' one larger than a 
I'ight angle ; every angle exceeding 90 
degrees. 

Obverse, ob-verse (Latin, oh; verto, to 
turn towards). The side of a coin on which 
is the face, or the head ; opposed to 
reverse. 

Obviate, obvy»ate (Latin, oh, against ; 
via, a way). To meet in the way ; to with- 
stand ; to prevent ; to remove. 

Obvious, obvy-us (Latin, oh, against ; 
via, a way). Meeting ; preventing ; lying 
in the way ; hence, easily discovered ; 
readily perceived by the eye or the intel- 
lect ; plain ; open ; exposed. 

Obvoluted, obvo-lewted (Latin, ohvo- 
lutus). Having one part rolled on another. 

Occident, oksy-dent (Latin, occidens, 
going down, the west). The western part 
of the hemisphere ; that pa.i-t of the horizon 
where the sun sets. 

Occiput, oksy-put (Latin, occiput, the 
head). The hinder part of the head or of 
the skull. 

Occult, ok-kult (Latin, oh; colo, to till). 
Literally, ploughed over or buried ; hence, 
hidden ; secret ; undiscovered ; unknown. 
The occult sciences are the imaginary sciences 
of the Middle Ages, such as alchemy and 
astrology. An occult line in a draught is 
a dry line not intended to be seen when 
the plan is finished. 

Occupant, okku-pant (Latin, occupo, 
to occupy). One who takes or holds pos- 
session. 

Occupation, okku -payshun (Latin, 
occupo, to occupy). The act of taking pos- 
session ; possessing, holding, or putting to 
use ; engagement ; the business followed 
for a living. In military affairs, the taking 
possession of a work or post, or remaining 
stationary in any province. 

Occurren9e, ok-kurrens (Latin, oh, 
to ; curve, to run). An incident ; acci- 
dental event ; occasional presentation; 
anything not designed or expected. 



Ocean, o-shun (Latin, oceamish A 
name applied in a general sense to the great 
mass of salt water, which covers more than 
three-fifths of the globe ; it is usually 
divided into three portions — the Atlantic 
Ocean, which divides Europe and Africa from 
America ; the Pacific Ocean, which divides 
America from Asia ; the Indian. Ocean, 
which separates the East Indies from 
Africa. ' 

Octagon, oktah-gon (Greek, oMo, eight; 
gonia, an" angle). In geometry, a figure of 
eight sides and eight angles. In fortifica- 
tion, a place which has eight bastions or 



Octave, ok-tave (Latin, octo, eight). 
In music, an interval of eight sounds ; it 
embraces all the primitive sounds, namely, 
all the original tones and semitones. 

Octavo, ok-tayvo (Latin, octo, eight). 
The size of a book when the sheet is folded 
into eight leaves, usually contracted 8vo. 

Octofid, okto-fid (Latin, octo, eight ; 
findo, to cleave). Separated into eight 
segments. 

Octogenarian, okto- j e-nary-an (Latin, 
octo; geiiarius). A person eighty years of 
age. 

Octroi, ok-troaw (French). A tax on 
articles brought in, levied at the £-ates of 
Erenclv cities. 

Ocular, okku-lar (Latin, ocuhic, an 
eye). Depending on the eye"; pertaining 
to the eye ; known by the eye ; received by 
actual sight. 

Oculist, okku-list (Latin, oculus, the 
eye). One who makes the diseases of the 
eye his study, and professes to heal them. 

Odalisk, ) odah-lisk (Turkish, oda, 

Odalisque,/ a chamber). The name 

given to the female slaves in Turkey, who 

are employed in the domestic service of the 

wives and female relatives of the Sultan. 

Ode, ode (Greek). Originally, a com- 
position in verse designed to be sung or 
delivered with music ; now generally ap- 
plied to a short poem, or lyric poem. 

Odeon, o-deeon (Greek, ode, an ode or 
song). The name of a sort of theatre in 
ancient Greece, devoted to poetical and 
musical contests. 

Odium, ode-yum (Latin, odi, to hate). 
Hatred ; dislike ; unpopularity, mingled 
with great dislike. 

Odometer, o-dommy-tur (Greek, odos, 
a rood ; metron, a measxire). An instru- 



216 



ODO 



ment for measuring distances in travelling, 
attached to the wheel of a carriage. 

Odoriferous, odo - riffer - us (Latin, 
odo7', a scent ; fero, to bring). Giving 
scent ; emitting fragrance ; perfumed ; 
diffusing sweet smells. 

Odyssey, oddy-se. The name of the 
celebrated epic poem written by Homer, 
about 900 years before Christ, so called 
from Ulysses, or Odysseus, being the hero 
whose adventures after the siege of Troy 
are therein narrated. 

Offal, of-fal (Dutch, ofval). Refuse ; 
waste meat; anything thrown away as 
unfit for food; anything of no worth or 
value. 

Offertory, offer-turry (French, offer- 
toire). The act of offering ; anything 
offered ; part of the Church service chanted 
or read while the alms are being col- 
lected. 

OfB.cial, of-fishal (Latin, officium, office; 
duty). Relating to an ofl&ce or public 
trust ; done by authority. An official, 
one who holds an office. 

0£B.ciate, of-fishy-ate (Latin, officium, 
office). To perform the duties of an office, 
for oneself, or on behalf of another. 

OflScinal, of-fissy-nal (Latin, officina). 
Pertaining to a shop ; appHed especially to 
such medicines as are kept ready for use 
m the sh©ps of apothecaries. 

OflB.ng, of-fing (from off). In nautical 
language, the open sea, or that part of it 
which is at a distance off the shore, and 
where no pilot is needed. 

OfPscouring, off - skowring. That 
which is scoured off, cast off, or thrown 
off; refuse, or rejected matter; that which 
IS vile and despised. 

Offset, off-set. A part of anything that 
may be set or planted, coming off the 
main root ; a sprout ; a shoot of a plant. 

Offspring, off-spring. Aaything that 
springs or arises from; as, production; 
proportion ; posterity, child or children. 

Ogle, o-gl (Dutch, oog). To regard 
with fond glances ; to move the eye so as 
to attract the notice of another; to view 
with stolen glances, so as to avoid general 
observation. 

Ogre, o-gur (Firenoa, ogre). An imagi- 
airy monster of the East, who lived on 
42umaa boiagB. Feuiiidue, og^-ess. 



OMN 

Oil paintings. A term for pictures, 
the colours of which have been tempered 
with oil ; in contrast to water-colours. 

Oleaginous, o-le-ajjen-us (Latin, 
oleaginus). Oily; bearing oil; having the 
quality of oil. 

Olfactory, ol-fakturry (Latin, oko, to 
smell ; facia, to do). Having the sense of 
smelling; relating to smelling. Olfactory 
nerves, the organs of smell. 

Oligarchy, oUy-garky (Greek, oligos, 
few ; archo, to rule). A form of govern- 
ment in the hands of a few persons; a 
species of aristocracy. 

Olio, o-leo (Spanish, olio, from olla, a 
pot for boiling vegetables). A dish made 
of vegetables and different kinds of meat ; 
figuratively apphed to a mixtiure or medley 
of writings, or to musical collections. 

Olive branch. A branch of the 
olive-tree ; an emblem of peace and good- 
will. 

Olla podrida, ollah pod - reedah 
(Spanish, putrid mixtxire). A mixture of 
all kinds of meat cut into small pieces, 
and stewed with various kinds of vege- 
tables ; figuratively applied to any in- 
congruous mixture, or collection of odds 
and ends. 

Olympiad, o-limpy-ad. Among the 
ancient Greeks, an epoch of four years, 
being the interval between the celebration 
of the Olympian games. 

Olympic, o-limpik. Belonging to 
Olympia, or pertaining to the games which 
the ancient Greeks celebrated there. 

Omega, o-meega. The last letter in 
the Greek alphabet ; hence. Alpha and 
Omega, the first and the last ; the begin- 
ning and the end. 

Omen, o-men (Latin). A token or sign 
of good or ill ; an indication of some future 
event ; a foreboding ; a prognostic. 

Ominous, ommin-us (Latin, ominosus). 
Foreboding ill; inauspicious. 

Omnibus, omny-bus (Latin, for or with 
all). A public conveyance, employed in 
cities and towns, for carrying passengers 
short and specified distances. 

Omniferous, om - niffer - us (Latin, 
omnis, all;/ero, to bear). Producing all 
kinds. 

Omnipotent, om-nippo-tont (Latin, 

omnes, ail ; potens, powerful). Almighty ; 
all-powerful ; able to do all things. 



OMN 



OPT 



2ir 



Omnipresence, omny-prezzens (Lat., 
ovmis, all ; prassens, present). Presence in 
every place; being in all places at the 
same time. 

Omniscient, om-nisshent (Latin, om- 
niSf all; scientia, knowledge). Knowing 
all things ; infinitely wise ; possessing 
boundless and universal knowledge. 

Omnium, omny-um (Latin, omniuvi, 
the whole). A term employed on the 
Stock Exchange, to denote the aggregate 
of different stocks in the public funds ; 
also, implying the securities which sub- 
scribers to a loan receive from Govern- 
ment. 

Omnium gatherum, omny-um ga- 
ther-um. A term applied to a miscella- 
neous collection of persons or things. 

Omnivorous, om-niwo-rus (Latin, 
omnis, all; voro, to eat). All-devouring; 
eating indiscriminately of everything ; 
not limited to any one kind of food. 

On Dit, on dee (French). They say ; 
it is reported ; rumour ; gossip. 

Onerous, onner-us (Latin, owtw, a 
load). Burdensome ; pressing heavily ; 
oppressive ; weighty. 

Onset, on-set. An assault ; an attack; 
the sudden charging of an army upon 
an enemy. 

Onslaught, on-slawt. Attack; as- 
sault; murderous onset. 

Ontology, on-tollo-je (Greek, ontos, 
a being ; logos, a discourse). A depart- 
ment in the science of metaphysics, which 
investigates and explains the nature and 
essence of all beings, their qualities and 
a,ttributes. 

Onus, o-nus (Latin, onus, a load, or 
burden). Burden or weight of anything. 
Onus prohandi is the burden of proving 
a fact, or the obligation of establishing 
it by evidence. 

OnjTX, on-iks (Greek, omix, a finger- 
nail). A semi-pellucid gem, generally 
exhibiting two or more colours strongly 
contrasted. The name was originally 
given to any stone presenting somewhat 
the appearance of the human naU. 

Oolite, o-olite (Greek, oon, an egg ; 
liikos, a stone). A species of limestone, 
composed of globules clustered together, 
usually without any visible cement. 

Oology, o-ollo-je (Greek, oon, an egg; 
logos, a discourse). A treatise on the 
eggs of birds. 



Ooze, ooz (Saxon, wesan, to wet). To 
issue slowly; to flow gently; to pass in 
small portions, as liquid passes when it is- 
strained ; hence, applied to information, or 
the truth of anything, which comes out by 
degrees. 

Opaque, o-pake (Latin, 'opacus, dark). 
The reverse of transparent, and applied 
to bodies through which light does not pass, 
as the metals. 

Operative, opper-aytiv (Latin, <ypus, 
work). Having the power of acting ; 
capable of producing effect; a workman, 
an artisan. 

Ophthalmia, oph-thalmeah (Greek, 
ophthalmos, the eye). Inflammation of the 
outer covering of the eye-ball and eye-lids, 
frequently producing blindness. 

Opiate, opy-ate (from opium). Induc- 
ing sleep ; causing rest or inaction ; any 
medicine containing opium, that has the 
quality of inducing sleep or repose. 

Opine, o-pine (Latin, opinor, to think). 
To think ; to judge ; to deem likely or pro- 
bable. 

Oppidan, oppy-dan (Latin, oppidum, a 
town). An inhabitant of a town ; a towns- 
man, at the Universities opposed to gowns- 
man ; at Eton school, a term applied to 
those boys not on the foundation who 
board in the town. 

Opportune, oppor-tune (Latin, oppor- 
tuims). Seasonable ; well-timed ; con- 
venient ; at hand. 

Opprobrium, op-probry-um (Latin,. 
oh ; prohrum, disgrace). Reproach ; dis- 
grace ; infamy. 

Optic, op-tik (Greek, ops, the eye). 
Pertaining to vision ; relating to the science 
of optics ; used in seeing ; producing 
sight. 

Optics, op-tiks (Greek, ops, the eye). 
The science which explains the laws of 
vision ; it includes the nature, composi- 
tion, and motion of light ; the doctrine of 
colours, the construction and management 
of optical instruments, &c. 

Optimates, opty-maytez (Latin). A 
name given to the E-oman nobility ; applied 
to a nobiUty in general. 

Optimism, optim-izm (Latin, optimus, 
the best). In moral philosophy, the 
doctrine that everything in nature is 
ordered for the best ; or, as things are 
ordained, so are they calculated to pro- 
duce the greatest amount of good. 



218 



OPT 



ORD 



Option, op-shun (Latin, opto, to wisli). 
Choice ; power of choosing ; privilege of 
selecting ; election ; wish ; preference. 
On the Stock Exchange, a per-centage 
given for the option of putting or calling, 
that is, selling or buying, stock in time 
bargains at a given price. 

Opulent, oppu-lent (Latin, opes, riches). 
Eich ; wealthy ; affluent. 

Oracle, orrah - kl (Latin, wacuhtra). 
Among the ancients, an answer pretended 
to be given by the gods to those who con- 
sulted them respecting future events and 
probabilities ; also the name of him who 
gave the answer, and the place where it was 
given. The high estimation in which the 
oracle was held serves to give the same 
word among us the meaning of an opinion 
deemed infallible, or any statement re- 
garded as authoritative and weighty. 

Oracular, o - rakku - lar. Uttering 
oracles ; resembling an oracle, either ' as 
regards its authority or ambiguity. 

^ Oral, o-ral (Latin, os, the mouth). 
Uttered by the mouth; spoken, liot 
■written. 

Orangeman, orranj-man. The name 
given by the Catholics of Ireland to their 
Protestant countrymen, on account of 
their adherence to King William (of the 
House of Orange), while the former party 
sui>ported James the Second. 

Oration, o-rayshun (Latin, ore, to 
speak). A public speech ; an elaborate 
address ; a discourse delivered upon a 
special occasion, or to a select auditory. 

Oratorio, orah-tory-o (Italian, from 
Latin, oratori'am, a small chapel). A 
species of sacred drama, or musical com- 
position, consisting of airs, duets, trios, 
choruses, &c., the subject of which is 
generally taken from Scripture. 

Oratory, orrah-turry (Xatin, oro, to 
speak). Eloquence; the art of speaking 
correctly and elegantly ; exercise of elo- 
quence. In the Koman Catholic Chm'ch, 
a room or place set apart for private devo- 
tions. 

Orb, awi^b (Latin, orlis, a circle, or 
globe). A round or spherical body; a 
sphere or circle ; a circular body that 
revolves and rolls; a circle described by 
imy mundane sphere ; the eye. 

Orbit, awr-bit (Latin, orhita). In 
astronomy, the line or path described by a 
planet in its revolution. In anatomy, the 
cavity ia which the eye is situated. 



Orchestra, awrkes-trah (Greek, orche- 
isthai, to dance), A place set apart in a 
theatre, or concert-room, for musicians. 
It is so called from being, in the Greek 
theatres, the place where the chorus danced 
and the musicians played. 

Ordain, awr-dane (Latin, ordo, order). 
To appoint ; to decree ; to estabHsh ; to 
invest with ministerial functions. 

Ordeal, awr-deal (Saxon, ordcel). A 
form of trial among the Anglo-Saxons, 
practised either by boiling water or red- 
hot iron ; hence, applied to a severe trial ; 
accm'ate scrutiny ; close test. 

Orderly. In military affairs, an officer 
appointed for the day, whose immediate 
duty is to attend to the internal economy 
and good order of the corps, or the division 
of it to which he belongs. 

Ordinance, awrdy - nans (French, 
ordonnance). An established rule or law ; 
a rescript ; observance of a command. 

Ordinary, awrdin-ary (Latin, ordlna,- 
rius). According to established order ; 
common ; usual ; of moderate quality or 
value ; plain in personal appearance ; 
inferior ; mean. Ordinary, in common and 
canon law, is one who has immediate juris- 
diction in matters ecclesiastical, as the 
bishop of a diocese, or the archbishop of 
a whole province. The ordinary of New- 
gate is a clergyman who attends to the 
spiritual welfare of prisoners, and especicilly 
attends on criminals condemned to be 
hanged, to prepare them for death. The 
establishment of persons employed by 
Government to take charge of ships of 
war laid up in harbours; hence, a ship 
in ordinary is one laid up under the dh-ec- 
tion of the master attendant. Also, a 
name given to a dinner prepared at an 
hotel or inn, to which any person is ad- 
mitted upon paying a stated charge.. 

Ordination, awrdin - ayshun (Latin, 
ordinatio). An established order or regu- 
lation; admission to holy orders, or initiation 
of a person into the priesthood. In Pres- 
byterian and Congregational churches, the 
act of settling or establishing a licensed 
preacher over a congregation, with pastoral 
charge and authority. 

Ordnance, awrd-nans(from ordinance). 
The name given to great guns, cannon, &c., 
as distinguished from smaU arms. The 
Board of Ordnance is the establishment 
which provides guns, ammunition, and 
arms of every description for public 
service. 



OEB 



OSS 



J19 



Ore, ore (Saxon, ore). The name given 
to a native compound of a metal and some 
mineralising substance ; a metal in the 
mineral state. The name is only applied 
to mineral bodies which contain the metal 
in such quantities as to be worth the 
labour of extracting it. 

Organic, awr-gannik (Latin, wganicus.) 
Consisting of organs, or natural instru- 
ments of action ; acting as means or 
instiniment ; made or designed for some 
certain end. 

Organize, awrgan-ize (French, orgaa- 
iser). To construct so that all the pai-ts 
shall mutually assist each other; to dis- 
tribute into suitable parts, and appoint 
appropriate agents, so as to insure uniform 
operation. 

Organography, awrgan - oggrah - f y 
(Greek, organon; grapho, to write). In 
botany, a description of the organs of 
plants, or of the names and kinds of their 
organs. 

Orgies, awr-jiz. This word is the 
plural of the Greek oiyia, or revels in ho- 
notu" of Bacchus, held, dui-ing the night ; 
applied generally to any feast of revelry 
or riot, especially such as take place at 
night. 

Oriel, ory-el (Old French, oriol, a recess 
or small apartment). A room or recess 
next a hall ; a kind of projecting or bay 
•window, in Gothic architecture. 

Orient, ory-ent (Latin, orior, to rise). 
The east ; place of the rising sun ; rising 
as the sun ; glittering ; bright ; shining. 

Oriental, ory-ental (French, Onental). 
Eastern ; placed in the east ; proceeding 
from the east ; an inhabitant or native of 
some eastern part of the world. 

Orifice, orry-fis (Latin, onficium). An 
opening; a perforation ; a gap. 

Oriflamme, awrry - flame. Golden 
flame ; the ancient royal standard of the 
kings of France. 

Origin, orry-jin (Latin, origo). Primary 
state of being or existence ; beginning ; 
rise ; spring ; source ; first issue ; deriva- 
tion or descent. 

Orison, orry-zun (Latin, oro, to pray). 
A prayer ; suppUcation. 

Ormolu, oi-mo-lu. A namg given to 
brass, when it is made to assume the 
appearance of gold. 

Ornate, awr-nate (Latin, or?io, to em- 
bellish). Adorned; decorated; beautified; 
embellished. 



Ornithology, awmy-thoUo-je (Greek, 
oivizs, a bird; logos, a discom-se). The 
department of natural history which treats 
of birds, describes their structure, teaches 
their economy, and arranges them in 
classes, orders, genera, and species. 

Orotund, oi-o-tund. A mode of into- 
nation directly from the larynx, which 
gives fullness, clearness, and strength; 
the highest perfection of the voice. 

Orphan, awr-fan (Greek, orplmnos). 
A child who is bereaved of either father 
or mother, or both. 

Orrery, orer-ry. A machine con- 
structed for the purpose of representing 
and illustrating the movements and phases 
of the planetary system ; named in honour 
of the Earl of Orrery, who first patronised 
the invention. 

Orthodox, awrtho-doks (Greek, oHhos, 
right ; doxa, opinion). Sound in religions 
opinion ; right in doctrine ; consistent with 
faith ; according to the Scriptures ; opposed 
to heterodox. 

Orthoepy, awi'-thoee-py (Greek, orthos, 
right; epos, a word). Correct speech or 
pronunciation. 

Orthography, awr-thograh-f y (Greek, 
orthos, right ; grapho, to write). The pro- 
per mode of wiiting or spelling words ; 
that part of grammar which treats of letters 
and syllables. In architecture, the art of 
delineating or drawing the front of an 
object, so as to exhibit the height and ele- 
vation of the several parts. 

Oscillate, ossil-ate. To move back- 
ward and forward, as a pendulum; to 
swing ; to vibrate ; metaphorically applied 
to conduct or opinion which is unsettled 
and wavering. 

Osculation, osl^kew-layshun (Latin, 
osculor, to kiss). In geometiy, the contact 
between any cmwe and a circle, which has 
the same cxuTature as the given curve at the 
point of contact ; the act of kissing. 

Os frontis, os front-is (Latin). The 
frontal-bone ; the forehead. 

Osmazone, oz-mayzone (Greek, osme, 
smell; zomos, broth). A peculiar animal 
principle, of a brownish-yellow coloui', and 
of the taste and smell of soup. It is 
obtained by digesting cold water for somo 
hours, on slices of raw muscular fibre, and 
evaporating the liquor to dryness. 

Ossification, ossiE-ekayshun (Latin, 
OS, a bone ; Jio, to become). The forma- 



220 



OST 



OVE 



tion of bone ; in pathology, the conversion j 
of membi-anous or muscnlar parts into a 
bony substance. 

Ostensible, os-tensy-bl (Latin, ostendo, 
to show). That which appears or seems ; 
apparent ; shown, declared, or avowed. 

Osteology, osty-ollo-jy (Greek, osteon, 
a bone ; logos, a discourse). In anatomy, a 
description of bones. 

Ostracism, ostrah-sizm (Greek, osh-a- 
Jcon, a shell). A mode of banishment 
practised at Athens, and so called because 
the name of the person to be banished, or 
the note of acquittal, was inscribed on a 
shell, given in by the voters ; colloquially 
applied to banishment from society, or 
deprivation of office or rank. 

Ottava Rima, ottay-vah reem-ah 
(Italian). Octuple rhyme. An Italian 
mode of versification, consisting of stanzas 
of two alternate triplets and a couplet at 
the end. 

Otto,, ot-to. Essence, usually applied 
to essential oil extracted from flowers. 

Ottoman, otto-man (Turkish). Re- 
lating to Turkey, or the Turks ; a species 
of sofa, or lounging seat. 

Ous. In chemistry, a termination 
denoting an acid, containing one equiva- 
lent less of the acidifying principle than 
those that end in ic, as sulphurows acid ; 
sulphimc acid. 

Oust, owst (French, oter). To remove 
or put out of possession ; to eject ; to cast 
out. 

Outbreak, owt- brake. A bursting 
forth; an eruption ; a riot or mutiny. 

Outfall, owt-fawl. A fall of water; 
a canal. 

Outfit, owt-fit. A preparing, as of a 
ship for a voyage ; the collective term for 
the articles of personal and domestic use 
required on a voyage. 

Outlandish, owt - landish (Saxon, 
utloendisc). Foreign; not native; bom or 
produced in the interior country, or among 
rude people. 

Outlaw, owt-law (Saxon, utlagian). 
To put out of the law, or protection of the 
law ; to exclude, expel, deprive of the pro- 
tection of the law ; one excluded from the 
benefits of the law, or deprived of its pro- 
tection. 

Outlet, owt-let. A place or passage 
by which anything escapes or passes out- 
ward. 



Outline, owt-line. The line by which 
a figfure is defined ; a sketch ; first, general, 
or rough drawing of a subject. 

Outpost, owt-post. In military affairs, 
a post or station beyond the limits of the 
camp ; a body of soldiers placed beyond 
the main-guard. 

Outrage, owt-raje (French, outrager). 
Violent rudeness ; rough treatment ; rude 
and insolent language ; excessive abuse ; 
wanton mischief. 

Outre, oo-tray (French). Out of the 
ordinary course or limits ; eccentric ; ex- 
travagant; conspicuous. 

Outrider, owt - rider. A servant 
attached to any travelling or royal equi- 
page, who rides forward for the purpose of 
paying the toUs, clearing the way, &c. 

Outrigger, out-riggur. The sea term 
for any projecting spar or piece of timber, 
employed for extending ropes, .saUs, and 
for other temporary purposes. 

Outwit, owt-wit. To surpass in cim- 
ning or design ; tp overcome by stratagem; 
to overreach ; to cheat. 

Outwork, owt-wurk. The part of a 
fortification most remote from the main 
fortress or citadel, bmlt for the purpose of 
keeping the besiegers at a distance. 

Oval, o-vul (Latin, ovu7n, an egg). 
Having the form or shape of an egg ; re- 
sembling an egg. 

Ovate, o-vate (Latin, ovatus). Formed 
with the lowest extremities broadest, as an 
ovate leaf ; shaped like an egg. 

Ovation, o-vayshun. In ancient Rome, 
an 'nferior kind of triumph accorded to 
military leaders. The word is supposed to 
be derived from the Latin ovis, a sheep ; 
because that was the only animal which 
was sacrificed on such occasions. 

Overbearing, ovur-baring. Domi- 
neering ; tyrannical ; haughty ; seeking to 
repress or subdue by effrontery or in- 
solence. 

Overcome, ovur-kum. To conquer; 
to subdue ; to surmount ; to conquer in 
argument ; to render powerless in a trial 
of strength. 

Overhaul, ovur-hawl. To turn over 
for inspection; to re-examine ; to scru- 
tinise, or look into closely. 

Overlook, ovur-look. To supervise ; 
to suiT^ey ; to pass over in looking ; hence, 
not to see ; to disregard ; to reglect ; to 
omit. 






OVE 



PAC 



221 



Overplus, ovur-plus (over, and Latin, 
plus, more). The number or quantity re- 
maining beyond a suflficiencyj or a quantity 
proposed ; superfluity ; residue. 

Overrate, ovur-rate. To rate or 
estimate too highly ; to deem of too great 
value ; to judge a person or thing in excess 
of real worth. 

Overreach, ovur-reetsh. Literally, to 
stretch or extend over the space between ; 
hence, to go beyond reasonable or proper 
limits ; to cheat ; to deceive. 

Overt, ove-urt (French, ouvert). Open; 
public ; undisguised ; done without con- 
cealment. In law, an overt act is a mani- 
fest act, implying criminality. 

Overture, ovurt-yur (French, ouver- 
iure). An opening ; a proposal made ; the 
preliminary step taken by persons about 
to treat. In music, the introductory piece 
to an opera or oratorio, or the symphony 
played in theatres previous to the drawing 
up of the curtain. 

Overweening, ovur- weening (Saxon, 
ojir wenan). Too high an opinion of self ; 
an excess of self-confidence ; arrogant ; 
conceited. 

Overwhelm, ovur-welm (Saxon, ofer 
dhwylfan). To crush beneath ; to spread 
over, and bear down ; to immerse ; to sink 
to the lowest depths. 

Oviferm, ovy-fawrm (Latin, ovum, an 
Qgg ; forma, shape). Having the shape or 
form of an egg. 

Oviparous, o-vippah-rus (Latin, ovum, 
an Qgg ; pario, to bring forth). Producing 
eggs ; an epithet for animals which lay 
eggs inclosed in a calcareous shell. 

Oxalic, oks-allik. In chemistry, an 
acid existing in the wood- sorrel. Oxalic 
acid may, however, be obtained most 
readily and most economically from sugar, 
by the action of nitric acid. 

Oxidation, oksy-dayshun. The pro- 
cess by which metals and some other ele- 
ments are converted into oxide, by combi- 
nation with oxygen. 

Oxide, oks-ide. A substance combined 
•with oxygen, without being in the state of 
an acid ; also spelt oxyde. 

Oxygen, oksy-jen (Greek, oxys, acid ; 
gennao, to engender). An elementary body 
which sometimes exists in the solid or 
fluid form, but which can be examined only 
in a gaseous state ; it constitutes the vital 
part of the air, essential to combustion, and 
generates oxides and acids. 



Oxygon, oksy-gon (Greek, oxys, sharp; 
gonia, an angle). A term applied in geo- 
metry to figures in which all the angles 
are acute. 

Oxymoron, oksy-morun (Greek, oxys, 
sharp ; moros, foolish). A figure in rheto- 
ric, in which an epithet of a contrary sig- 
nification is added, as '' painful pleasure," 
" cruel kindness." 

Oyer and Terminer, o-yur and 
termy-nur (French, to hear and deter- 
mine). In law, a court held by virtue of 
the Queen's commission, to hear and deter- 
mine all treasons, felonies, and misdemean* 
ours. 

O-yes, o-yes (corruption from the 
French, oyez, hear). An expression used 
by the crier of a court of law, and public 
criers generally, in order to enjoin silence 
and attention when any proclamation is 
being made. 

P. 

Pabulum, pabbu-lum (Latin). Food ; 
aliment ; substance affording nutrition ; 
fuel ; that which supplies the means of 
combustion. 

Pacha, ) pa-shaw. In Turkey, a viceroy 
Pasha, j or military governor of a pro- 
vince. There are two classes of pachas, 
and the distinction of rank consists in the 
number of horses' tails that are carried 
before them as standards ; the higher hav- 
ing three, and the lower two. 

Paehalic, pah-shawl-ik. Pertaining 
to the government of a pacha. 

Pacific, pah-siffik (Latin, pacificus). 
Promoting or restoring peace ; mild ; 
gentle; tranquiUising. Pacific Ocean, the 
name given to the ocean which lies between 
America on the east, and Asia and Australia 
on the west ; it was so called by the first 
European who visited it, from the com- 
parative calm he experienced immediately 
on entering this vast expanse of water, 
after having encountered stormy weather 
and tempestuous gales in the adjoining- 
straits. 

Pack, pak (Dutch, paTc). A large 
bimdle, or anything prepared for carriage ; 
fifty-two playing-cards assorted; a num- 
ber of hovmds for hunting. 

Packed Juiy. A jury selected of 
such persons whose tenets, political 
opinions, or prejudices are likely to in- 
fluence their verdict. 

Packet, pak-et (French, paquei). A 
small parcel or package j a ship or other 



222 PAC 

vessel employed by Government to convey 
letters and dispatches from one country 
or port to another. 

Paek-liorse, pak-hawrs. A horse which 
carries goods ; a horse employed in carry- 
ing burdens. 

Pact, pakt (Latin, pactum) . A bargain, 
contract, covenant, or agreement. 

Paddock, pad-duk (Saxon, pada). A 
small inclosure of land ; generally a pas- 
turage for sick horses. The term is sup- 
posed to be corrupted iromparruck, a park. 

Paddy, pad-dy. An East Indian name 
for rice in the husk ; a nickname for a 
native of Ireland, from Patrick. 

Padisha, pa-deesha. A title bestowed 
on the Persian shah, or Turkish sultan, 
signifying protector, or throne -prince. 

Faduasoy, pad-uah-soy (from Padua, 
in Italy, and soie, silk — French). A kind 
of silk or silken cloth. 

Psean, ) pe-an. Among the ancients, 
Pean, j a song of triumph, praise, or 
rejoicing in honour of Apollo, and also of 
other gods ; so caUed because the words 
lo pecan frequently occurred in it, in 
allusion to Apollo's contest with the ser- 
pent. 

Pagan, pay-gan. One who worships 
false gods ; an idolater ; a heathen ; the 
term is now chiefly used to denote one who 
is neither a Christian nor Mohammedan. 
The word is derived from the Ij&tm paganus, 
a peasant, from pagus, . a village, because 
on the first propagation of Christianity, 
the country people or dwellers in villages 
adhered to their ancient idolatry, while 
the inhabitants of cities embraced the new 
faith. 

Page, paje (French and Spanish). A 
boy attendant, or young male servant, 
employed about persons of rank, or 
engaged in light offices or trifling ser- 



Pageant, paj-ent (Greek, pegnia). A 
show or spectacle ; a public entertainment 
or procession ; a representation or exhibi- 
tion of a showy or splendid kind ; a pom- 
pous display. 

Pagoda, pa-godah jfHindostanee, hoot- 
Jchuda, abode of God). A temple in China 
and the East Indies ; an Indian idol, con- 
sisting of an image of baked earth, and 
placed within the temples ; also a gold 
coin, formerly current in the south of 
India, value about ei^ht shillings. 



PAL 

Pains and Penalties. In law, an 
Act of Parliament to inflict pains and 
penalties, beyond or contrary to the com- 
mon law, in the particular cases of gi'eat 
public offenders. 

Pair-ofiE". A parHamentary phrase, 
when two members of opposite politics 
withdraw from a division, thereby having 
the same effect as though each recorded 
their vote. 

Paladin, pallah-din. A knight-errant, 
who went about praising his mistress, and 
who fought anybody who refused to ac- 
knowledge the truth of his panegyrics. 

Pal8eograpliy,pally-oggrah-fy(Greek, 
palaios, ancient; grapho, to write). De- 
scription of ancient manuscripts, inscrip- 
tions, &c. 

Palaeology, pally - olio - jy (Greek, 
palaios, ancient ; logos, a discourse). The 
study of ancient things ; a discourse on 
antiquity. 

Palanquin, ) pallan-keen(Hindostanee 
Palankeen, j^a^^ee, from Sanscrit, 
paluc, a couch). A kind of litter or 
covered carriage, used In India, and borne 
on the shoulders of four porters, called 
coolies. 

Palate, pal-at (Latin, palatum,). The 
upper part or roof of the mouth ; the 
organ of taste ; mental rehsh. 

Palatial, pal-ayshal (Latin, palatium). 
Pertaining to a palace ; befitting a palace ; 
magnificent. 

Palatinate, pa-latty-nate. The name 
formerly given to two states of Germany ; 
the province or seignory of a palatine. 

Palatine, pallah-tin (Latin, palatinus). 
Eelating to a palace ; appUed originally to 
persons holding an office or employment 
in the royal palace ; possessing royal pri- 
vileges. In law, the counties of Chester, 
Durham, and Lancaster are called counties 
palatine. Elector Palatine, a title of an 
elector of the German Empire. 

Palaver, pa-lahvur (Portuguese, pa- 
lavra). Idle, superfluous talk; deceptive 
words ; an African conference or delibera- 
tion ; flattery. 

Palestra, pa-lestrah (Greek). In 
ancient Greece, a place in which the youth 
practised and were instructed in athletic 
exercises ; the act of wrestling. 

Palette, pal-let. Among painters, a 
piece of wood, usually of wahiut or maho- 
gany, upon which the artist lays the pig- 



TAL 

ments with which he paints his pictures ; 
supposed to be the diminutive of Latin, 
loala, a shovel. 

Palfrey, pawl-fry (French, palefroi). 
A. small horse used by ladies ; a state- 
horse with trappings. 

Palilogy, pa-lillo-jy (Greek, palin, 
again ; loffos, a word). In rhetoric, the 
repetition of a word or phrase for the sake 
of effect. 

Palindrome, paDin - drome (Greek, 
palin, again ; dromos, a course). A verse 
or line wlSich is the same whether read 
backward or forward, as the word madam, 
or the sentence, subidura a rudihus. 

Palinode, pallin-ode (Greek, 'palin, 
again ; ode, a song). A recantation, or a 
composition in which a poet unsays what 
he has previously asserted. 

Palisade, pally-sade (French, palis- 
sade). A fence or fortification formed with 
pales. 

Pall, pawl (Latin, pallmra). A mantle 
of state, a cloak ; the cloak of an arch- 
bishop, a pope, &c. ; a covering for the dead, 
thrown over the coffin, and in cases of 
eminent and distinguished persons, usually 
upheld by pall-bearers. 

Palladium, pal-laddy-um. Originally, 
a statue of the goddess Pallas, represent- 
ing her sitting with a pike in her right 
hand, and a distaff and spindle in her left. 
On the preservation of this statue de- 
pended the safety of Troy ; hence, the 
term has come to denote a security, pro- 
tection, or safeguard. 

Pallet, pal-let (Latin, palea, chaff, 
straw). A bed made of straw ; a mean or 
rude contrivance for sleeping upon. 

Palliate, pally-ate (Latin, pallium, 
a cloak). Literally, to cover with a cloak ; 
hence, to conceal ; to hide ; to disguise ; 
to give a false appearance to ; to soften by 
favourable representations. 

Pallid, pal-id (Latin, pallidus). Wan ; 
faint in appearance ; sickly looking ; dim. 

Pall-Mali, pel-mel (Latin, pila, a ball ; 
malleus, a mall, or bat). A game of bat 
and ball, formerly much in vogue ; the 
name of a place in London, in which this 
game was originally played. 

Palm, pahm (Latin, palma). The open 
hand ; the inner part of the hand ; the uame 
of many species of plants, particularly of 
tho date-tree or great palm, a native of 
Asia and Africa, the branches of which 



PAM 



223 



wera anciently worn in token of victory. 
To conceal in the palm of the hand, as 
jugglers do ; and hence, to practise delu- 
sion ; to impose upon ; to pass off an imi- 
tation of the real thing, which is withheld 
(in the palm). 

Palmated, pal-mayted \ Having the 
Palmate, pal-mate j" feet broad ; 
resembling the shape of the hand ; divided 
so as to resemble a hand spread open. 

Palmer, pah-mur. A pilgrim, espe- 
cially one who, at the time of the Crusades 
or Holy Wars, returned from Palestine, 
bearing a branch of palm in his hand. 

Palmistry, pahmistry (Latin, palma, 
the hand). A pretended art of telling a 
person's fortune by inspecting the lines of 
the palm of the hand. 

Palmy, pah-my. Abounding in palm^, 
or victorious, because the branches of the 
palm-tree were borne in token of victory ; 
hence, used synonymously for flourishii^, 
prosperous. 

Palpable, palpa-bl (Latin, palpo, to 
touch). Literally, anything so certain that 
it maybe touched ; hence, plain ; obvious ; 
gross ; coarse ; easily perceptible or de- 
tected. 

Palpitation, palpy-tayshun (Latin, 
palpito). A quick movement or frequent 
beating ; an unnaturally rapid action of the 
heart. 

Palsy, pawl-zy (a contraction of para- 
lysy). Loss of the power of motion ; para- 
lysis. 

Palter, pawl-tur (French, poUroii). To 
prevaricate ; to use false pretences ; to 
make idle and frivolous excuses ; to act or 
speak ambigniously ; to fritter or triflo 
away. 

Pampas, pam-paz, A name given to 
the vast plains or prairies of South 
America. 

Pam.per, pam-pur. To cherish or train. 
up luxuriously ; to feed with delicacies. 
The word is properly derived from the 
French pampre, a vine-leaf or shoot, as 
being remarkable for its luxuriant growth. 

Pamphlet, pam-flet. A stitched book; 
a few printed sheets merely stitched 
together, without binding or wrapper- 
Various etymologies have been suggested 
for this word; that most commonly received 
being par un filet, French for " by a thread." 

PampMeteer, pam - flet - teer. A 
writer of pamphl^^* ; a mere scribbler. 



22-1 



PAN 



PAN 



Panacea, pauah-seah (Greek, pan^ all ; 
■aJceomai, to cure). In mythology, tlie 
daughter of Esculapius, the goddess of 
health, to whom was given the power of 
heaUng all diseases ; hence, the application 
of the term to a universal remedy ; a cure 
for all evils and disorders. 

Paneratic, pan-krattik (Greek, pan, 
all ; kratos, strength). All-powerful ; ex- 
celling in gymnastics and feats of strength; 
victorious in all contests or combats. 

Pancreas, pankry-as (Greek, pan, all ; 
h-eas, flesh). In anatomy, a gland situated 
at the bottom of the stomach ; the sweet- 
bread. 

Pandarus, pandar-us. The pimp in 
Shakespeare's play of Troilus and Cressida. 

Pandect, pan-dekt (Latin, pandectoe). 
A treatise which comprehends the whole 
of any science. Pandects, a digest of civil 
or Roman law, made by order of Justinian. 

Pandemic, pan-demmik (Greek, pan, 
all; demos, people). Incident to a whole 
people ; epidemic. 

Pandemonium, pandy - mony - um 
(Greek, pan, all ; daimon, a demon). The 
infernal regions ; the dominion of all the 
demons ; applied figuratively to any scene 
of excessive noise, confusion, and turbu- 
lence 

Pander, pan-dur. A pimp ; a mean 
wretch. To procure gratification for the 
passions of others. Originally spelt pandar. 

Pandiculation, pan - dikku - layshun 
(Latin, pandiculans). Stretching of the 
limbs when yawning ; an involuntary 
action of the muscles, frequently occurring 
before and after sleep ; restlessness and 
uneasiness usually accompanying the cold 
fits of intermittent fever. 

Pandoor, pan-door. A kind of light 
cavalry soldier in the Austrian service, 
raised from the Turkish ff-ontiers ; also 
called pandour, and pandorus. 

Pane, pane (Latin, pagina, a page of a 
book). A square of glass; — sometimes 
applied to a segment of other substances ; 
a piece of variegated work. 

Panegyric, panny-jirrik (Greek, pane- 
gyris). Formal praise ; a laudatory speech 
or oration ; written eulogy. 

Panel, pan-el (Latin, panellum). A 
return of jurors to sei-ve upon any trial, 
written upon a little pane, or oblong piece 
of parchment. In jonery, a square piece 
inserted between other bodies. 



Pang, pang (Saxon, pyngan, to pain). 
A sharp and sudden pain ; torture of body ; 
anguish of mind. 

Panic, pan-ik. Sudden fright, or 
extreme fear, without real cause ; ground- 
less alarm. The origin of the word is said 
to be derived from Pan, one of the captains 
of Bacchus, who, with a small number of 
men, put to flight a numerous army, by 
the noise which his soldiers raised in a 
rocky valley being exaggerated by the sur- 
rounding echoes. 

Panier, pan-yur (Latin, paniiarius). A 
name fonnerly given to a domestic who 
waited at table, and handed the bread, 
wine, &c., to those who dined. The atten- 
dants who wait upon the benchers in the 
dining- hall of the Inner and Middle Temple 
still bear this name. 

Panification, panny-f e-kayshun (Lat., 
panis, bread ; facio, to make). The act or 
process of baking bread. 

Pannel. In Scottish law, the name 
applied to the person accused of a criminal 
action, from the time of his appearance in 
court until he quits the bar. 

Pannier, pan-yur (Latin, panarium). 
Primarily, a basket for carrying bread, 
then for other articles ; usually applied to 
the baskets suspended from the back of a 
horse, mule, ass, &c. 

Panoply, panop-ly (Greek, pan, all ; 
oplon, armour). Armour, covering the 
whole body; all the armour that can be 
worn for protection or defence. 

Panopticon, pan-opty-kon (Greek, 
pan, all ; optomai, to see). A place where 
everything and everybody is supposed to 
be seen. 

Panorama, panno-rahmah (Greek, 
pan, all ; horama, view). A large circular 
painting, exhibited on the walls of a build- 
ing of the same form, so that the spectator 
appears to be looking around him at a real 
view. 

Pansophy, panso-fy (Greek, pan, all ; 
Sophia, wisdom). Universal knowledge or 
wisdom. 

Pansy, pan-zy (French, /3e?i5ee, thought). 
Another name for the heart's-ease. The 
term is supposed to have been given to 
this class of flower because their fanciful 
or variegated appearance is calculated to 
awaken the thought, or fancy. 

Pantaloon, pantah-Ioon (French, pan- 
talon). Originally, a species of close, long 



PAN 

trousers, extending to the heels ; a buffoon 
or representative of a comical old man in 
a pantomime. 

Pantechnicon, pan-tekny-kon (Greek, 
pan, all; techne, art). A place in which 
every species of workmanship is collected 
and exposed for sale. 

Pantheism, panthy-izm (Greek, pan, 
all ; Theos, God). The system of theology 
in which the doctrine is maintained that 
the universe is God. 

Pantheon, panthe-un {Gree\.,pan, all ; 
Theos, God). The name of a temple in 
Eome, dedicated to all the gods. The 
term has been applied to a public exhibi- 
tion, embracing every variety of amuse- 
ment ; and also, to % work describing the 
mythology, or all the gods of the ancients. 

Pantograph, panto-graf (Greek, pan, 
all ; grapho, to write). An instrument 
contrived for the purpose of copying draw- 
ings, plans, &c., either on a larger or a 
smaller scale. 

Pantologry, pan-tollo-jy (Greek, pan, 
all ; logos, a discourse). A work conveying 
universal instruction and information, upon 
the same plan as an encyclopasdia. 

Pantometer, pan-tommy-tur (Greek, 
panta, all ; metron, a measure). An instru- 
ment employed in measuring all kinds of 
elevations, angles, distances, &c. 

Pantomime, panto-mime (Greek, jpa;i, 
all : mimos, mimic). A theatrical enter- 
tainment, consisting of gestures, actions, 
and various kinds of tricks performed by 
the actors concerned, aided by appropriate 
scenery ; representation in dumb show ; 
imitation by mute action. 

Pantophagous, pan - toffah - gus 
(Greek, pan, all ; phagos, to eat). Omni- 
vorous ; eating indiscriminately of all kinds 
of food. 

Papa, pa-pah. Another name for 
father, chiefly used by children, and trace- 
able to the repetition of a first sound, pa, 
pa, breathed softly through the lips. 

Papacy, paypah-sy (Italian, papa, the 
Pope). The state or rank of Pope; the 
office or dignity of the Pope and bishops of 
Eome. 

Papal, pay-pal (French). Belonging to 
the Pope ; proceeding from or relating to 
the Pope ; annexed to the bishopric of 
Eome. 



PAR 



225 



Papeterie, pap-pay-tree (French). A 
case containing materials for writing. 

Paphian, paf-e-an. Eelating to the 
rites of Venus. 

Papier Maehe, pap-yay mah-shay 
(French). A substance formed from the 
pulp of old paper, cast in a mould, and 
employed for a variety of useful and orna- 
mental work. 

Papilionace ous, papil - yo - nayshus 
(Latin, papilio, a butterfly). Eesembling' 
a butterfly. 

Papilla, pay-pillah (Latin, papilla, a 
nipple). A small nipple or joap ; the ter- 
mination of nerves, as on the tongue. 

Papist, pay-pist (Italian, papa, the 
Pope). An adherent to the Pope and com- 
munion of the Church of Eome. 

Papoos, pap-poos. Among the Indians, 
the name given to a babe or young child ; 
also spelt papoose. 

^ Papulae, pappu-le (Latin). An erup- 
tion of pimples on the skin. 

Papulose, pappu-loze \ Covered with 
Papulous, pappu-lus j small blisters 
or pustules. 

Papyrus, pa - pyrus (Latin). An 
Egyptian plant ; a species of reed, of which 
paper was originally made. 

Par, pahr (Latin, par, equal). State of 
equality ; of equal value ; likeness or simi- 
larity. In commerce, an epithet appUed to 
any two things of an equal value ; and in 
monetary affairs, the equality of one kind 
of money or property with another : thus, 
when £100 stock is worth exactly £100 
specie, the stock is said to be at par; in 
like manner, the par of exchange is the 
equal value of money in one country and 
another. 

Para, pay-rah. A small Turkish coin, 
of rather less value than a halfpenny. 

Para. A Greek preposition with vari- 
ous meanings, as through, near, about, &c. 
In some chemical compounds^ it denotes 
near to, and expresses a close alliance 
between two compounds. 

Parable, parrah-bl (Greek, para, be- 
side ; lallo, to throw). Literally, a throw- 
ing or placing beside ; hence, a compari- 
son, similitude, or allegory; a :6guraf.iv/^ 
relation of something real in ' life or 
Nature. 



22G 



PAE 



Parabola, pah - rabbo - lah (Latin). 
A conic section, formed by a cone being 
cut by a plane, which is pai'allel to. a 
tangent plane, to the curved surface of 
the cone. 

Paracentric, parrah-sentrik \ 

Paracentrical, parrah-sentry-kal j 

(Greek, para, beyond ; kentron, the centre). 

Deviating from a circular motion or form. 

Parachronism, par - akkro - nizm 
(Greek, para, beyond ; chronos, time). In 
chronology, an error in the date of an 
event. 

Parachute, parrah-shoot (Greek,^are5, 
to ward off ; chute, a faU). An apparatus 
somewhat resembhng an open umbrella, 
attached to a balloon, or used separately, 
to prevent, by its expansion and buoyant 
properties, the too rapid descent of a 
falling body. 

Paraclete, parrah-kleet (Greek, para- 
Metos, advocate). A name given to the 
Holy Spirit, as a comforter, intercessor, 
advocate. 

Paracousis, parrah - kowses (Greek, 
parahous, to hear imperfectly). Confused 
perception of sound. 

Paracrostic, parrah - krostik (Greek, 
para, beyond ; akrostikon, an acrostic). A 
poetical composition, in which the first verse 
contains, in order, all the letters which com- 
mence the remaining verses of the poem or 
division. 

Parade, pah-rade (French). Show; 
exhibition ; ostentation ; display ; a place 
where exhibition or display may be made ; 
military order ; a place where troops 
assemble. 

Paradigm, parrah-dim (Greek, para- 
deigma, an example). A pattern ; an 
example ; a model. Example or instance 
of something done or said, as an example 
of a verb conjugated in the several moods, 
tenses, and persons. 

Paradise, parrah -dise (Greek, para^ 
deisos). This word was applied by the 
Greeks to an inclosure for wild beasts, 
but by the Persians to gardens, in which 
grew or were placed every good and beau- 
tiful production of the earth. In Christian 
theology, it expresses the name of the 
garden where Adam and Eve were placed ; 
and in a general sense, implies a place of 
bUss, a state or condition of complete 



Paradox, parrah-doks (Greek, para- 
€ii>xos, contrary to received opinion). A 



PAR 

term applied to an apparent contradiction, 
but which, when investigated, becomes 
reconciled with truth and sense ; a thing 
false in appearance, yet true in fact. 

Paradoxical, parrah-doksy-kal. Hav- 
ing the nature of a paradox; fond of 
seemingly absurd notions ; inclined to new 
tenets, contrary to received opinions. 

Paradrome, parrah-drome. A large 
open gallery or space. 

Paraffine, parrah-feen (Greek, parum, 
a little; affinis, akin). A substance dis- 
covered in the tar obtained by the distilla- 
tion of various substances, both animal 
and vegetable, but especially in the tar of 
the beech-tree. Parafl&ne oil is now exten- 
sively used as an illuminating agent. 

Parage, pay-raje (Latin, paragium). In 
law, equality of name, blood, or dignity. 
The term is, however, more especially 
applied to equahty in the partition of an 
inheritance among co-heirs. 

Parageusia, parrah-gu-seah (Greek, 
para, beside ; geusia, taste). Perversion oL 
the sense of taste. ji 

Paragoge, parrah-gojy (Greek, parc^k 
by the side of ; ago, to bring). In gram- 
mar, the addition of a letter or syllable to 
the end of a word. 

Paragon, parrah-gon (French, paran- 
gon, comparison). That which surpasses ; 
any one who excels ; a model or pattern ; 
something supremely excellent or beau- 
tiful. 

Paragram, parrah-gram (Greek, para- 
gramma). A play upon words ; a pun. 

Paragraph, parrah-graf (Greek, para- 
graphe). In composition, a section, divi- 
sion, or distinct part; any portion of a 
writing which relates to a particular point ; 
also, a mark or notation, placed in the 
margin, to point out a division in the con- 
tinuity of the writing, and marked (^). 

Paralepsis, parrah-lepsis (Greek, pa^ 
raleipds). In rhetoric, a pretended or 
apparent omission, or slight mention of 
some important part, in order to work upon 
the feelings of the hearers. 

Parallel, paral-lel (Greek, ^ara, beside; 
allelon, one another). In geometry, a term 
apphed to lines which are everywhere 
equidistant from each other, and which, 
though produced to the furthest extent, 
would never meet; hence, applied to any- 



pal:. 



PAE 



227 



thing pursuiug the same course as another; 
having the same or a similar tendency or 
(lu'ection ; bearing a resemblance or like- 
ness ; possessing similai' qualities. 

Parallelogram, parah - lello - gram 
(Greek, para, beside ; allelon, one another; 
gramma, a letter). A quadrilat«ral figure, 
the opposite sides of which are parallel 
and equal. 

Paralogism, parrah - lojizm (Greek, 
jmra, beside ; logos, reason). False argu- 
ment ; a mode of reasoning in which a con- 
clusion is drawn from premises that do not 
warrant it. 

Paralysis, pah -rally - sis (Greek). 
Palsy ; loss of motion and feeling ; some- 
times confined to the muscular system, and 
at other times affecting the brain. 

Paralyze, parrah - lize (Greek, para j 
lyo, to loose). Literally, to relax or loosen ; 
hence, to unbrace the nerves ; to render 
senseless and motionless from fear, or other 



Param-OUnt, parrah-mownt (Norman, 
peram^n{). Super-eminent; raised above 
all others ; highest in rank or authority ; 
chief ; principal ; supreme. 

Param.OLir, parrah-moor (French). A 
lover ; a mistress. 

Parapet, pan-ah-pet (Italian, para- 
petto). In fortification, a wall or rampart, 
breast high ; a low wall, usually placod on an 
eminence. 

Paraphernalia, parrah-female-yeah 
(Greek, para, besides ; pherne, dower). 
Literally, something over and above the 
dower of a wife, and which may be said to 
include such apparel and ornaments of the 
vrde as are suitable to her condition in life ; 
in a general sense, appendages ; trappings ; 
ornaments. 

Paraphrase, parrah - fraze (Greek, 
para, about ; phrax, to speak). A loose 
interpretation, in which more regard is 
paid to an author's meaning than his words ; 
a lengthened exposition ; to translate 
loosely; to interpret with verbosity. 

Parasite, pan-ah-site {OveQk,parasitos, 
an attendant upon the priests). One who 
fawns on and flatters the rich ; one who 
ingratiates himself at the tables of the 
wealthy, by a slavish adulation of his enter- 
tainers. In zoology and botany, an animal 
or plant which attaches itself to and lives 
upon another. 



Parasol, parrah-sol (Greek, pni-n, h-Qvai 

sol, the sun). A small canopy or UTr}hv>?5!a, 
used to keep the sun from off the head and 
face. 

Parathesis, pah-rathy-sis (Greek). A 
parenthetical notice in brackets, thus [ ] ; 
in rhetoric, a slight hint of a thing given 
to the auditors. 

Parboil, par-boil (contraction of part- 
toil). To boil partially, or in a moderate 



Parcener, parsen-nur. In law, a co- 
heir ; one who holds lands by descent from 
an ancestor in common with another, or 
with others. 

Pard, pard (Latin, pardiis). A poetical 
name for the leopard, or for any spotted 
beast. 

Pardo, par-do. The name of a kind of 
Chinese vessel, used either for warfare or 
for trade ; also, a coin at Geoa, in the East 
Indies, of the value of 25. Qd. 

Paregoric, parry-gorrik (Greek, jjare- 
goreo, to mitigate). A medicine wMch 
soothes pain ; mitigating ; assuaging ; 
alleviating. 

Parentation, parren-tayshun. Liter- 
ally, the performing of that which is due 
to parents ; the performance of funeral 
rites and honours ; something said or done 
in honour of the dead. 

Parenthesis, pah-renthy-sis (Greek, 
para, over ; en, in.; tethemi, to place). A 
clause or member of a sentence which 
interrupts the natiiral connection of the 
words, but explains the sense or intro- 
duces some important idea ; a sentence 
which may be left out without spoihng the 
sense of the period ; in writing or printing 
it is denoted thus ( ). 

Parenticide, pah -renty- side (Latin, 
parens, a parent ; ccedo, to loll). The kill- 
ing a father or mother. 

Pareses, parry-ses (Greek, a letting go). 
In pathology, a sUght or imperfect paraly- 
sis, implicating exclusively the nerves of 
motion. 

Parhelion, par-hely-im (Greek, para, 
beside ; helios, the sun). A mock sun, or 
meteor, of a bright colour, appearing on 
one side of the sun, the appearance of which 
latter it somewhat resembles. 

Pariah, parry-ah. The name of a do- 
graded tribe of Hindoos, without caste, 
who live by themselves in the outskirts of 
the towns, and in districts or villages of 



PAE 



PAR 



their own. They are precluded from all 
possibOity of advancement, and to them are 
allotted all kinds of menial employment. 

Parian, pay -re -an. Pertaining to 
Faros, in Greece, and celebrated for an 
exceedingly white and beautiful marble 
which is foimd there. 

Parietal, pary-eetal (Latin, paries, a 
wall). Pertaining to a wall; rising or 
standing like a wall ; the parietal hones, 
boDOs from the sides and upper part of the 
skull, defending the brain as walls. 

Parisian, pa-rizh-yan. A native of 
or resident in Paris ; anything made or 
manufactured at Paris. 
Paritor, parry-tur. A beadle ; a sum- 
oner of the courts of civil law. 

Parity, parrit-ty (French, parite). 
/Resemblance in condition or state ; equal- 
ity of degree ; similarity. 

Park, park (Saxon, parrucTc). An 
inclosed piece of ground attached to a 
mansion ; or an inclosure of large extent 
for public recreation. Park of artille^-y 
is an assemblage of the heavy ordnance 
belonging to an army. 

Parlance, par-lans (French, parler, to 
speak). Idiom ; conversation ; talk ; dis- 
course. 

Parley, par-le (French, parler, to 
^eak). To treat with verbally ; to discuss 
orally ; oral treaty ; talk ; conference. 

Parliament, parly - ment (French, 
parler, to speak). Literally, a place or 
assembly for conference or discom-se. In 
England, the grand legislative council of 
the nation, consisting of the lords spiritual, 
the lords temporal, and the commons ; 
divided respectively into the House of Lords 
and the House of Commons. 

Parliamentarian, parly-men-tary-an. 
An epithet for one who adhered to the 
parUament in opposition to the king in the 
time of Charles the First. 

Parlour, par-lm* (French, parler, to 
speak). Primarily, a room in a religious 
house, where the monks or nuns meet to 
converse; applied generally to the room 
of a house appropriated to the common 
meeting, intercourse, and converse of the 
family. 

Parlous, par-lus (French, parler, to 
speak). Keen; shrewd; sprightly. 

Parmesan. The name given to a par- 
ticular kind of cheese, from its being made 
at Parma, m Italy. 



Parnassus, par-nassus. In mythology, 
a celebrated mountain in ancient Greece, 
sacred to ApoUo and the muses ; near it 
was the Castalian spring, the fabled source 
of poetical inspiration ; from which Par- 
nassus is metaphorically used to express 
poetry itself. 

Parochial, pa-roky-al (Greek, para, 
near ; oikos, a house). Belonging to a 
parish. 

Parody, parro-dy (Greek, para, con- 
trary ; ode, a song). A kind of composi- 
tion in which the words or thoughts of an 
author are, by some slight alteration, 
adapted to a different purpose ; to copy 
by way of parody. 

Parole, pa-role (French). A term 
signifying anything done verbally or by 
word of mouth, in contradistinction to 
what is written, as parole evidence, parole 
pleadings, &c. In military affairs, a pro- 
mise given by a prisoner of war, when 
suffered to be at large,. that he will not 
attempt to escape, that he will return at 
a specified time, &c. Also the watch- word 
given out every day, in orders by a com- 
manding ofl&cer in camp or garrison, by 
which sentinels may be able to distinguish 
friends from foes. 

Paronymous, pa-ronny-mus. Ee- 
sembling another word. 

Paroxysm, parruk - sizm (Greek, 
para, much ; oxys, acute). A severe fit of 
a disease in which the symptoms become 
aggravated ; sharpness of pain ; an acute 
period of suffering ; periodical return of a 
fit ; violence of temper or intense excite- 
ment. 

Parquetry, parket-ry (French, ^'a?-- 
quet). The inlaying of small pieces of wood 
in a floor of different figures. 

Parricide, parry-side (Jja,tm,tparens, a 
parent ; ccedo, to kill). A slayer or mur- 
derer of his father, or the murderer of one 
who ought to be revered as a parent ; a 
destroyer or invader of his country ; also, 
the commission of any of these crimes. 

Parry, par-iy (French, passer). In 
fencing, to ward off or turn aside a thrust 
from an opponent. To prevent a blow 
taking effect ; to avoid ; to fence. 

Parse, parse (Latin, pars, a part). In 
grammar, to analyse the character and 
property of the various parts of speech in 
a sentence, to explain the relation they 
have to each oth«r, their gOTermnent. 
agreement, &c. 



PAR 



PAS 



229 



Parsee, par-see. The name given to 
the Persian refugees who were driven from 
their country by Mohammedan persecution 
and intolerance. 

Parsimonious, parsy-mony-us (Latin, 
parcens, saving). Sparing ; niggardly in 
the expenditure of money ; covetous ; 
frugal to the extreme. 

Parsonage, parso-naje. The house or 
benefice of a parson ; a rectory or spiri- 
tual living, comprising land, tithe, and 
other offerings of the people, for the 
maintenance of the parson of a congrega- 
tion. 

Parterre, par-tai-e (French). Any 
even plot or piece of ground, laid out in 
flower-beds, borders, &c. ; a name also 
given to a choice collection of pieces in 
prose or verse. 

Parthenon, parthy-non. A celebrated 
temple dedicated to Minerva, at Athens, 
so called in honour of the virgtcity of that 
deity, from parthenos, a virgin. 

Partial, par-shal (Latin, pars, a part). 
Belonging to a part, portion, or share ; in- 
clined to favour one party more than 
another ; affecting one part only ; not 
general or universal ; not total. 

Partiality, parshy-ally-ty. Favourit- 
ism ; undue bias towards one side or party 
more than another; stronger inclination 
to one thing than to another; liking or 
fondness. 

Participate, par-tissy-pate (Latin, 
participo). To share in ; to take part ; to 
divide in common with others j to receive 
a portion of. 

Participle, par-tissy-pl (Latin, partici- 

pmrtiy from pars, part ; capio, to take). 
In grammar, a word partaking of the pro- 
perties of a noun and of a verb, as having, 
which becomes a noun by prefixing the. 
Participles sometimes lose the properties 
of a verb, and become adjectives, as a 
loilling heart. 

Particle, party-kl (Latin, particula, 
from pars, apart). Any small portion of a 
greater substance. In grammar, a word 
not varied by inflexion, as a preposition. 
In physics, the minutest part into which 
a body can bo mechanically divided ; an 
atom ; a molecule. 

Particularise, par - tikku - lah - rize 
(French, particulier). To mention dis- 
tinctly ; to name particulars ; to detail ; to 
pay attention to single things. 



Partisan, party-zan (French). One 
who takes the part of another ; one who i» 
devoted to a party or faction ; an aider or 
abetter ; a defender of the cause of another. 
In war, the commander of a detached 
party ; also, a kind of pike or halberd. 

Partition, par-tishun (Latin, pars^ 
part). The act of dividing; a division; 
that which divides or separates. In archi- 
tecture, the thin waU, or vertical assem* 
blage of materials which separates one apart* 
ment from another. In music, the arrange* 
ment of the parts of a composition under 
one another, also called a score. In law, 
the dividing of lands held by joint tenants, 
co-parceners, or tenants in common, into 
distinct portions, so that they may be held 
severally. 

Partitive, party -tiv. In grammar, 
distributive, as a noun partitive. 

Parturition, partu - rishim (Latin, 
parturio, to bring forth). The act of bring- 
ing forth ; the state of being about to bring 
forth yoimg. 

Party (French, partie). A number of 
persons:, Hinited in design or opinion; one 
of two litigants or adversaries ; one con- 
cerned or interested in an affair. In poli- 
tics, a body of men acting in unison under 
a leader, for the purpose of carrying out 
some particular principle in which they 
are interested. 

Party-coloured. Having various or 
diversified colours. 

Party-man. An abetter of a party; 
an adherent to a party ; one who regards 
the serving of his party as his chief duty. 

Party-spirit. The spirit which ani- 
mates one party in its conduct towards 
another. 

Party "Wall. A partition between 
buildings in several occupations. 

Parvenu, parvy-nu (French, parvenu, 
a new comer). An upstart ; an adven- 
turer ; one who from a mean origin attains 
an elevated position, and forgetting what 
he once was, presumes on his acquired 
position, to commit acts of folly. 

Paschal, pas-kal (Latin, pascha, the 
passover). Kelating to the passover, or 
Easter. 
Pasquil, pask-wil > A lampoon ; a 
PasCLUin, pask-win j satirical epigram ; 
derived from a mutilated statue at Kome, 
upon which libels and defamatory rhymea 



230 



PAS 



were fastened. The name of Pasquin was 
originally that of a cobbler notorious for 
his gibes and sneers ; and by common con- 
sent the statue was called after him. 

Passage, pas-saje (French). The act 
of passing ; a single sentence or paragraph 
in a book. In music, a portion of an air 
or tune, consisting of one, two, or three 
measures. In navigation, the course pur- 
sued at sea in passing from one country to 
another; also, the time occupied on such 
passage. Birds of jx^ssage are such as 
migrate at certain seasons from one cli- 
mate to another. Passage at arms, a pass 
or encounter with an adversary. 

Passe Partout, pahs par-too (French). 
A pass key ; a master key ; an universal 
passport. 

Passim, pas-sim (Latin). Everywhere ; 
all through ; in many or innumerable parts 
or passages. 

Passing bell, pahs-sing bell. The 
name given to the knell tolled soon after 
the death of a person ; so named because 
it was fonnerly the custom to toll a bell at 
such times, for the purpose of soliciting 
the prayers of the pious for the soul about 
passing into eternity. 

Passive, pas-siv (Latin, passives, from 
patior, to suffer). Eeceiving impressions 
from external agents ; suffering ; unresist- 
ing ; not acting. Passive verb, one which 
expresses the effect of an action of some 
agent ; as, " He is feared by his enemies." 

Passover. A Jewish festival in com- 
memoration of the deliverance of the Israel- 
ites, when the destroying angel passed over 
their houses, sparing their first-born, while 
he slew those of the Egyptians. ' 

Passport, pahs-port (French, passe- 
pm't). Literally, leave or permission to 
pass out of port or through the gates ; figu- 
ratively, that which gives access or favours 
admission to good society, to favourable 
notice, &c. 

Pasticcio, pahs-titshy-o. An Italian 
word, signifying hterally a pie, or medley 
dish, used in music to denote an opera 
composed of detached airs, by different 
composers, occasionally introduced. 

Pastoral, pastur-al (Latin, pasco, to 
feed cattle). Rural ; descriptive of the 
life of shepherds ; resembhng shepherds ; 
figuratively, relating to a clergyman or the 
care of souls. 

Patans, pat-ans. In the East Indies, 
a name applied to all the Affghan tribes. 



PAT 

Patent, pay-tent, or pat-ent (Latin, 
pateo, to be open). Open ; apparent ; 
plain. Letters pate^ii represent a privilege 
granted by the Crown, conveying to speci- 
fied individuals the sole right to make, 
use, or dispose of some discovery or inven- 
tion for a definite time ; so called because 
they are not sealed up, but exposed to open 
view, and are usually addressed to all 
persons. 

Paternal, pa-turnal (Latin, pater, 
father). Pertaining to a father ; fatherly ; 
derived from a father ; hereditary. 

Paternoster, patter -nostur (Latin, 
pater, father ; nosier, our). The Lord's 
Prayer, thus named from the two leading 
words. A term applied to the rosary, or 
string of beads, used by the Roman Catho- 
lics in their devotions, and also for every 
tenth bead. 

Pathetic, path-ettik (Greek, pathos, 
feeling). Affecting or moving the feelings ; 
touching; tender. 

Pathology, path-olio- jy (Greek, pathos, 
disease ; logos, a discourse). The doctrine 
of diseases ; that part of medical science 
which treats of the nature of diseases. 

Pathos, pay-thos (Greek, j^nt^ios, feel- 
ing). That which excites the feelings or 
emotions ; warmth or affection of mind ; 
feehng of pity, compassion, or sympathy. 

Patois, pat-waw (French). Dialect; 
provincialism ; manner of speaking ajnong 

rustics or the lower classes. 

Patriarch, patry-ark (Greek, pater, 
father ; arche, a chief). One having the 
authority, station, or rank of a father ; one 
who governs by paternal right ; the head 
of a family. Among the Jews, a learned 
and distinguished person ; in the Greek 
Church, a dignitaiy superior to the order 
of archbishops, as the Patriarch of Alex- 
andria, Constantinople, &c. 

Patrician, pa-trishim (Latin, pater, 
father). In Roman history, a descendant of 
the first senators ; and subsequently, a dig- 
aity enjoyed by all who became senators by 
other means than hereditary claims. Now 
applied generally to one of the nobility ; 
senatorial ; noble ; not plebeian. 

Patrimony, patry - munny (Latin, 
pater, father). An estate possessed by 
inheritance; that which descends or is 
derived from a father ; a church estate. 

Patriot, pattry-at (Latin, patria, native 
land). A lover of his covmtry ; one who de- 
votes himself to the service of his countrv. 



I 



PAT 



PED 



231 



Patrol, pali-trole (Frencli, pairouille). 
In military tactics, a detached body of 
soldiers, moving along the streets or roads, 
to insure regularity and order on the 
iine of march ; an advanced guard, whose 
duty it is to gain intellisfence of the move- 
ments and position of the enemy ; to walk 
round about, or backwards and forwards ; 
to go the rounds. 

Patron, pay-tron (Latin, pater, father). 
A protector or defender ; one who coun- 
tenances or supports ; one who has the gift 
of an ecclesiastical living. In the Church 
of Rome, a guardian or saint whose name 
a person bears, or under whose protection 
he is placed, and whom he invokes ; or a 
saint in whose name a church or order is 
founded. 

Patronymic, patro-nimmik (Greek, 
patei', father ; onoma, a name), A name 
derived from ancestors, or from a parent. 

Paucity, pawsy-ty (Latin, paucus, few). 
Fewness; smallness of number or quantity ; 
dearth. 

Pauper, paw-pur (Latin, pauper, poor). 
A poor person ; one who receives alms ; 
one who is dependent upon parochial sup- 
port or relief. 

Pawn, pawn (Dutch, panel). A pledge ; 
something deposited by way of security ; 
something staked as a guarantee ; to 
pledge ; to give in pledge. 

Payee, pay-ee. One to whom a note is 
made payable, or to whom money is to be 
paid. 

Paynim, pay-nim (Norman, paynim). 
Another term for Pagan ; an infidel. 

Pean, pe-an (Latin, pcean). A song of 
praise or triumph. 

Peasant, pez-ant (French, paysan, a 
countryman). A rustic ; one who works in 
rural employment, or farming business. 

Peat, peet (German, pfutze). A sub- 
stance partaking of both vegetable and 
woody properties ; formed in damp situa- 
tions, by the decay of the roots and twigs 
of various plants. 

Peccability, pekkah-biUit-ty (Latin, 
pecco, to sin). State of being liable to sin ; 
capacity of sinning. 

Peccadillo, pekkah-dillo (Latin, pecca- 
tum, a sin). A small fault ; a little or par- 
donable sin; a slight crime; a venial 
oflfence. 

Peccavi, pek - kayvy (Latin, peccavi, 
I have sinned) A colloquial expression, 



signifying, I have made a mistake, or don© 
wrong ; I acknowledge that I have erred 
or offended. 

Pectoral, pekto-ral (Latin, pectus, the 
breast). Appertaining to the breast ; a 
medicine for the breast ; a breast-plate, or 
covering for the breast. 

Peculation, pekku - layshun (Latin, 
peculor, to rob). Theft of public money ; 
conversion of trust money into private 
use. 

Pecuniary, pe-kewnj-'-ary (Latin, pe- 
cunia, money). Belonging or relating to 
money ; consisting of money. The Latin 
term pecunia, money, is derived from pectus, 
a herd ; because when first coined it wat 
stamped with the figure of a sheep or ox, 
as expressive of its value. 

Pedagogue, peddah-gog (Greek, pais, 
a child; ago, to lead). A schoolmaster; 
one whose occupation is the teaching of 
children ; a pedant ; one who instructs in 
a haughty or supercilious manner. 

Pedant, ped-ant (French). One who 
makes a vain display of learning ; one who 
intrudes his knowledge unnecessarily ; a 
learned boaster ; a pedagogue. 

Peddling, pedd-ling. Trifling ; unim- 
portant ; petty ; as the wares a pedlar 
deals in. 

Pedestal, peddy-stal (Latin, pes, the 
foot ; Greek, stellen, to set). The basis of 
a statue or pillar. 

Pedestrian, pe-destry-un (Latin, pes, 
the foot). Travelling on foot ; performing 
long journeys on foot ; one who is distin- 
guished for his powers of walking. 

Pedigree, peddy-gree (Latin, per, de; 
gradus, by a step or grade). Genealogy ; 
lineage ; descent ; an account or register 
of a line of ancestors. 

Pediment, peddy-ment (Latin, pes, a 
foot). In architecture, an ornament gene- 
rally of a low triangular form, which 
crowns the ordonnances, finishes the fronts 
of buUdings, and is used as a decoration of 
windows, doors, &c. ; also, the angular end 
of a building which surmounts a portico. 

Pedometer, pe-dommit-ur (Latin, pes, 
foot; Greek, meiroTi, a measure). An instru- 
ment by which distances are measured, ac- 
cording to the number of steps which thij 
bearer or conductor takes. 

Peduncle, ped-unkul (Latin, pediculus^ 
a flower-stalk), A flower-stalk; usually- 



PEE 



PEN 



applied to the common foot-stalk of a num- 
ber of flowers, sometimes only of one 
flower. 

Peer, peer (Latin, par, equal). An 
equal; one of like rank, ptation, qualifica- 
tions, &c. A nobleman, as a peer of the 
realm. In England, persons belonging to 
the five degrees of nobility — namely, duke, 
earl, marquis, viscount, baron — are all 
peers ; these take the general name of 
•peers from being formerly regarded as the 
companions of the sovereign. 

Peerless. Unequalled ; having no peer 
or equal. 

Pegasus, peggah-sus. In mythology, 
a winged horse, who fixed his residence on 
Mount Helicon, and became the favourite 
of the Muses ; hence, he is regarded as the 
steed upon which a poet moimts in his 
flights of fancy. 

Pelagian,pe-lajjy-an ) (Latin, pelagiis, 
Pelagic, pel-ajjik j the ocean). Be- 
longing to the ocean; pertaining to the 
deep sea. 

Pelasgi, pe-lasjy (Greek, pelasgoi). 
The name of the aboriginal inhabitants of 
Greece. 

Pelf, pelf (Old French, pilfeer, to pilfer). 
Money ; riches ; and sometimes applied to 
ill-gotten wealth ; miserly hoardings. 

Pellicle, pelly-kl (Latin, pelUcxda). A 
film, or thin skin, as that which lines the 
shell of an egg, or which covers the seeds 
and some other parts of plants. In che- 
mistry, a thin crust appearing on the sur- 
face of a solution of salt evaporated to a 
certain degree. 

Pell-mell, pell-mell (French, pesle, 
mesle, confusedly). Mingled ; in a dis- 
orderly heap ; confused, without regularity 
or order. 

Pellucid, pel-lewsid (Latin, per, 
through ; lucidus, bright). Perfectly 
clear ; transparent ; not opaque. 

Penal, pe-nal (Latin, poena, punish- 
ment). Enacting punishment ; inflicting 
punishment ; causing or imposing a pain 
or punishment. 

Penance, pen-ans (Latin, poena, pun- 
ishment) . Aji infliction for sin committed ; 
suffering imposed or submitted to as an 
atonement. In the Romish Church, one of 
the seven sacraments, consisting in the 
infliction of bodily suffering, as fasting, 
scourging, iSc. 



Penates, pe-nay-tez. The name given 
to the domestic gods of the Eomans ; and 
so called from the lisMn, jaenittts (within), 
because they were kept within doors. 

Penchant, pahn - shahng (French). 
Inclination ; peculiar propensity ; desire 
for ; leaning towards. 

Pencil of Rays. In optics, a number 
of rays converging or diverging from the 
same luminous point ; and which, after fall- 
ing upon and passing through a lens, dis- 
pose themselves in the same form in re- 
entering the eye. 

Pendant, pen-dant (Latin, pendeo, to 
hang). Anything suspended by way of 
ornament ; an ear-ring; a small flag or 
streamer at the mast-head ; a picture or 
engraving hung as a companion to another. 

Pendente Ijite,pen-dentyli-te (Lat.). 
During the dispute ; during the continu- 
ance of the suit ; while the contest is 
pending. 

Pending, pen-ding (Latin, pendeo, to 
hang). Depending; imdecided; not yet 

settled. 

Pendulous, pendu-lus (Latin, pendeo, 
to hang). Hanging ; swinging ; fastened 
at one end, the other being movable. 

Penetralia, penny-trale-yah (Latin). 
In Roman antiquity, a sacred apartment or 
chapel in private houses, set apart for the 
worship of th.e penatea, or household gods ; 
the interior parts of any place ; hence, 
hidden things. 

Penetration, penny-trayshun (Latin, 
penetro, to pierce). Act of entering into 
or piercing an object; metaphorically, 
power of reaching the deepest parts of a 
subject ; searching into ; acuteness ; dis- 
cernment. 

Peninsula, pen-insu-lah (Greek, pene, 
almost ; insula, an island). A portion of 
land almost surrounded by water ; joined 
by a narrow neck, called an isthmus, to 
the main land. 

Penitence, penny -tens (Latin, poenitef, 
it repents). Repentance ; sorrow for sin, 
accompanied by amendment of life. 

Pennant, pen-nant) A small flag or 
Pennon, pen-nun j banner. See Pen- 
dant. 

Penniform, penny - fawrm (Latin, 
penna, a quill ; and form). Having the 
f oi-m of a quill or feather 



PEN 



PEE 



233 



Pennjrw'eight, penny-wate. A Troy 
weight, containing twenty-four grains, so 
called from the ancient silver penny being 
of this weight. 

Penology, pen-ollo-jy (Latin, poena, 
punishment ; Greek, logos, a discourse). 
The science which treats of public punish- 
ments, as they affect -the criminal and the 
community. 

Pensil, pen-zil (Latin, pensilis, from 
pendeo, to hang). Hanging ; suspended ; 
supported above ground. 

Pensive, pen - ziv (French, pensif). 
Sad ; thoughtful ; reflecting sorrowfully ; 
■ melancholy. 

Pentachord, pentah-kawrd (Greek, 
pente, five ; chorde, chord). A musical 
instrument having five strings. 

Pentagon, pentah-gon (Greek, panie, 
five ; gonia, an angle). A geometrical 
figure, having ^ve sides and five angles. 

Pentangular, pen-tanggu-lar (Greek, 
pente, five ; and angular). Having five 
angles or comers. 

Pentarehy, pen-tarky (Greek, pente, 
five; arche, rule). A government of five 
persons. 

Pentateueh, pentah - tuke (Greek, 
pente, five ; teitchos, a volume). The first 
five books of the Old Testament, generally 
ascribed to Moses. 

Pentecost, penty-koste (Greek, penti- 
coste, fiftieth). A Jewish festival, occur- 
ring on the fiftieth day after the Passover ; 
it is retained in the Christian Church, by 
the name of Whitsuntide. 

Pent-house, pent-hows. In architec- 
ture, a shed hung a-slope from the main 
building ; poetically applied to the eyelid, 
and to the brow. The word is a corruption 
of the French appentis, which is from tiio 
Latin appendix, and comes from ad, to; 
pendeo, to hang. 

Peniilt, pe-nult (Latin, pene, almost ; 
%diimus, last). The last syllable but one 
of a word. 

Penultimate, pe-nulty-mate (Latin, 
pene, almost', uUimus,\Ast). The last but 
one ; used to designate the last syllable of 
a word but one. 

Penury, pennu-ry (Latin, penuHa, \ 
want). Indigence ; extreme poverty ; 
destitution. 

Peptic, pep-tik (Greek, pipto, to digest). 
Relating to aud assisting digestion. 



Per. A Latin preposition, signifying 
through, passing or passage through, ove)', 
along, forth, d;c. Also used fcr 63/, as per 
bearer, per annum, per cent. In chemistry 
it is used as a prefix to oxides, to denote 
the furthest degree of oxidation, which 
does not confer the property of acidity. 
It is also added to the names of acids, la 
cases where more acid is contained than 
those whose names end in ic. 

Peradventure, per-ad-vonture (Lat., 
per, by ; French, aventure, chance). Per- 
haps ; may be ; by accident or chance. 

Perambulate, per-ambu-late (Latin, 
peramhulo). To walk through; to survey 
by passing through or over. 

Per Annum, per annum (Latin). By 
the year ; at a yearly rate ; in each year 
successively. 

Per Cent., per sent (Latin). By the 
hundred; for every hundred. Per cent' 
age, the duty, allowance, or commission on 
a hundred. 

Perception, per-sepshun (Latin, per; 
citpio, to take). Literally, a taking hold 
of by the mind ; the power of discerning or 
distinguishing ; observation ; notion ; idea. 

Percolate, perko-late (Latin, percolo, 
to strain through). To strain through ; to 
separate the finer from the gi'osser parts 
by filtering; metaphorically, to sift or 
examine. 

Percussion, per-kushon (Latin, ^6?*- 
cussio). The act of striking one body 
against another with great force ; the im- 
pression made by a body in falling or 
striking against another ; the effect of 
sound in the ear. 

Perdition, per-dishun (Latin, perdo, 
to destroy or lose). Destruction ; ruin ; 
loss ; loss of tho soul. 

Perdu, ) per-du {LoX\n,perditv^, lost). 

Perdue, j Lost ; forlora ; in a hopeless 
state ; in desperate circumstances. Lying 
perdu, watcMng from a place of conceal- 
ment ; vigilant. 

Peregrination, perry - gre - nayshun 
(Latin, peregrinus, travel). Travel or abode 
in foreign countries ; the act of wandering 
from one place to another. 

Peremptory, per - emptur - e (Latin, 
peremptorius, that which dispatches or kills 
q^uickly). Finally deciding ; positive in 
opinion or judgment ; putting an end to 
all further expostulation. 

Perennial, per-enny-al (Latin, per, 
through ; annus, a year). Literally, lasting 



234 



PEE 



PEE 



througli a year ; in an enlarged sense, last- 
ing from year to year ; enduring ; per- 
petual. 

Perfect, per-fekt (Latin, pei^cio, to 
perfect).- Complete; finished; not de- 
fective. Perfect terise, in grammar, that 
form of the verb denoted in English by the 
auxiliary have, which indicates that an 
action is finished at the time spoken of, as 
I liave written to John. 

Perfidy, perfid-e (Latin, per; fides, 
faith). Breach of faith ; want of faith ; 
treachery. 

Perforation, perf o - rayshun (Latin, 
•perr, through ; joorus, a passage). A pierc- 
ing or boring through. 

Perforce, per-forse (Latin, per, by ; 
fortis, strong). By violence ; by force ; 
violently. 

Perfunctory, per-funktur-e (Latin, 
perjfungor^ to do). Slight ; careless ; done 
merely to be rid of the duty ; negligent. 

Perfuse, per-fuze (Latin, perjfundo, to 
pour). To overspread ; to sprinkle. 

Peri, pe-ry. In Persian mythology, a 
spirit supposed to be excluded from Para- 
dise for some fault, untH a penance be ac- 
complished. 

Peri, Per. A Greek preposition, signi- 
fying around, about, expressing the relation 
of circumference to centre. 

Pericarp, perry -karp (Greek, peri, 
around ; karpos, seed). The seed-vessel 
of a plant. 

Periecian, perry-eeshan. An inhabit- 
ant on the opposite side of the globe, in 
the same latitude. 

Periergy,perry-erjy(Greek, peri; ergon, 
work). Unnecessary caution or diligence 
in an operation. 

Perigee, perry-ge (Greek, peri, near ; 
ge, the earth). In ancient astronomy, a 
term signifying the nearest approach of 
the sun, or any of the planets, to the earth. 
See Perilielion. 

Perigraph, perry-graf (Greek, peri; 
graphe, writing). An inaccurate delinea- 
tion of anything. 

PerUielion. perry-heel-ynn (Greek, 
peri, near ; helios, the sun). That point of 
the orbit of a planet or comet, wherein it 
is nearest to the sun, being the extreme of 
the transverse axis, nearest the focus in 
which the sun is placed. 

Perimeter, perry-meetur (Greek, peri, 
around; vtutron, a measvire. The mea- 



sure of the line or linos which inscribe a 
figure. 

Period, peery-ud (Latin, periodns). A 
circmt ; the time in which anji,hing is per- 
formed ; a stated number of years ; a course 
of events; the end or conclusion; a full stop. 

Periodical, peery-oddik-al. Performed 
in a circuit ; occurring at stated intervals ; a 
magazine, &c., published at definite periods. 

Periodicity, peereo - dissy - ty. The 
state of having regular periods in changes 
or conditions. 

Peripatetic, perry-pa-tettik (Greek, 
pen, about; pateo, to walk). Pertaining 
to Aristotle's system of philosophy; and 
so called because the philosopher delivered 
his lectures walking in the Lyceum at 
Athens. 

Periphery, per-iffer-ry (Greek, peri, 
around ; phero, to carry). The circumfer- 
ence or bounding line of any curvilinear 
figure. 

Periphrasis, perry - fraysis (Greek, 
peri, about; phrazo, to speak). Circumlo- 
cution ; or the use of more words than are 
necessary to express an idea. 

Periscope, perry-skope (Greek, peri, 
around; s^-opeo, to view). A general view. 

Peristaltic, perry-staltik (Greek, peri- 
stillo, to involve). Spiral; of worm-like 
form; the contraction of the bowels. 

Peristyle, perry - stile (Greek, peri; 
stylos, a column). A place surrounded by 
pillars ; a circular colonnade ; a circle of 
pillars. 

Periwig, perry- wig (a corruption of pe- 
ruke). A small wig formed by an inter- 
mixture of false hair, worn by men for the 
purpose of concealing baldness. 

Perjury, perjur-e (Latin, per; juro, to 
swear). The taking a false oath; the 
offence of swearing falsely ia a judicial 
proceeding. 

Permanent, perma-nent (Greek, per, 
through ; maneo, to remain). Durable ; 
lasting; unchangeable; always remaining 
or going on. 

Permeate, permy-ate (Latin, petTneo). 
To pass through ; to penetrate. 

Permission, per-mishun (Latin, per- 
mitto, to permit). The act of allowing or 
pei-mitting; leave; license. 

Perm.utation, permu-tayshun (Latin, 
per; muto, to change). Barter; exchange 
of one thing for another ; frequent change 
of locality. 



PEE 



PER 



235 



Pemicions, per-nishus (Latin, per; 
neds, death). Destructive; miscMevous 
or injurious in the highest degree ; tending 
to injure . 

Peroration, perro-raysh'un (Latin, joer, 
through ; oro, to speak). The end or close 
of an oration or speech; the concUiding 
sentence, intended to give effect or force 
to the speech. 

Perpend, per-pend (Latin, per; pendo, 
to weigh). To -weigh in the mind ; to con- 
sider attentively. 

Perpendicular, perpen - dikku - lar 
(Latin, per; pendeo, to hang). A perpen- 
dicular line, or a perpendicular, signifying 
any line falling at right angles to the plane 
of the horizon, that is, extending from some 
point in a right line towards the centre of 
the earth or centre of gravity. In geo- 
metry, any line fitting at right angles on 
another line, or making equal angles with 
it on either side. 

Perpetration, perpy-trayshun (Latin, 
per, through ; patro, to effect). The act 
of committing; to perfect; to act or do 
some ill or evil. 

Perpetual, per-pettu-al (French, per- 
petuel). Never ceasing ; continual ; ever- 
lasting; permanent; uninterrupted. 

Perplexity, per-pleksy-ty (Latin, per ; 
plector, to twist). Anxiety ; distraction 
of mind ; intricacy ; difficulty of under- 
standing; doubt. 

Perquisite, perkwiz-it (Latin, per; 
qucero, to seek). A gift or allowance in 
addition to fixed wages ; gain, profit, or 
emolument, in lieu of, or in addition to 
regular salary or other income. 

Per saltum, pur salt-urn (Latin), By 
a leap ; like sudden promotion; unexpected 
accession of wealth, power, &c. 

Persecution, persy-kewshun (Latin, 
per; sequor, to pm-sue). Unjust harass- 
ment ; pursuit so as to injure, vex, or 
afflict; excessive solicitation or importu- 
nity. 

Perseverance, persy-veeranse (Latin, 
per; severus, Hevere). Continued pursuit; 
persistence, in anything undertaken ; firm- 
ness; steadfastness. 

Persiflage, pare - se - flazh (French). 
Light bantering talk ; ridicule ; jeering. 

' Persistence, per-sistens. \ Standing 
Persistency, per-sistensy. j or staying 
fixTnly; fixed or settled in opinion or ac- 
tion ; Derseverance ; steadfastness. 



Personal, persun-al (^Lanu, perwnxius). 
Belonging to persons, not to things ; 
affecting individuals or particular people ; 
relating to private actions or character ; 
not acting by representative ; exterior ; 
corporal. 

Personalty, persun-alty. In law, any 
personal property, in contradistinction to 
realty. 

Personify, per-sonny-fi (Latin, person- 
alis). To represent things as though they 
were persons; to ascribe to an inanimate 
being the sentiments, actions, or language 
of a rational being. 

Personnel, pare-so-nel (French). A 
term denoting the persons employed in 
some public service, as distinguished from 
the materiel, or things. 

Perspective, per-spektiv (Latin, joer- 
specio, to look through). The art of draw- 
ing objects on a plane so as to make them 
appear in their relative situations ; a glass 
through which objects are viewed ; view ; 
vista. 

Perspicacious, perspy-kayshus (Lat., 
perspicax). Quick-sighted ; seeing through 
easily ; keen ; acute of sight, discerning, 
or easy of understanding. 

Perspicuity, _ perspy-kewitty (Latin, 
per, through ; specio, to see). Clearness to 
the mind ; the quality of being easily un- 
derstood ; freedom from obscurity. 

Persuasion, per-swayzhuu (Lat.,pe)v 
suadeo, to advise). The act of advising or 
lu-ging ; of inducing or prevailing npon ; 
representing things as agreeable or advan- 
tageous. 

Pertain, per-tane (Latin, per; teneo, to 
hold). To belong ; to have relation to ; to 
be the property, right, or duty of. 

Pertinacious, pertin-ayshus (Latin, 
per; teneo, to hold). Obstinate ; stubborn ; 
holding firmly and resolutely ; adhering to 
any purpose or opinion with inflexible con- 
stancy. 

Pertinent, perty-nent {LsA,.,per; teneo, 
to hold), Kelating to the subject or matter 
in hand ; apposite ; to the purpose ; ap- 
propriate to the case. 

Perturbation, pertui'-bayshun (Lat., 
per; turha, a crowd). Disquiet or agitation 
of mind ; confusion ; derangement ; dis- 
order. 

Peruke, per-uke (French, perruque)', 
A periwig ; a cover for the head, made 
of hair, or other material to represent 
hair. 



236 



PER 



Peruse, per-uze (Latin, per, thirrugh; 
utor, to use). To read with attention; to 
observe ; to examine. 

Pervade, per-vade (Latin, per, throughi; 
vado, to go). To go or press through or 
throughout ; to spread through the whole 
extent, so as to reach the furthest limit and 
the minutest point. 

Perverse, per-vers (Lat., per, through ; 
verto, to turn). Obstinate ; petulant ; dis- 
torted from the right ; untractable. 

Pervert, per-vurt (Latin, per; verto, to 
turn). To distort from the true end or 
purpose; to corrupt; to turn from the 
right ; one who changes from good to bad ; 
one who forsakes orthodox principles for 
heterodox views. 

Pervious, pervy-us (Lat., ;?e?', through ; 
via, a way). Capable of being passed 
through; susceptible to external influ- 
ences ; penetrable ; pervading. 

Pessimist, pessy-mist (Latin, pessimus, 
the worst). A universal complainer; one 
who conceives everythuig to be for the 
worst. 

Pestiferous, pes- tiff y-rus (La.t.,pest{s, 
a pestilence ; fero, to bring). Infectious, 
as a plague ; pestilential ; malignant ; de- 
structive ; noxious to health, peace, or 
morals. 

Pestilence, pesty-lense (Latin, pesti- 
lentia). A contagious distemper ; an in- 
f-ectious disease, which is epidemic, and 
proves mortal ; evil habits destructive to 
health and morality. 

Petal, pe-tal (Greek, petal). In botany, 
the colom-ed leaves which compose the 
flowers of plants. 

Peter's Pence. The popular name of 
an impost formerly paid to the see of 
Rome. In England, it consisted of the tax 
of one penny for every house. 

Petiole, petty-ole (Greek, petalon, a 
leaf). That portion of a leaf which con- 
nects the lamina with the stem of a plant. 

Petit, pet-te (French). Small ; little ; 
inconsiderable ; mean. 

Petit Maitre, pet-te maytr (French). 
A fop ; an effeminate person ; a dangler, 
or trifler. 

Petrifaction, pettry-fakshun (Latin, 
petra, a stone ; facio, to make). The act 
of changing into stone, or stony hardness ; 
the changing into stone, or stony substance, 
any animal or vegetable matter; callous- 
ness ; obduracy. 



PUA 

Pettifogger, pctty-fogger (French, 
petit; vaguer, to row). A lawyer employed 
in small, mean business ; an inferior attor. 
ney, who undertakes the conduct of petty 
cases. 

Petto, pct-to (Italian, from pectus, the 
breast). The breast ; figuratively, privacy ; 
as, in petto, in secrecy; in reserve. 

Petty, pet-ty (French, petit). Trivial ; 
inconsiderable ; small ia amount, degree, 
or importance. 

Petulance, pettu-lans (Latin, petu- 
laniia). Peevishness ; freakish passion ; 
sauciness ; pettishness. 

Phalanx, fal-angks, or fay-langks 
(Greek, phalagx). A square body of 
soldiers disposed in close and compact 
order ; a combination of people thoroughly 
organised, and firmly knit together. 

Phantascope, fantah-skope (Greek, 
phaniasma, a form ; skopeo, to view). An 
optical instrument, by which fixed objects 
appear as if in motion. 

Phantasm, fan-tazzum (Greek, phan- 
tazo, to show). The image of an external 
object ; something visionary or ideal im- 
pressing the mind and haunting the brain ; 
vain and showy appearance. 

Phantasmagoria, fan-tazmah-gory- 
ah. A repi-esentation by the magic lantern, 
or optical effects produced in a similar 
manner. 

Phantom, fan-tum (French, faniome). 
A spectre or apparition ; a fancied vision ; 
a delusion of the mind. 

Pharisaic, farry-sayik. )Like a 

Pharisaical, farry-sayik-al. j Phari- 
see ; hypocritical ; having an outward show 
of piety, but -vicious at heart. The term is 
derived from the Pharisees, a religious sect 
among the Jews, notorious for their hypo- 
crisy. 

Pharmacopoeia, farmah - ko - peah 
(Greek, pharmakon, a medicine). A dispen- 
satory. An authorised book containing a 
catalogue of drugs, and directions for the 
preparation of medicines. 

Pharmacy, farmah-se (Greek, phar' 
makon, medicine). The preparation of 
medicines; that branch of science which 
relates to the medical and chemical history 
of the different articles of the materia, 
medica. 

Pharos, fay-rus (Greek). A light- 
house ; thus named from a celebrated one 
on a small island near the port of Alex- 
andria, in Egypt. 



riiA 



PHB 



Pharynx, far-ingks (Greek, pharynx, 
from pharein, to convey). A part of the 
giillet, tlie use of which is to receive the 
masticated food, and convey it to the 
cesophagus. 
Phase, faze ) (Greek, phaino, to 
Phasis, faysisj shine). In astronomy, 
apphed to the various appearances of the 
moon, Venus, Mercury, &c., at different 
times ; figuratively applied to appearances 
generally, and to the various external forms 
which things or circumstances assume. 

Phenomenon, fe-nommy-non (Greek, 
phainomai, to appear). Anything remark- 
able ; something observed ; something dis- 
covered to exist ; an unusual appearance. 
Plural, phenomena. 

Philanthropy, fil-anthro-py (Greek, 
philos, a lover; a^ithropos, a man). Love 
of mankind ; benevolence toward the whole 
human race; universal goodwill. 

Philharmonic, filhar-monnik (Greek, 
philos, a lover ; harmonia, harmony), Ee- 
lating to the love of harmony ; delighting 
in harmony. 

Philippic, fil-ippik. Any discourse or 
declamation full of acrim ony . The name was 
originally given to the orations of Demos- 
thenes against Philip, King'of Macedon, and 
subsequently denoted any similar orations, 
as those of Cicero against Mark Antony. 

Philology, fil-oUo-jy (Greek, phileo, to 
love ; logos, a word). Primarily, a love of 
words ; a desire to understand the origin 
and constiniction of language. It is now 
used in a more extended sense, and em- 
braces grammar, rhetoric, poetr}'-, history, 
and criticism. 

Philomathic, fillo-mathik (Greek, phi- 
los, a lover ; mathano, to learn). Relating to 
a love of learning ; having a love for letters. 

Philomel, fiUo-mel. A name figuratively 
applied to the nightingale, from Philomela, 
a king's daughter, who, accord'ng to ancient 
mythology, was changed into that bird. 

Philosopher, fil-osso-fur {Greek, phi- 
los, a lover ; sophia, wisdom). One skilled 
in the science of nature and morals; one 
who devotes himself to the study of phy- 
sics, or moral and intellectual science ; also 
one who bears misfortune calmly, or who 
contents himself with his lot in life. 

Philosopher's Stone. An imaginary 
substance, the discovery of which was the 

?irincipal object of the ancient alchemists, 
t was reported to possess the power of 
transmuting all the baser metals into gold, 
and of healing all diseases. 



Philter, fil-tur (Greek, phileo, to love). 
A potion or charm to excite love ; a pre* 
paration or drug which the ancients be- 
lieved capable of exciting love; anything 
calculated to inspire a tender passion^ 
also wciiten. philtre. 

Phlebotomy, fiee-botto-my (Greek, 
phlehs, a vein ; temno, to cut). The act 014 
art of blood-letting ; the opening of a vein 
for the purpose of bleeding. 

Phlegmatic, fleg - mattik (Greek, 
phlegma, phlegm). Abounding in phlegm ; 
cold ; duU ; sluggish ; apathetic ; wanting 
in fervour and sensibility. 

Phon